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Exposure to DES During Pregnancy and Multigenerational
Neurodevelopmental Deficits
Marianthi-Anna Kioumourtzoglou, ScD
mk3961@cumc.columbia.edu
CHE EDC Strategies Partnership
Webinar Series
03.20.2019
Outline
1 Introduction
Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals
Multi- and Transgenerational Effects of EDCs
2 Multigenerational DES Effects on ADHD
Background
Methods
Results
3 Discussion
2
Outline
1 Introduction
Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals
Multi- and Transgenerational Effects of EDCs
2 Multigenerational DES Effects on ADHD
Background
Methods
Results
3 Discussion
3
Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs)
US EPA defines an EDC as an “an exogenous agent that interferes
with synthesis, secretion, transport, metabolism, binding action, or
elimination of natural blood-borne hormones that are present in
the body and are responsible for homeostasis, reproduction, and
developmental process.”
◦ Several high production volume chemicals, ubiquitously
present in commercial products, are known or suspected EDCs
◦ Due to their widespread use in consumer products,
population-wide exposure to known and suspected EDCs is
highly prevalent
4
Exposure to EDCs
Ubiquitous!
5
EDCs and Adverse Health
EDCs have been linked to numerous health outcomes, e.g.
◦ Disruptions to male and female reproductive systems
◦ Development of cancer
◦ Obesity
◦ Neurodevelopmental disorders
◦ Including ADHD
◦ Especially following in utero exposures
6
Outline
1 Introduction
Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals
Multi- and Transgenerational Effects of EDCs
2 Multigenerational DES Effects on ADHD
Background
Methods
Results
3 Discussion
7
Multi- vs. Transgenerational
Skinner MK, Nature Reviews Endocrinology 2016
8
Multi- and Transgenerational Effects of EDCs
◦ Increasing interest in the potential multi- & transgenerational
effects of EDC exposure
◦ Hypothesized biological mechanism → epigenetic
reprogramming of the germline
Skinner MK, Molecular & Cellular Endocrinology 2014
9
Evidence from Toxicological Studies
◦ Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate → alter third-generation behavior
and stress responses, observed corticosterone levels, and
pituitary gene expression and behavior in mice
◦ BPA → changes in third- to fifth-generation social
interactions in mice
Epidemiological evidence on multigenerational
EDC – neurodevelopment in humans is currently unavailable
Quinnies et al, Endocrinology 2015; Wolstenholme et al, Endocrinology 2012
10
Outline
1 Introduction
Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals
Multi- and Transgenerational Effects of EDCs
2 Multigenerational DES Effects on ADHD
Background
Methods
Results
3 Discussion
11
Multigenerational DES Effects on ADHD
by Iordanis Kioumourtzoglou, @iq artwork
12
Outline
1 Introduction
Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals
Multi- and Transgenerational Effects of EDCs
2 Multigenerational DES Effects on ADHD
Background
Methods
Results
3 Discussion
13
Diethylstilbestrol (DES)
◦ DES is a potent perinatal EDC
◦ Structurally and functionally similar to BPA (more potent)
◦ 1938–1971: Prescribed to pregnant women to prevent
pregnancy complications (e.g. miscarriages)
◦ Exact number of women who used DES is unknown;
estimated 5-10M in the US
Giusti et al, Ann Intern Med 1995
14
DES (cont’d)
◦ 1953: Study shows no actual treatment value → phase out
starts
◦ 1971: Study links DES to rare vaginal adenocarcinomas in
DES daughters → DES ban
◦ Since then it has been linked to multiple reproductive
outcomes in DES daughters
◦ Multigenerational DES impacts:
◦ Hypospadias
◦ Delayed menstrual regularization
◦ Birth defects
Dieckmann et al, Am J Obstet Gynecol 1953; Herbst et al, NEJM 1971; Giusti et al, Ann Intern Med 1995;
Klip et al, Lancet 2002; Titus-Ernstoff et al, IJE 2006; Titus-Ernstoff et al, Int J Androl 2010
15
Outline
1 Introduction
Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals
Multi- and Transgenerational Effects of EDCs
2 Multigenerational DES Effects on ADHD
Background
Methods
Results
3 Discussion
16
Study Population
Nurses’ Health Study II
◦ Enrollment in 1989
◦ 116,686 registered nurses
(25 – 42 years old)
◦ Mailed questionnaires
every two years
◦ Lifestyle, risk factors,
medication use, major
illness occurrence
◦ Retention rate > 90%
◦ All NHS-II (F1)
participants born
between 1946 – 1964
17
Study Population (cont’d)
Exclusion Criteria
1 No return of 1993, 2005 or 2013 Qx
2 No report of any live-born children
3 Multiple pregnancies (e.g. twins etc) or same-year births
(from different pregnancies)
◦ B/c ADHD children (F2) only identified by birth year
F0/F1: 47,540 & F2: 106,198
18
DES Assessment
F1-reported F0 DES use during pregnancy in 1993 Qx
Also, supplementary 1993 Qx:
◦ 2,742 F1 who had reported “Yes” to F0 DES use
◦ Response rate: 84.5%
2,032 (87.7%): Certain or somewhat certain of F0 use
123 (5.3%): Not certain
162 (7.0%): No exposure
◦ Only used “Certain or somewhat certain” for further analyses
◦ This Qx also included information on the trimester of DES use
19
ADHD Assessment
◦ 2005 Qx: “Has any of your children received a doctor’s
diagnosis of ADHD?”
◦ No question related to how many and which children
◦ 2013 Qx: question repeated, further requesting information on
the birth year(s) of the F2 with an ADHD diagnosis
◦ We included information only when the 2005 and 2013
responses were concordant (92.6% concordance) to minimize
potential outcome misclassification
◦ Used the 2013 response to identify the number of F2 per F1
with ADHD
20
Potential Confounders
◦ Only variables preceding F0 DES use
◦ 1999 Qx: F1 were asked if their mothers smoked during
pregnancy
◦ 2005 Qx: F1 reported their family SES at birth, about F0
lifestyle, education and occupation
◦ All analyses were adjusted for:
◦ F1 race and ethnicity
◦ F1 year of birth (linear & squared) – time trends
◦ F0 smoking during pregnancy
◦ F0 home ownership at F1 birth
◦ F0 & F1’s father’s education
◦ F0 & F1’s father’s occupation
21
Statistical Analysis
◦ In utero F1 DES exposure may affect
1 # of F2 within F0/F1
2 The likelihood that any F2 has ADHD
– The distribution of ADHD given DES may depend on the
number of F2 within F1
→ Informative clustering
◦ Standard GEE no longer appropriate
◦ May lead to invalid estimates and inferences
◦ We used cluster-weighted GEE with a logit link to account for
multiple F2 within F0/F1
◦ Weights: the inverse of the cluster size
◦ I.e. the number of F2 per F1
◦ Adjusted for potential confounders
◦ Assessed effect modification by F2 sex
22
Outline
1 Introduction
Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals
Multi- and Transgenerational Effects of EDCs
2 Multigenerational DES Effects on ADHD
Background
Methods
Results
3 Discussion
23
Some Descriptive Characteristics
Variable N (%)
DES 861 1.8
F0 Education
< 9 yr 3,256 6.9
1-3 yr HS 5,422 11.4
4 yr HS 23,315 49.1
1-3 yr college 10,507 22.1
4+ yr college 4,294 9.0
F1 did not know 746 1.6
F0 Smoking during pregnancy
Yes 11,139 23.4
No 29,918 63.1
F1 did not know 4,281 9.0
F1 race: White 45,160 95.2
F1 ethnicity: Hispanic 588 1.2
◦ 106,198 F2 children
◦ F2 median birth year:
1983 (IQR: 1978 – 1988)
◦ 5,587 (5.3%) diagnosed
with ADHD
24
Results
Exposure # F2 # ADHD (%) OR (95% CI)
Any DES
Unexposed 104,414 5,450 (5.2) ref
Exposed 1,784 137 (7.7) 1.36 (1.10 – 1.67)
By Trimester
Unexposed 104,414 5,450 (5.2) ref
First 950 82 (8.6) 1.63 (1.18 – 2.25)
Second 519 33 (6.4) 0.68 (0.35 – 1.34)
Third 338 27 (8.0) 1.41 (0.72 – 2.82)
F1 did not know 625 42 (6.7) 1.15 (0.80 – 1.65)
◦ Completely crude model (also ignoring any clustering):
OR = 1.51 (95%CI: 1.27–1.80)
25
Outline
1 Introduction
Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals
Multi- and Transgenerational Effects of EDCs
2 Multigenerational DES Effects on ADHD
Background
Methods
Results
3 Discussion
26
Discussion
◦ Strong, harmful effect estimates of DES use on
third-generation ADHD
◦ Robust to sensitivity analyses
◦ Potential biological mechanism: epigenetic transgenerational
inheritance
◦ EDCs → molecular alterations to the germline, mediated
through epigenetic mechanisms, to promote outcomes to
subsequent generations
◦ But not the only potential mechanism
◦ If DES→F1 ADHD – assortative mating?
27
Discussion (cont’d)
◦ DES use during the 1st trimester seems to be particularly
harmful
◦ Use during 2nd and 3rd trimester were weaker and not
significant
◦ Attenuation and wider CIs could be due to smaller numbers
◦ 33 exposed cases for the 2nd and 27 for the 3rd trimester vs
82 for the 1st trimester
◦ Or our results could suggest that the 1st trimester is a critical
window of vulnerability to DES exposure
◦ Early gestation → especially sensitive to maternal influences,
resulting in embryonic and germ cell reprogramming
◦ During this period a wave of genome demethylation followed
by de novo remethylation occurs together with the
establishment of imprints and determination of sex
Bale, Nat Rev Neurosci 2015; Weaver et al, Mamm Genome 2009
28
Conclusion
Our findings have important implications for exposures to
other environmental endocrine disruptors (e.g. ubiquitous
chemicals, such as BPA, phthalates etc.) during pregnancy
and third generation adverse health effects
29
Acknowledgments
Collaborators:
Marc G. Weisskopf
Brent A. Coull
Alberto Ascherio
´Eilis O’Reilly
Glen McGee
Sebastien Haneuse
Funding:
NIEHS P30 ES000002
NIEHS P30 ES009089
NIEHS T32 ES007069
NIH UM1 CA176726
Escher Fund for Autism
30
Thank you!
Questions?
mk3961@cumc.columbia.edu
DES use validation
◦ 2001: a Qx was mailed directly to 29,070 F0
◦ With questions on their pregnancy with F1
◦ Very good agreement with the 1993 F1 responses
◦ κ = 0.74 for DES use
◦ κ did not vary by F2 ADHD status
32
ADHD Validation
◦ Maternal reports of ADHD have been found highly reliable
◦ Validation study:
◦ 92 F1 who had responded “yes” in the 2005 Qx
◦ ADHD Rating Scale-IV
◦ All F2 girls scored above 90%
◦ 81.1% of F2 boys scored above 80%; 63.8% of F2 boys scored
above 90%
Faraone et al, J Am Acad Child Adolesc Phychiatry 1995; DuPaul et al 1998; Gao et al, Sleep Med 2011
33
Additional Analyses
◦ Main analysis:
OR = 1.36 (95%CI: 1.10–1.67)
◦ No effect modification by F2 sex (p-value = 0.62)
◦ When also adjusted for F0 depression (10.8%)
OR = 1.33 (95% CI: 1.08 – 1.63)
◦ Additionally adjusting for F0 birth year
NF0 = 45,612; NF2 = 101,830
OR = 1.35 (95% CI: 1.09 – 1.66)
◦ In validation subsample with F0-reported DES information
NF0 = 18,792; NF2 = 42,097
OR = 1.31 (95% CI: 1.00 – 1.71)
34

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Diethylstilbestrol Transgenerational Neurodevelopmental Deficits

  • 1. Exposure to DES During Pregnancy and Multigenerational Neurodevelopmental Deficits Marianthi-Anna Kioumourtzoglou, ScD mk3961@cumc.columbia.edu CHE EDC Strategies Partnership Webinar Series 03.20.2019
  • 2. Outline 1 Introduction Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Multi- and Transgenerational Effects of EDCs 2 Multigenerational DES Effects on ADHD Background Methods Results 3 Discussion 2
  • 3. Outline 1 Introduction Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Multi- and Transgenerational Effects of EDCs 2 Multigenerational DES Effects on ADHD Background Methods Results 3 Discussion 3
  • 4. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) US EPA defines an EDC as an “an exogenous agent that interferes with synthesis, secretion, transport, metabolism, binding action, or elimination of natural blood-borne hormones that are present in the body and are responsible for homeostasis, reproduction, and developmental process.” ◦ Several high production volume chemicals, ubiquitously present in commercial products, are known or suspected EDCs ◦ Due to their widespread use in consumer products, population-wide exposure to known and suspected EDCs is highly prevalent 4
  • 6. EDCs and Adverse Health EDCs have been linked to numerous health outcomes, e.g. ◦ Disruptions to male and female reproductive systems ◦ Development of cancer ◦ Obesity ◦ Neurodevelopmental disorders ◦ Including ADHD ◦ Especially following in utero exposures 6
  • 7. Outline 1 Introduction Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Multi- and Transgenerational Effects of EDCs 2 Multigenerational DES Effects on ADHD Background Methods Results 3 Discussion 7
  • 8. Multi- vs. Transgenerational Skinner MK, Nature Reviews Endocrinology 2016 8
  • 9. Multi- and Transgenerational Effects of EDCs ◦ Increasing interest in the potential multi- & transgenerational effects of EDC exposure ◦ Hypothesized biological mechanism → epigenetic reprogramming of the germline Skinner MK, Molecular & Cellular Endocrinology 2014 9
  • 10. Evidence from Toxicological Studies ◦ Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate → alter third-generation behavior and stress responses, observed corticosterone levels, and pituitary gene expression and behavior in mice ◦ BPA → changes in third- to fifth-generation social interactions in mice Epidemiological evidence on multigenerational EDC – neurodevelopment in humans is currently unavailable Quinnies et al, Endocrinology 2015; Wolstenholme et al, Endocrinology 2012 10
  • 11. Outline 1 Introduction Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Multi- and Transgenerational Effects of EDCs 2 Multigenerational DES Effects on ADHD Background Methods Results 3 Discussion 11
  • 12. Multigenerational DES Effects on ADHD by Iordanis Kioumourtzoglou, @iq artwork 12
  • 13. Outline 1 Introduction Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Multi- and Transgenerational Effects of EDCs 2 Multigenerational DES Effects on ADHD Background Methods Results 3 Discussion 13
  • 14. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) ◦ DES is a potent perinatal EDC ◦ Structurally and functionally similar to BPA (more potent) ◦ 1938–1971: Prescribed to pregnant women to prevent pregnancy complications (e.g. miscarriages) ◦ Exact number of women who used DES is unknown; estimated 5-10M in the US Giusti et al, Ann Intern Med 1995 14
  • 15. DES (cont’d) ◦ 1953: Study shows no actual treatment value → phase out starts ◦ 1971: Study links DES to rare vaginal adenocarcinomas in DES daughters → DES ban ◦ Since then it has been linked to multiple reproductive outcomes in DES daughters ◦ Multigenerational DES impacts: ◦ Hypospadias ◦ Delayed menstrual regularization ◦ Birth defects Dieckmann et al, Am J Obstet Gynecol 1953; Herbst et al, NEJM 1971; Giusti et al, Ann Intern Med 1995; Klip et al, Lancet 2002; Titus-Ernstoff et al, IJE 2006; Titus-Ernstoff et al, Int J Androl 2010 15
  • 16. Outline 1 Introduction Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Multi- and Transgenerational Effects of EDCs 2 Multigenerational DES Effects on ADHD Background Methods Results 3 Discussion 16
  • 17. Study Population Nurses’ Health Study II ◦ Enrollment in 1989 ◦ 116,686 registered nurses (25 – 42 years old) ◦ Mailed questionnaires every two years ◦ Lifestyle, risk factors, medication use, major illness occurrence ◦ Retention rate > 90% ◦ All NHS-II (F1) participants born between 1946 – 1964 17
  • 18. Study Population (cont’d) Exclusion Criteria 1 No return of 1993, 2005 or 2013 Qx 2 No report of any live-born children 3 Multiple pregnancies (e.g. twins etc) or same-year births (from different pregnancies) ◦ B/c ADHD children (F2) only identified by birth year F0/F1: 47,540 & F2: 106,198 18
  • 19. DES Assessment F1-reported F0 DES use during pregnancy in 1993 Qx Also, supplementary 1993 Qx: ◦ 2,742 F1 who had reported “Yes” to F0 DES use ◦ Response rate: 84.5% 2,032 (87.7%): Certain or somewhat certain of F0 use 123 (5.3%): Not certain 162 (7.0%): No exposure ◦ Only used “Certain or somewhat certain” for further analyses ◦ This Qx also included information on the trimester of DES use 19
  • 20. ADHD Assessment ◦ 2005 Qx: “Has any of your children received a doctor’s diagnosis of ADHD?” ◦ No question related to how many and which children ◦ 2013 Qx: question repeated, further requesting information on the birth year(s) of the F2 with an ADHD diagnosis ◦ We included information only when the 2005 and 2013 responses were concordant (92.6% concordance) to minimize potential outcome misclassification ◦ Used the 2013 response to identify the number of F2 per F1 with ADHD 20
  • 21. Potential Confounders ◦ Only variables preceding F0 DES use ◦ 1999 Qx: F1 were asked if their mothers smoked during pregnancy ◦ 2005 Qx: F1 reported their family SES at birth, about F0 lifestyle, education and occupation ◦ All analyses were adjusted for: ◦ F1 race and ethnicity ◦ F1 year of birth (linear & squared) – time trends ◦ F0 smoking during pregnancy ◦ F0 home ownership at F1 birth ◦ F0 & F1’s father’s education ◦ F0 & F1’s father’s occupation 21
  • 22. Statistical Analysis ◦ In utero F1 DES exposure may affect 1 # of F2 within F0/F1 2 The likelihood that any F2 has ADHD – The distribution of ADHD given DES may depend on the number of F2 within F1 → Informative clustering ◦ Standard GEE no longer appropriate ◦ May lead to invalid estimates and inferences ◦ We used cluster-weighted GEE with a logit link to account for multiple F2 within F0/F1 ◦ Weights: the inverse of the cluster size ◦ I.e. the number of F2 per F1 ◦ Adjusted for potential confounders ◦ Assessed effect modification by F2 sex 22
  • 23. Outline 1 Introduction Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Multi- and Transgenerational Effects of EDCs 2 Multigenerational DES Effects on ADHD Background Methods Results 3 Discussion 23
  • 24. Some Descriptive Characteristics Variable N (%) DES 861 1.8 F0 Education < 9 yr 3,256 6.9 1-3 yr HS 5,422 11.4 4 yr HS 23,315 49.1 1-3 yr college 10,507 22.1 4+ yr college 4,294 9.0 F1 did not know 746 1.6 F0 Smoking during pregnancy Yes 11,139 23.4 No 29,918 63.1 F1 did not know 4,281 9.0 F1 race: White 45,160 95.2 F1 ethnicity: Hispanic 588 1.2 ◦ 106,198 F2 children ◦ F2 median birth year: 1983 (IQR: 1978 – 1988) ◦ 5,587 (5.3%) diagnosed with ADHD 24
  • 25. Results Exposure # F2 # ADHD (%) OR (95% CI) Any DES Unexposed 104,414 5,450 (5.2) ref Exposed 1,784 137 (7.7) 1.36 (1.10 – 1.67) By Trimester Unexposed 104,414 5,450 (5.2) ref First 950 82 (8.6) 1.63 (1.18 – 2.25) Second 519 33 (6.4) 0.68 (0.35 – 1.34) Third 338 27 (8.0) 1.41 (0.72 – 2.82) F1 did not know 625 42 (6.7) 1.15 (0.80 – 1.65) ◦ Completely crude model (also ignoring any clustering): OR = 1.51 (95%CI: 1.27–1.80) 25
  • 26. Outline 1 Introduction Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Multi- and Transgenerational Effects of EDCs 2 Multigenerational DES Effects on ADHD Background Methods Results 3 Discussion 26
  • 27. Discussion ◦ Strong, harmful effect estimates of DES use on third-generation ADHD ◦ Robust to sensitivity analyses ◦ Potential biological mechanism: epigenetic transgenerational inheritance ◦ EDCs → molecular alterations to the germline, mediated through epigenetic mechanisms, to promote outcomes to subsequent generations ◦ But not the only potential mechanism ◦ If DES→F1 ADHD – assortative mating? 27
  • 28. Discussion (cont’d) ◦ DES use during the 1st trimester seems to be particularly harmful ◦ Use during 2nd and 3rd trimester were weaker and not significant ◦ Attenuation and wider CIs could be due to smaller numbers ◦ 33 exposed cases for the 2nd and 27 for the 3rd trimester vs 82 for the 1st trimester ◦ Or our results could suggest that the 1st trimester is a critical window of vulnerability to DES exposure ◦ Early gestation → especially sensitive to maternal influences, resulting in embryonic and germ cell reprogramming ◦ During this period a wave of genome demethylation followed by de novo remethylation occurs together with the establishment of imprints and determination of sex Bale, Nat Rev Neurosci 2015; Weaver et al, Mamm Genome 2009 28
  • 29. Conclusion Our findings have important implications for exposures to other environmental endocrine disruptors (e.g. ubiquitous chemicals, such as BPA, phthalates etc.) during pregnancy and third generation adverse health effects 29
  • 30. Acknowledgments Collaborators: Marc G. Weisskopf Brent A. Coull Alberto Ascherio ´Eilis O’Reilly Glen McGee Sebastien Haneuse Funding: NIEHS P30 ES000002 NIEHS P30 ES009089 NIEHS T32 ES007069 NIH UM1 CA176726 Escher Fund for Autism 30
  • 32. DES use validation ◦ 2001: a Qx was mailed directly to 29,070 F0 ◦ With questions on their pregnancy with F1 ◦ Very good agreement with the 1993 F1 responses ◦ κ = 0.74 for DES use ◦ κ did not vary by F2 ADHD status 32
  • 33. ADHD Validation ◦ Maternal reports of ADHD have been found highly reliable ◦ Validation study: ◦ 92 F1 who had responded “yes” in the 2005 Qx ◦ ADHD Rating Scale-IV ◦ All F2 girls scored above 90% ◦ 81.1% of F2 boys scored above 80%; 63.8% of F2 boys scored above 90% Faraone et al, J Am Acad Child Adolesc Phychiatry 1995; DuPaul et al 1998; Gao et al, Sleep Med 2011 33
  • 34. Additional Analyses ◦ Main analysis: OR = 1.36 (95%CI: 1.10–1.67) ◦ No effect modification by F2 sex (p-value = 0.62) ◦ When also adjusted for F0 depression (10.8%) OR = 1.33 (95% CI: 1.08 – 1.63) ◦ Additionally adjusting for F0 birth year NF0 = 45,612; NF2 = 101,830 OR = 1.35 (95% CI: 1.09 – 1.66) ◦ In validation subsample with F0-reported DES information NF0 = 18,792; NF2 = 42,097 OR = 1.31 (95% CI: 1.00 – 1.71) 34