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Module 5: Contemporary Trends in HRM - Overview (8 Hours)
-E-Recruitment using AI and Social Media; AI and Biases
- Virtual On boarding; Virtual Employee Experience; Gamification;
Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality
- Coworking and Coworking Spaces; Home as New office
- Organizational Justice and Fairness
- Managing Diversity and Inclusion
Dr.NoorFirdoosJahan,Professor,RVIM slide1
E-Recruitment using AI and Social Media
• The toughest part of talent acquisition is screening the ideal
candidate because, typically, it’s a pool of high-volume, low-
quality applicants. As a result, potentially interesting
candidates end up getting buried. But that’s not the only thing
that stymies talent discovery. Candidates who do make it
through the recruitment funnel often change their minds.
• This is where AI in recruitment comes in. It makes the talent
acquisition process faster, less laborious, and more efficient.
So, recruiters have to do less with more and better
outcomes.
Dr.NoorFirdoosJahan,Professor,
RVIM
slide2
Understanding AI in Recruitment
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is an umbrella term. Broadly, there are three types:
• Descriptive AI offers information about what’s happening.
• Predictive AI provides an insight into the future.
• Prescriptive AI tells us what to do based on the findings of the above two.
AI in recruitment is largely limited to the descriptive stage, with some aspects of
prescriptive thrown in. A typical example would be automating manual tasks like
reading hundreds of resumes, so an HR person is not bogged down by repetitive, high-
volume tasks.
However, it is not the only application of the technology in hiring. From advertising to
onboarding, AI solves problems throughout the recruitment process by streamlining
the workflow.
Dr.NoorFirdoosJahan,Professor,
RVIM
slide3
Innovations in AI for recruiting
• Augmented intelligence takes this further by finding
candidates through data collated from an internal
database, social media networks, open-web profiles and
job boards.
• Digitised interviews are another vertical in intelligent
hiring. The technology utilises video interviews to analyse
facial expressions and assess personality traits in
candidates
• Ex. HireVue, used by Unilever, Vodafone, and Kraft Heinz, is
one example of AI-led recruitment interviews.
Dr.NoorFirdoosJahan,Professor,
RVIM
slide4
Benefits of Relying on AI for Recruitment
• Correct candidate sourcing
• Saving time on pre-selection tasks
• Improving the quality of hire through automation
• Measure success chances via predictive analytics
• Shortlisting candidates through personality assessment.
Sense, Xor, and Celential are examples of tech companies
creating chat bots for recruitment that solve different
purposes
Dr.NoorFirdoosJahan,Professor,
RVIM
slide5
AI and Biases
The risk of a biased hiring process
• Because AI is trained through data and to identify patterns based on previous
behaviours, it can become biased. There is always a risk of the algorithm inheriting
both the subconscious and conscious preferences of recruiters.
• Two real examples of AI bias are Amazon and LinkedIn.
• Both created AI to recruit candidates, and in both cases, the algorithm picked up
more male candidates over females. To counteract such bias and ensure qualified
and stellar candidates make it through the recruiting funnel, AI necessitates
perpetual surveillance.
• It’s only when AI and HR teams are used in tandem that they can completely re-
imagine the recruitment process and bring it into the 21st century.
Dr.NoorFirdoosJahan,Professor,
RVIM
slide6
Virtual onboarding
• One of the biggest challenges remote work culture imposes is
onboarding new hires without being able to give them an office
tour or a physical introduction to their colleagues.
• Remote hires don’t have offline happy hours. They don’t catch
important information by simply sitting in one room with their
colleagues. They also can’t casually ask their managers for quick
help with setting up a new technology or walking through a process
they have no experience with.
• However, it doesn’t mean successful virtual onboarding is
impossible. In fact, it can be even more effective than in-person
onboarding if you build a proper action plan.
Dr.NoorFirdoosJahan,Professor,
RVIM
slide7
What is Virtual onboarding
• Virtual onboarding is the process of welcoming new
employees and helping them get up to speed. The process
involves introducing remote hires to the company culture,
integrating them into the team, walking them through their
role and responsibilities, and providing them with all the
necessary resources for a great start.
• During the remote onboarding process, resources like video
tutorials, a comprehensive knowledge base, and step-by-
step guides are your best helping tools.
Dr.NoorFirdoosJahan,Professor,
RVIM
slide8
Benefits and challenges
Benefits
• Increased efficiency
• More flexibility
• Personalized learning
• Cost-efficient
Challenges
• Establishing a communication strategy
• New-hire training
• Creating a personal connection
• Getting feedback
• Monitoring performance
Dr.NoorFirdoosJahan,Professor,
RVIM
slide9
Dr.NoorFirdoosJahan,Professor,
RVIM
slide10
Coworking, Coworking spaces
• Coworking is an arrangement in which workers of different companies share an
office space, allowing cost savings and convenience through the use of common
infrastructures, such as equipment, utilities, and receptionist and custodial
services, and in some cases refreshments and parcel acceptance services.
• Coworking spaces offer the same amenities you would find in a traditional office,
along with a lot more. A major differentiator is flexibility since you don’t need to
sign a long-term lease in a coworking space.
• Every coworking space will always have basics like WiFi, printers, usually, some
type of conference room… and some will have tea, coffee, and snacks available.
Dr.NoorFirdoosJahan,Professor,
RVIM
slide11
Types of Coworking Spaces
• Open Workspaces
• Private Workspaces
• Industry-Specific
• Venture/Incubators
Advantage
• Motivation
• Community
• Flexibility
• Getting Outside of the Home
• Networking
Disadvantages: But at the end of the day, it’s also easy to lose focus and get off track.
There’s something about being in an office setting that helps to keep you motivated, on-
task, and getting the most out of your time.
Dr.NoorFirdoosJahan,Professor,RVIM
slide12
Dr.NoorFirdoosJahan,Professor,
RVIM
slide13
Home as a new office
Dr.NoorFirdoosJahan,Professor,
RVIM
slide14
Gamification, Augmented
andVirtualReality
slide15
Gamification
Dr.NoorFirdoosJahan,Professor,RVIM slide16
If youmakepeopleplay,they’regoingtohavefun-–andaremorelikelyto
rememberyouinthefuture.
App Gamification
Dr.NoorFirdoosJahan,Professor,RVIM slide17
Anappmadein Oportoadvises accordingtotheuser’sfeeling.
Storytelling
Dr.NoorFirdoosJahan,Professor,RVIM slide18
If youtellastory,you’remorelikely tobelistenedbyyouraudience,andyoucan
wellputintoyourstory somerecommendationstobuy–-oratleasttovisit.
Bartolomeo
Colleoni
IT for Tourism Services, UniBg
Bergamo,
Colleoni Chapel
Malpaga,
Colleoni Castle
Augmented Reality
Dr.NoorFirdoosJahan,Professor,RVIM slide19
TripWolfprovidesaugmentedreality,itself asort ofgamification.So do others.
ITforT
ourism Services,UniBg201
7-201
8
Virtual Reality
Dr.NoorFirdoosJahan,Professor,RVIM slide20
T
oquoteWikipediaonceagain,
“Virtual reality (VR) typically refers to
computertechnologies thatusesoftware
togeneraterealisticimages,sounds and
othersensations that replicateareal
environment(orcreateanimaginary
setting),
andsimulateauser's physicalpresencein this environment,
byenablingtheusertointeractwiththis spaceandanyobjectsdepictedthere in
using specializeddisplayscreensorprojectorsand otherdevices.”
Virtual Reality and Reality
Dr.NoorFirdoosJahan,Professor,RVIM slide21
Organizational justice
and Fairness
Dr.NoorFirdoosJahan,Professor,
RVIM
slide22
Organizational justice
 It is a personal evaluation about the
ethical and moral standing of managerial
conduct.
⚫ It refers to how an employee judges the
behaviour of the organization and their
resulting attitude and behaviour that
comes from this.
(Greenberg ,1987 )
Ethics Religion Fairness Law.
Organizational
Justice
i s
s
u
e
s
perceptions of fair pay, equal opportunities for promotion, and
personnel selection procedures
(Tabibnia, Satpute, & Lieberman, 2008).
Evolution
⚫ The idea of organizational justice stems from Equity
theory (Adams, 1963, 1965)of motivation, which posits
that judgments of equity and inequity are derived from
comparisons between one‘s self and others based on
inputs and outcomes.
⚫ Inputs refer to what a person perceives to contribute
(e.g., knowledge and effort).
⚫ Outcomes are what an individual perceives to get out of an
exchange relationship (e.g., pay and recognition).
⚫ Comparison points against which these inputs and outcomes
are judged may be internal (one‘s self at an earlier time) or
external (other individuals).
Three reasons why justice matters to people
⚫ Long-range benefits.
⚫ Social considerations:
⚫ Ethical considerations
Types of organizational justice
⚫ Distributive Justice - Appropriateness of outcomes.
⚫ Procedural Justice:
• Appropriateness of the allocation process.
⚫ Interactional Justice: Appropriateness of the
treatment one receives from authority figures.
● Interpersonal Justice: Treating an employee
with dignity, courtesy, and respect.
● Informational Justice: Sharing relevant
information with employees.
Dr.NoorFirdoosJahan,Professor,
RVIM
slide28
Fair Process Effect
2-
10
Copyright© 2011 Pearson Education,
Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Goldman studied the relationship between justice and filing legal claims for alleged
workplace discrimination and found that claimants were most likely to pursue
litigation when distributive, procedural, and interactional justice were all low. If just
one component of justice was judged to be high, the likelihood of a legal claim
dropped. (2003)
Outcomes of organizational justice
⚫ Employees‘ perceptions of injustice within the organization
can result in a myriad of outcomes both positive and
negative.
Positive
• Trust on supervisor
• Performance
• Job satisfaction and organizational commitment
• Organizational citizenship behaviors
Negative:
• Counterproductive work behaviors
• Absenteeism and withdrawal
• Emotional exhaustion
CASE STUDY: KEY POINTS
⚫ Sarah was a trainee; joined Ashu Joshi's five-member team as Assistant
Systems Engineer at Caremark.
⚫ Moved to CVS Caremark project at TCS- Noida after a successful stint at
Tegro project in TCS-Bangalore.
⚫ Caremark offered better career prospects
⚫ ;handsome pay hike for becoming a confirmed employee +USA or UK project
Comparisons between Bosses
Asha
⚫ Team leader of CVS Caremark project –Autocratic style
⚫ Does not interfere with subordinates work and leaves them alone to do their
work without any guidance
⚫ Efficient at what he did and extremely intelligent, but neither had time nor the
inclination to groom his subordinates
⚫ If work did not get finished on time, he would just blame the team, and totally
disassociate himself from them.
Sudhir Reddy:
⚫ TL of Tegro Project – participative cum democratic style
⚫ A guide and mentor - always guiding, but never interfering.
⚫ Allows to make own mistakes and learn from them and had always encouraged
individual ideas, and let the team discover the flaws, if any, through discussion
and experience.
⚫ considered responsibility for any failure was collective
The issue:
⚫ New project was facing a few glitches with the
new software
⚫ Sarah thought about the problem &
drawn several possible solutions
⚫ Unexpected response from Ashu Joshi disturbed
her.
⚫ Work environment a bit dull- no participation in
discussions from other employees.
Few statements:
⚫ Ashu said: ‗
I will send an email with the solution to all the
members of the team by the end of the day.
⚫ Sanjay, one of the team
members, said, "What is the point in our discussing these
things? Ashu is not going to have time to listen to us or
discuss anything.
⚫ Sarah felt ―Ididn't really need to think; my boss had all
the answers‖.
⚫ And turned into mediocre techie.
Verifying questions- Was Sarah treated fairly?
⚫ Were you ever treated rudely or
disrespectfully?
⚫ Were you up for a promotion / raise / job, and didn‘t
get it when you thought you should have?
⚫ Why was it unfair? How did you know?
⚫ How did you react? Did you take action? Why
or why not?
Prospective Implications of injustice
⚫ No participation on the part of employees
⚫ Reduction in
productivity, creativity, innovative ideas & commitment.
⚫ Lack of smoother communication between leader and
subordinate.
⚫ Lack of external motivation and learning environment.
⚫ Absenteeism ,turnover or counter productive work behaviors
Process to create perceptions of
organizational justice
• Selection Procedures: Positive Job Candidates
• Building Justice Into Management Systems
• Reward Systems: Justly Balancing Multiple Goals
• Conflict Management: You Don‘t Have to Win
• Layoffs: Softening Hardship
• Performance Appraisals: Keeping Score Fairly
(Russell Cropanzano, David E. Bowen, and Stephen W. GillilandT, 2007, The Management
of Organizational Justice , Academy of Management Perspectives, 34-48)
Ways to promote organizational
justice
 Pay workers what they deserve
 Follow open and fair procedures
 Offer workers a voice
 Meet regularly and invite input
 Conduct employee surveys
 Keep an ―open door policy‖
 Use suggestion system 2-
28
Managing Diversity and Inclusion
Managing Diversity at workplace
Diversity:
❖Theconceptofdiversityisbasedonindividualacceptanceandrespect.
❖Itisanunderstandingthatindividualsareuniqueanddifferent.
Cultural diversity
❖Culturaldiversityacknowledgestheexistenceofbroadcultural
groupswithinIndianculture.
❖CulturaldiversityhasbeenpartofIndia'shistory,andthroughit, India
cultureisconstantlydeveloping.
Elements of Diversity
❖ Age
❖ Gender
❖ Ethnicity
❖ Race
❖ PhysicalAbility
❖ Sexual Orientation
❖ Physical
Characteristics
❖ Income
❖ Education
❖ Marital Status
❖ Religious Beliefs
❖ Geographic Location
❖ Parental Status
❖ Personality Type
Ways to incorporate diversity:
Businessesfindwaystoincorporatediversityintotheir workplaceswithoutcausing
majorchangestothewaytheircompaniesoperate.
Incorporatingdiversitypracticesinaworkplacecaninclude
❖ Recruitingfromdiversetalentpoolstomakethecompanyopentoemployeesfromvarious
backgrounds.
❖ Diversitym
aybeinfusedintoadvertisingpracticestoensure productsandservicesare
targetedtoall consumerswho representthetargetmarket,whetherthroughprint,
online,televisionorradio
ManagingDiversityisdefinedhasthe“planningandimplementing
organizationalsystemsandpracticestomanagepeoplesothatthe
potentialadvantagesofdiversityaremaximizedwhileitspotential
disadvantagesareminimized”.
Multiculturalism
Multiculturalismisasystemofbeliefsandbehaviorsthatrecognizesand
respects the presence ofalldiverse groups in anorganization orsociety,
acknowledgesandvaluestheirsocio-cultural differences, andencourages
andenablestheircontinued contributionwithinaninclusivecultural
contextwhich empowersallwithintheorganizationorsociety.
Key to growth:
❖ Diversitymanagement isthekeytogrowthintoday’s fiercelycompetitive globalmarket
place.
❖ NolongercanAmerica’scorporationshidebehindtheirlackof culturalintelligence.
❖ Organizationsthatseekglobalmarketrelevancymustembracediversity–inhowtheythink,act
andinnovate.
❖ Diversitycannolongerjustbeaboutmakingthenumbers,but ra
therhowanorganizationtreatsits
peopleauthenticallydown totherootsof itsbusinessm
odel.
❖ Intoday’snewworkplace,diversitymanagementIisatme- sensitivebusinessim
perative.
Women in the Workplace:
❖ Theneed to understand diversityisalsodrivenbywomeninthe workplace.
❖ Today's workforcehasthehighest levelsofemployment participationever
bywomen.
❖ Thenumber ofdualincomefamiliesandsingleworkingmothershas
increased.
❖ Changein the familystructure meansthat there are fewermen andwomen in
traditionalfamilyroles.
❖ Therefore, diversityissuescut acrossboth race andgender.
Benefits of Diverse workplace:
❖ Customer service improveswhenstaffunderstandandcan communicate
skillfullywithcustomersfromarange of backgrounds.
❖ Thecommunity isalsomore likelyto identifywith andrelate to companiesthat reflect
itslevel ofdiversity
❖ Workplace diversitywherestaffare encouragedto work in their areasofstrengthand
capability.
❖ Valuingdiversitywherestaffpotential isrecognizedanddeveloped.
❖ Productivediversityisvaluingdifferent experience, perspectives,skillsandthe cross-
transfer andintegration oftheseinto thecompanyand localeconomy.
Possible Barriers
● Limitingareaofconsideration
● Lackofdiverse applicant poolinS
TEMpositions
● Lackofdiversity at thesenior ranks
● Categorizing peopleinto certain positions
● A
lwaysrecruitingfromsamesource
● Grooming/developing onlyoneperson
● Pre-selection
How to Manage Diversity
StepsinManagingDiversityEffectively
❖Securetopmanagementcommitment
❖Alternativeworkarrangements
❖Increasediversityskills
❖Organizationalassessment
❖Attractingemployees
❖Accommodatingworkandfamilyneeds
Diversity Awareness Programs
5-16
❖Providememberswithaccurateinformationabout
diversity
❖Uncoverpersonal biasesandstereotypes
❖Assesspersonalbeliefs,attitudes,andvaluesandlearningabout
otherpointsofview
❖Developanatmosphereinwhichpeoplefeelfreetosharetheir
differingperspectives
❖Improveunderstandingofotherswhoaredifferent
Consequences of Ignoring Diversity:
❖Ignoringdiversityissuescoststime, money, andefficiency.
❖ Someof theconsequencescaninclude
❖Unhealthytensionsbetweenpeopleofdifferinggender,race,
ethnicity, age, abilities, etc.;
❖Lossofproductivitybecauseofincreasedconflict;
❖Inabilitytoattract andretaintalentedpeople ofall kinds;
❖Complaintsandlegalactions;
❖Inabilitytoretainwomenandpeopleofcolor, resultinginlost
investmentsinrecruitmentandtraining.
Example 1: Coca-cola Company
❖ Diversityisat theheart ofourbusiness.
❖ Westrivetocreateaworkenvironmentthat
providesallourassociatesequalaccessto
information, developmentand opportunity.
❖ Bybuildinganinclusiveworkplace environment,
weseektoleverageour globalteamofassociates,
whichisrichindiversepeople, talentandideas.
❖ Weseediversityasmorethanjust policies
andpractices.
❖ It isanintegral part ofwhoweareasa company,
howweoperateandhowwe seeourfuture.
Contd…
❖ Asaglobalbusiness,ourabilitytounderstand,embraceandoperateinamulticultural
world--bothinthem
arketplaceand intheworkplace--iscriticaltoour long-term
sustainabilityand,specifically,impactsourabilitytomeetour2020VisionPeoplegoals.
❖Manypeopleacrossthecompanycontinuetoworkdiligentlyto helpus
advance inour diversity journey andbuildour practices ondiversity,
inclusionandfairness.
Contd…
Equation of the company:
❖We also include our associates in the process. We garner their
feedback through formal surveys and informally through their
participation in our business resource groups, various diversity
education programs and our Resolution ResourcesProgram,
where associates can work to resolve issues they face in our
Company.
❖ AFrenchtilingand flooring company
with42 peopleas workforce.
❖Wasfacingdifficultiesin recruiting
localworkforce.
❖Wantedamore diverse
workforce.
❖Followingcomplaints about workersnot being
seriousit recruited more women andyoung
peoplefromdeprivedareas.
❖ Suspectedreason wasdiscrimination.
❖ One dayfull trainingregarding-
❖ Power ofstereotypes
❖ Benefits ofdiversity
❖ Problems were surprisinglyresolved.Employeeswere more-
❖ Efficient
❖ Independent
❖ Motivated
❖ Unexpected outcome-
❖ Friendshipemerged between workers from verydifferentbackgrounds.
❖ Well known for diversity.
❖ 62000 peoplefrom128 countries.
❖ Believesin equal chance and offers to all
its employees.
❖ Partnershipswith community
collegesall over Germany.
❖ Employeesimprove communication
skillsaswell asIT knowledge.
❖ Thisenableseveryonein the diverse
workforceto growand climb up the
corporate ladder.
Dr.NoorFirdoosJahan,Professor,
RVIM
slide61
All the Best and do well in your
Examination
Autonomous HRM module 05.pdf

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Autonomous HRM module 05.pdf

  • 1. Module 5: Contemporary Trends in HRM - Overview (8 Hours) -E-Recruitment using AI and Social Media; AI and Biases - Virtual On boarding; Virtual Employee Experience; Gamification; Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality - Coworking and Coworking Spaces; Home as New office - Organizational Justice and Fairness - Managing Diversity and Inclusion Dr.NoorFirdoosJahan,Professor,RVIM slide1
  • 2. E-Recruitment using AI and Social Media • The toughest part of talent acquisition is screening the ideal candidate because, typically, it’s a pool of high-volume, low- quality applicants. As a result, potentially interesting candidates end up getting buried. But that’s not the only thing that stymies talent discovery. Candidates who do make it through the recruitment funnel often change their minds. • This is where AI in recruitment comes in. It makes the talent acquisition process faster, less laborious, and more efficient. So, recruiters have to do less with more and better outcomes. Dr.NoorFirdoosJahan,Professor, RVIM slide2
  • 3. Understanding AI in Recruitment Artificial Intelligence (AI) is an umbrella term. Broadly, there are three types: • Descriptive AI offers information about what’s happening. • Predictive AI provides an insight into the future. • Prescriptive AI tells us what to do based on the findings of the above two. AI in recruitment is largely limited to the descriptive stage, with some aspects of prescriptive thrown in. A typical example would be automating manual tasks like reading hundreds of resumes, so an HR person is not bogged down by repetitive, high- volume tasks. However, it is not the only application of the technology in hiring. From advertising to onboarding, AI solves problems throughout the recruitment process by streamlining the workflow. Dr.NoorFirdoosJahan,Professor, RVIM slide3
  • 4. Innovations in AI for recruiting • Augmented intelligence takes this further by finding candidates through data collated from an internal database, social media networks, open-web profiles and job boards. • Digitised interviews are another vertical in intelligent hiring. The technology utilises video interviews to analyse facial expressions and assess personality traits in candidates • Ex. HireVue, used by Unilever, Vodafone, and Kraft Heinz, is one example of AI-led recruitment interviews. Dr.NoorFirdoosJahan,Professor, RVIM slide4
  • 5. Benefits of Relying on AI for Recruitment • Correct candidate sourcing • Saving time on pre-selection tasks • Improving the quality of hire through automation • Measure success chances via predictive analytics • Shortlisting candidates through personality assessment. Sense, Xor, and Celential are examples of tech companies creating chat bots for recruitment that solve different purposes Dr.NoorFirdoosJahan,Professor, RVIM slide5
  • 6. AI and Biases The risk of a biased hiring process • Because AI is trained through data and to identify patterns based on previous behaviours, it can become biased. There is always a risk of the algorithm inheriting both the subconscious and conscious preferences of recruiters. • Two real examples of AI bias are Amazon and LinkedIn. • Both created AI to recruit candidates, and in both cases, the algorithm picked up more male candidates over females. To counteract such bias and ensure qualified and stellar candidates make it through the recruiting funnel, AI necessitates perpetual surveillance. • It’s only when AI and HR teams are used in tandem that they can completely re- imagine the recruitment process and bring it into the 21st century. Dr.NoorFirdoosJahan,Professor, RVIM slide6
  • 7. Virtual onboarding • One of the biggest challenges remote work culture imposes is onboarding new hires without being able to give them an office tour or a physical introduction to their colleagues. • Remote hires don’t have offline happy hours. They don’t catch important information by simply sitting in one room with their colleagues. They also can’t casually ask their managers for quick help with setting up a new technology or walking through a process they have no experience with. • However, it doesn’t mean successful virtual onboarding is impossible. In fact, it can be even more effective than in-person onboarding if you build a proper action plan. Dr.NoorFirdoosJahan,Professor, RVIM slide7
  • 8. What is Virtual onboarding • Virtual onboarding is the process of welcoming new employees and helping them get up to speed. The process involves introducing remote hires to the company culture, integrating them into the team, walking them through their role and responsibilities, and providing them with all the necessary resources for a great start. • During the remote onboarding process, resources like video tutorials, a comprehensive knowledge base, and step-by- step guides are your best helping tools. Dr.NoorFirdoosJahan,Professor, RVIM slide8
  • 9. Benefits and challenges Benefits • Increased efficiency • More flexibility • Personalized learning • Cost-efficient Challenges • Establishing a communication strategy • New-hire training • Creating a personal connection • Getting feedback • Monitoring performance Dr.NoorFirdoosJahan,Professor, RVIM slide9
  • 11. Coworking, Coworking spaces • Coworking is an arrangement in which workers of different companies share an office space, allowing cost savings and convenience through the use of common infrastructures, such as equipment, utilities, and receptionist and custodial services, and in some cases refreshments and parcel acceptance services. • Coworking spaces offer the same amenities you would find in a traditional office, along with a lot more. A major differentiator is flexibility since you don’t need to sign a long-term lease in a coworking space. • Every coworking space will always have basics like WiFi, printers, usually, some type of conference room… and some will have tea, coffee, and snacks available. Dr.NoorFirdoosJahan,Professor, RVIM slide11
  • 12. Types of Coworking Spaces • Open Workspaces • Private Workspaces • Industry-Specific • Venture/Incubators Advantage • Motivation • Community • Flexibility • Getting Outside of the Home • Networking Disadvantages: But at the end of the day, it’s also easy to lose focus and get off track. There’s something about being in an office setting that helps to keep you motivated, on- task, and getting the most out of your time. Dr.NoorFirdoosJahan,Professor,RVIM slide12
  • 14. Home as a new office Dr.NoorFirdoosJahan,Professor, RVIM slide14
  • 17. App Gamification Dr.NoorFirdoosJahan,Professor,RVIM slide17 Anappmadein Oportoadvises accordingtotheuser’sfeeling.
  • 18. Storytelling Dr.NoorFirdoosJahan,Professor,RVIM slide18 If youtellastory,you’remorelikely tobelistenedbyyouraudience,andyoucan wellputintoyourstory somerecommendationstobuy–-oratleasttovisit. Bartolomeo Colleoni IT for Tourism Services, UniBg Bergamo, Colleoni Chapel Malpaga, Colleoni Castle
  • 19. Augmented Reality Dr.NoorFirdoosJahan,Professor,RVIM slide19 TripWolfprovidesaugmentedreality,itself asort ofgamification.So do others. ITforT ourism Services,UniBg201 7-201 8
  • 20. Virtual Reality Dr.NoorFirdoosJahan,Professor,RVIM slide20 T oquoteWikipediaonceagain, “Virtual reality (VR) typically refers to computertechnologies thatusesoftware togeneraterealisticimages,sounds and othersensations that replicateareal environment(orcreateanimaginary setting), andsimulateauser's physicalpresencein this environment, byenablingtheusertointeractwiththis spaceandanyobjectsdepictedthere in using specializeddisplayscreensorprojectorsand otherdevices.”
  • 21. Virtual Reality and Reality Dr.NoorFirdoosJahan,Professor,RVIM slide21
  • 23. Organizational justice  It is a personal evaluation about the ethical and moral standing of managerial conduct. ⚫ It refers to how an employee judges the behaviour of the organization and their resulting attitude and behaviour that comes from this. (Greenberg ,1987 )
  • 24. Ethics Religion Fairness Law. Organizational Justice i s s u e s perceptions of fair pay, equal opportunities for promotion, and personnel selection procedures (Tabibnia, Satpute, & Lieberman, 2008).
  • 25. Evolution ⚫ The idea of organizational justice stems from Equity theory (Adams, 1963, 1965)of motivation, which posits that judgments of equity and inequity are derived from comparisons between one‘s self and others based on inputs and outcomes. ⚫ Inputs refer to what a person perceives to contribute (e.g., knowledge and effort). ⚫ Outcomes are what an individual perceives to get out of an exchange relationship (e.g., pay and recognition). ⚫ Comparison points against which these inputs and outcomes are judged may be internal (one‘s self at an earlier time) or external (other individuals).
  • 26.
  • 27. Three reasons why justice matters to people ⚫ Long-range benefits. ⚫ Social considerations: ⚫ Ethical considerations
  • 28. Types of organizational justice ⚫ Distributive Justice - Appropriateness of outcomes. ⚫ Procedural Justice: • Appropriateness of the allocation process. ⚫ Interactional Justice: Appropriateness of the treatment one receives from authority figures. ● Interpersonal Justice: Treating an employee with dignity, courtesy, and respect. ● Informational Justice: Sharing relevant information with employees. Dr.NoorFirdoosJahan,Professor, RVIM slide28
  • 29. Fair Process Effect 2- 10 Copyright© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  • 30. Goldman studied the relationship between justice and filing legal claims for alleged workplace discrimination and found that claimants were most likely to pursue litigation when distributive, procedural, and interactional justice were all low. If just one component of justice was judged to be high, the likelihood of a legal claim dropped. (2003)
  • 31. Outcomes of organizational justice ⚫ Employees‘ perceptions of injustice within the organization can result in a myriad of outcomes both positive and negative. Positive • Trust on supervisor • Performance • Job satisfaction and organizational commitment • Organizational citizenship behaviors Negative: • Counterproductive work behaviors • Absenteeism and withdrawal • Emotional exhaustion
  • 32.
  • 33. CASE STUDY: KEY POINTS ⚫ Sarah was a trainee; joined Ashu Joshi's five-member team as Assistant Systems Engineer at Caremark. ⚫ Moved to CVS Caremark project at TCS- Noida after a successful stint at Tegro project in TCS-Bangalore. ⚫ Caremark offered better career prospects ⚫ ;handsome pay hike for becoming a confirmed employee +USA or UK project
  • 34. Comparisons between Bosses Asha ⚫ Team leader of CVS Caremark project –Autocratic style ⚫ Does not interfere with subordinates work and leaves them alone to do their work without any guidance ⚫ Efficient at what he did and extremely intelligent, but neither had time nor the inclination to groom his subordinates ⚫ If work did not get finished on time, he would just blame the team, and totally disassociate himself from them. Sudhir Reddy: ⚫ TL of Tegro Project – participative cum democratic style ⚫ A guide and mentor - always guiding, but never interfering. ⚫ Allows to make own mistakes and learn from them and had always encouraged individual ideas, and let the team discover the flaws, if any, through discussion and experience. ⚫ considered responsibility for any failure was collective
  • 35. The issue: ⚫ New project was facing a few glitches with the new software ⚫ Sarah thought about the problem & drawn several possible solutions ⚫ Unexpected response from Ashu Joshi disturbed her. ⚫ Work environment a bit dull- no participation in discussions from other employees.
  • 36. Few statements: ⚫ Ashu said: ‗ I will send an email with the solution to all the members of the team by the end of the day. ⚫ Sanjay, one of the team members, said, "What is the point in our discussing these things? Ashu is not going to have time to listen to us or discuss anything. ⚫ Sarah felt ―Ididn't really need to think; my boss had all the answers‖. ⚫ And turned into mediocre techie.
  • 37. Verifying questions- Was Sarah treated fairly? ⚫ Were you ever treated rudely or disrespectfully? ⚫ Were you up for a promotion / raise / job, and didn‘t get it when you thought you should have? ⚫ Why was it unfair? How did you know? ⚫ How did you react? Did you take action? Why or why not?
  • 38. Prospective Implications of injustice ⚫ No participation on the part of employees ⚫ Reduction in productivity, creativity, innovative ideas & commitment. ⚫ Lack of smoother communication between leader and subordinate. ⚫ Lack of external motivation and learning environment. ⚫ Absenteeism ,turnover or counter productive work behaviors
  • 39. Process to create perceptions of organizational justice • Selection Procedures: Positive Job Candidates • Building Justice Into Management Systems • Reward Systems: Justly Balancing Multiple Goals • Conflict Management: You Don‘t Have to Win • Layoffs: Softening Hardship • Performance Appraisals: Keeping Score Fairly (Russell Cropanzano, David E. Bowen, and Stephen W. GillilandT, 2007, The Management of Organizational Justice , Academy of Management Perspectives, 34-48)
  • 40. Ways to promote organizational justice  Pay workers what they deserve  Follow open and fair procedures  Offer workers a voice  Meet regularly and invite input  Conduct employee surveys  Keep an ―open door policy‖  Use suggestion system 2- 28
  • 41. Managing Diversity and Inclusion Managing Diversity at workplace
  • 43. Elements of Diversity ❖ Age ❖ Gender ❖ Ethnicity ❖ Race ❖ PhysicalAbility ❖ Sexual Orientation ❖ Physical Characteristics ❖ Income ❖ Education ❖ Marital Status ❖ Religious Beliefs ❖ Geographic Location ❖ Parental Status ❖ Personality Type
  • 44. Ways to incorporate diversity: Businessesfindwaystoincorporatediversityintotheir workplaceswithoutcausing majorchangestothewaytheircompaniesoperate. Incorporatingdiversitypracticesinaworkplacecaninclude ❖ Recruitingfromdiversetalentpoolstomakethecompanyopentoemployeesfromvarious backgrounds. ❖ Diversitym aybeinfusedintoadvertisingpracticestoensure productsandservicesare targetedtoall consumerswho representthetargetmarket,whetherthroughprint, online,televisionorradio
  • 46. Multiculturalism Multiculturalismisasystemofbeliefsandbehaviorsthatrecognizesand respects the presence ofalldiverse groups in anorganization orsociety, acknowledgesandvaluestheirsocio-cultural differences, andencourages andenablestheircontinued contributionwithinaninclusivecultural contextwhich empowersallwithintheorganizationorsociety.
  • 47. Key to growth: ❖ Diversitymanagement isthekeytogrowthintoday’s fiercelycompetitive globalmarket place. ❖ NolongercanAmerica’scorporationshidebehindtheirlackof culturalintelligence. ❖ Organizationsthatseekglobalmarketrelevancymustembracediversity–inhowtheythink,act andinnovate. ❖ Diversitycannolongerjustbeaboutmakingthenumbers,but ra therhowanorganizationtreatsits peopleauthenticallydown totherootsof itsbusinessm odel. ❖ Intoday’snewworkplace,diversitymanagementIisatme- sensitivebusinessim perative.
  • 48. Women in the Workplace: ❖ Theneed to understand diversityisalsodrivenbywomeninthe workplace. ❖ Today's workforcehasthehighest levelsofemployment participationever bywomen. ❖ Thenumber ofdualincomefamiliesandsingleworkingmothershas increased. ❖ Changein the familystructure meansthat there are fewermen andwomen in traditionalfamilyroles. ❖ Therefore, diversityissuescut acrossboth race andgender.
  • 49. Benefits of Diverse workplace: ❖ Customer service improveswhenstaffunderstandandcan communicate skillfullywithcustomersfromarange of backgrounds. ❖ Thecommunity isalsomore likelyto identifywith andrelate to companiesthat reflect itslevel ofdiversity ❖ Workplace diversitywherestaffare encouragedto work in their areasofstrengthand capability. ❖ Valuingdiversitywherestaffpotential isrecognizedanddeveloped. ❖ Productivediversityisvaluingdifferent experience, perspectives,skillsandthe cross- transfer andintegration oftheseinto thecompanyand localeconomy.
  • 50. Possible Barriers ● Limitingareaofconsideration ● Lackofdiverse applicant poolinS TEMpositions ● Lackofdiversity at thesenior ranks ● Categorizing peopleinto certain positions ● A lwaysrecruitingfromsamesource ● Grooming/developing onlyoneperson ● Pre-selection
  • 51. How to Manage Diversity StepsinManagingDiversityEffectively ❖Securetopmanagementcommitment ❖Alternativeworkarrangements ❖Increasediversityskills ❖Organizationalassessment ❖Attractingemployees ❖Accommodatingworkandfamilyneeds
  • 52. Diversity Awareness Programs 5-16 ❖Providememberswithaccurateinformationabout diversity ❖Uncoverpersonal biasesandstereotypes ❖Assesspersonalbeliefs,attitudes,andvaluesandlearningabout otherpointsofview ❖Developanatmosphereinwhichpeoplefeelfreetosharetheir differingperspectives ❖Improveunderstandingofotherswhoaredifferent
  • 53. Consequences of Ignoring Diversity: ❖Ignoringdiversityissuescoststime, money, andefficiency. ❖ Someof theconsequencescaninclude ❖Unhealthytensionsbetweenpeopleofdifferinggender,race, ethnicity, age, abilities, etc.; ❖Lossofproductivitybecauseofincreasedconflict; ❖Inabilitytoattract andretaintalentedpeople ofall kinds; ❖Complaintsandlegalactions; ❖Inabilitytoretainwomenandpeopleofcolor, resultinginlost investmentsinrecruitmentandtraining.
  • 54. Example 1: Coca-cola Company ❖ Diversityisat theheart ofourbusiness. ❖ Westrivetocreateaworkenvironmentthat providesallourassociatesequalaccessto information, developmentand opportunity. ❖ Bybuildinganinclusiveworkplace environment, weseektoleverageour globalteamofassociates, whichisrichindiversepeople, talentandideas. ❖ Weseediversityasmorethanjust policies andpractices. ❖ It isanintegral part ofwhoweareasa company, howweoperateandhowwe seeourfuture.
  • 55. Contd… ❖ Asaglobalbusiness,ourabilitytounderstand,embraceandoperateinamulticultural world--bothinthem arketplaceand intheworkplace--iscriticaltoour long-term sustainabilityand,specifically,impactsourabilitytomeetour2020VisionPeoplegoals. ❖Manypeopleacrossthecompanycontinuetoworkdiligentlyto helpus advance inour diversity journey andbuildour practices ondiversity, inclusionandfairness.
  • 57. Equation of the company: ❖We also include our associates in the process. We garner their feedback through formal surveys and informally through their participation in our business resource groups, various diversity education programs and our Resolution ResourcesProgram, where associates can work to resolve issues they face in our Company.
  • 58. ❖ AFrenchtilingand flooring company with42 peopleas workforce. ❖Wasfacingdifficultiesin recruiting localworkforce. ❖Wantedamore diverse workforce. ❖Followingcomplaints about workersnot being seriousit recruited more women andyoung peoplefromdeprivedareas.
  • 59. ❖ Suspectedreason wasdiscrimination. ❖ One dayfull trainingregarding- ❖ Power ofstereotypes ❖ Benefits ofdiversity ❖ Problems were surprisinglyresolved.Employeeswere more- ❖ Efficient ❖ Independent ❖ Motivated ❖ Unexpected outcome- ❖ Friendshipemerged between workers from verydifferentbackgrounds.
  • 60. ❖ Well known for diversity. ❖ 62000 peoplefrom128 countries. ❖ Believesin equal chance and offers to all its employees. ❖ Partnershipswith community collegesall over Germany. ❖ Employeesimprove communication skillsaswell asIT knowledge. ❖ Thisenableseveryonein the diverse workforceto growand climb up the corporate ladder.