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            Getting To YES: Using a
                  Positive No
                        The Art of Negotiation


                                                             William Ury
                               Harvard Negotiation Project


© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                                1
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    Objectives


       • Set up negotiating environment
         for success
       • Change the game from
         confrontation to cooperation
       • Become a negotiation champion


© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                               2
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     Your Negotiating Situation

       • Who are the parties?
       • What is the issue?
       • What do you want?
       • What do they want?



© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                               3
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     Approaches

                        High

   Concern
   for Their
   Interests

                        Low
                                              Low                                                                                                                     High
                                                  Concern for Our Interests
© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                                4
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     Hard Adversarial Approach

                        High

   Concern
   for Their
   Interests

                        Low
                                              Low                                                                                                               High
                                                  Concern for Our Interests
© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                                5
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  Soft Accommodating Approach

                        High

   Concern
   for Their
   Interests

                        Low
                                                  Low                                                                                                                High

                                               Concern for Our Interests
© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                                6
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      Avoidance Approach

                        High

   Concern
   for Their
   Interests

                        Low
                                              Low                                                                                                                 High
                                         Concern for Our Interests
© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                                7
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      Mutual Gains Approach

                        High

   Concern
   for Their
   Interests

                        Low
                                              Low                                                                                                                     High
                                                       Concern for Our Interests
© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                                8
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      Theme: Focus on Interests

        Position:
        Concrete demands or stances

        Interests:
        Underlying motivations -
        needs, desires, fears, concerns

© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                               9
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      3 Critical Challenges

              1. Instead of avoiding:
                   Focus on interests
              2. Instead of accommodating:
                   Protect your interests
              3. Instead of attacking:
                   Connect with their interests

© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                               10
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             Interests-Based Negotiation
             Focus                                            Protect                                                                      Connect
   P
   R
   E              1                                                     2                                                                          3
   P
   A            Balcony                                               BATNA                                                                    Their Side
   R
   E

   N
   E
   G
                 4                                                     5                                                                                6
   O
   T          Reframe                                               Positive                                                                         Golden
   I                                                                  No                                                                             Bridge
   A
   T
   E

© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                               11
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     1. Go to the Balcony
                                          A place of
                                                 • Perspective
                                                 • Calm
                                                 • Self control


               “Keep Your Eyes on the Prize”

© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                               12
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     Stop to Think
        • Take as much time to prepare
          as to talk
        • Count to 10 before responding
        • “Let me make sure I understand”
        • Take frequent time-outs


© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                               13
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     Suspend Your Reaction
      • Observe your natural reaction
               – Respond in kind
               – Break off
               – Give in
      • Identify your “hot buttons”
      • “Have” (vs. “be”) your emotions

© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                               14
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   Your                                                                                     Balcony
   “Hot Buttons”                                                                            Techniques
      •                                                                                         •
      •                                                                                         •
      •                                                                                         •




© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                               15
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             Interests-Based Negotiation
             Focus                                            Protect                                                                      Connect
   P
   R
   E              1                                                     2                                                                          3
   P
   A            Balcony                                               BATNA                                                                    Their Side
   R
   E

   N
   E
   G
                 4                                                     5                                                                                6
   O
   T          Reframe                                               Positive                                                                         Golden
   I                                                                  No                                                                             Bridge
   A
   T
   E

© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                               16
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     2. Develop Your BATNA
           (Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement)

                                                                                                                                                         Agreement



                        Negotiation



                                                                                                                                                             BATNA
                    Best course of action
               if you cannot reach agreement
© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                                   17
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  What BATNA Is and Is NOT
  (Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement)


     • A back up plan, not a fallback option
     • A benchmark, not a bottom line
     • Empowerment for you, not
       punishment for them


© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                               18
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Use BATNA to Determine Your Bottom Line




                          BATNA                                                                       Bottom line


       Bottom line = minimum acceptable agreement
© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                               19
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    Develop Your BATNA
      • Brainstorm many alternatives,
        develop a few, select one
      • Develop a sequence of BATNAs -
        from intermediate to ultimate
      • Look for creative alternatives - e.g.
        mediation

                                 “BATNA = POWER”
© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                               20
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   Know Their BATNA, Too
     • What is their BATNA?
     • What is the worst they can do to
       you? (Your WATNA)
     • Take away their stick



© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                               21
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             Interests-Based Negotiation
             Focus                                            Protect                                                                      Connect
   P
   R
   E              1                                                     2                                                                          3
   P
   A            Balcony                                               BATNA                                                                    Their Side
   R
   E

   N
   E
   G
                 4                                                     5                                                                                6
   O
   T          Reframe                                               Positive                                                                         Golden
   I                                                                  No                                                                             Bridge
   A
   T
   E

© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                               22
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     3. Step to Their Side




          From Face to Face to Side by Side
© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                               23
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    Put Yourself in Their Shoes
   • Listen more than you talk
   • Listen to understand, not to refute
   • Paraphrase




© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                               24
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© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                               25
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© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                               26
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       The Power of Respect

        • To look again (re-spect) -- to see the
          Other
        • To give value to yourself and the
          Other
        • To pay positive attention to the
          Other

© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                               27
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             Interests-Based Negotiation
             Focus                                            Protect                                                                      Connect
   P
   R
   E              1                                                     2                                                                          3
   P
   A            Balcony                                               BATNA                                                                    Their Side
   R
   E

   N
   E
   G
                 4                                                     5                                                                                6
   O
   T          Reframe                                               Positive                                                                         Golden
   I                                                                  No                                                                             Bridge
   A
   T
   E

© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                               28
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      4. Reframe
         • Reframing is one of your greatest
           powers

         • Move the spotlight away from
           positions to interests, options, and
           criteria

         • Ask problem-solving questions

© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                               29
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      Reframe Positions as Interests
      Ask why:
        “Help me understand your needs.”
               “What will this achieve for you?”
      Ask why not?:
         “What would be wrong with…?”
      “As I understand your interests, they are… Where
       have I misunderstood them?”
                                   … Don’t reject, redirect
© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                               30
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   Reframe Positions as Options
      • Invent before you evaluate
      • Brainstorm a wide range of options
      • Leverage differences
      • Brainstorm jointly as “wizards”



© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                               31
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      Use Objective Criteria
      (independent standards for deciding
      what is fair)

    • Market value                                                            • Costs
    • Precedent                                                               • Efficiency
    • Law                                                                     • Equal treatment
    • Reciprocity                                                             • Scientific judgment

© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                               32
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             Interests-Based Negotiation
             Focus                                            Protect                                                                      Connect
   P
   R
   E              1                                                     2                                                                          3
   P
   A            Balcony                                               BATNA                                                                    Their Side
   R
   E

   N
   E
   G
                 4                                                     5                                                                                6
   O
   T          Reframe                                               Positive                                                                         Golden
   I                                                                  No                                                                             Bridge
   A
   T
   E

© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                               33
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      5. Deliver a Positive NO
       • Begin with a Yes to your interests
       • Proceed with a neutral, matter-of-fact
         No
       • End with a Yes: a constructive
         proposal
             “Stand on your feet, not on their toes”

© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                               34
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© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                               35
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   Help Them Move Through the
      Process of Acceptance

                                                                     Anger
                        Anxiety                                                                                                      Sadness

          Denial                                                                                                                                               Acceptance

 Avoidance                                                                                                                                                                Problem-
                                                                                                                                                                           solving

© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                                   36
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                                                                                          “Because I/we
                        “Yes!”                                                            stand for/need…
                                                                                           ………………
                                                                                           … … … … … …”

                                                                                          “I say No to/will
                                                                                          not… … … … …
                        “No.”                                                             ………………
                                                                                          … …”

                                                                                          “I therefore
                                                                                          propose… … …
                        “Yes?”                                                            ………………
                                                                                          … … … … … …”
© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                                37
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             Interests-Based Negotiation
             Focus                                            Protect                                                                      Connect
   P
   R
   E              1                                                     2                                                                          3
   P
   A            Balcony                                               BATNA                                                                    Their Side
   R
   E

   N
   E
   G
                 4                                                     5                                                                                6
   O
   T          Reframe                                               Positive                                                                         Golden
   I                                                                  No                                                                             Bridge
   A
   T
   E

© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                               38
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      6. Build a Golden Bridge




           Start from where their thinking is:
       Make it attractive for them to say “YES.”
© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                               39
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     Satisfy Unmet Needs
        Examples:
               • Recognition
               • Security
               • Autonomy
               • Power


© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                               40
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     Help Write Their “Victory”
     Speech
        • Imagine that they say Yes to
          your proposal
        • How could they sell this to their
          constituents?
        • What would be their key talking
          points?
© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                               41
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    Their “Victory” Speech
              Th Con ency(i.e., the boss, union m rs, city council, etc.)
                eir stitu         ir            embe


              KeyThemes Thir Vic ry S h
                       of e    to peec
              1.
              2.
              3.
              4.

              Mo L
                 st ikelyCriticisms                                                                        Bes R pon
                                                                                                              t es ses
              1.                                                                                           1.
              2.                                                                                           2.
              3.                                                                                           3.

© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                                 42
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             Interests-Based Negotiation
             Focus                                            Protect                                                                      Connect
   P
   R
   E              1                                                     2                                                                          3
   P
   A            Balcony                                               BATNA                                                                    Their Side
   R
   E

   N
   E
   G
                 4                                                     5                                                                                6
   O
   T          Reframe                                               Positive                                                                         Golden
   I                                                                  No                                                                             Bridge
   A
   T
   E

© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                               43
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                    Much Success
                in Your Negotiations!



© 2010 William L. Ury                                                                                                                                                                                               44

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Willian Ury - Estratégias de Negociação: o não positivo

  • 1. QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor Getting To YES: Using a Positive No The Art of Negotiation William Ury Harvard Negotiation Project © 2010 William L. Ury 1
  • 2. QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor Objectives • Set up negotiating environment for success • Change the game from confrontation to cooperation • Become a negotiation champion © 2010 William L. Ury 2
  • 3. QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor Your Negotiating Situation • Who are the parties? • What is the issue? • What do you want? • What do they want? © 2010 William L. Ury 3
  • 4. QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor Approaches High Concern for Their Interests Low Low High Concern for Our Interests © 2010 William L. Ury 4
  • 5. QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor Hard Adversarial Approach High Concern for Their Interests Low Low High Concern for Our Interests © 2010 William L. Ury 5
  • 6. QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor Soft Accommodating Approach High Concern for Their Interests Low Low High Concern for Our Interests © 2010 William L. Ury 6
  • 7. QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor Avoidance Approach High Concern for Their Interests Low Low High Concern for Our Interests © 2010 William L. Ury 7
  • 8. QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor Mutual Gains Approach High Concern for Their Interests Low Low High Concern for Our Interests © 2010 William L. Ury 8
  • 9. QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor Theme: Focus on Interests Position: Concrete demands or stances Interests: Underlying motivations - needs, desires, fears, concerns © 2010 William L. Ury 9
  • 10. QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor 3 Critical Challenges 1. Instead of avoiding: Focus on interests 2. Instead of accommodating: Protect your interests 3. Instead of attacking: Connect with their interests © 2010 William L. Ury 10
  • 11. QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor Interests-Based Negotiation Focus Protect Connect P R E 1 2 3 P A Balcony BATNA Their Side R E N E G 4 5 6 O T Reframe Positive Golden I No Bridge A T E © 2010 William L. Ury 11
  • 12. Focus QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor 1. Go to the Balcony A place of • Perspective • Calm • Self control “Keep Your Eyes on the Prize” © 2010 William L. Ury 12
  • 13. 1. Balcony QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor Stop to Think • Take as much time to prepare as to talk • Count to 10 before responding • “Let me make sure I understand” • Take frequent time-outs © 2010 William L. Ury 13
  • 14. 1. Balcony QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor Suspend Your Reaction • Observe your natural reaction – Respond in kind – Break off – Give in • Identify your “hot buttons” • “Have” (vs. “be”) your emotions © 2010 William L. Ury 14
  • 15. 1. Balcony QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor Your Balcony “Hot Buttons” Techniques • • • • • • © 2010 William L. Ury 15
  • 16. QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor Interests-Based Negotiation Focus Protect Connect P R E 1 2 3 P A Balcony BATNA Their Side R E N E G 4 5 6 O T Reframe Positive Golden I No Bridge A T E © 2010 William L. Ury 16
  • 17. Protect QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor 2. Develop Your BATNA (Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement) Agreement Negotiation BATNA Best course of action if you cannot reach agreement © 2010 William L. Ury 17
  • 18. 2. BATNA QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor What BATNA Is and Is NOT (Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement) • A back up plan, not a fallback option • A benchmark, not a bottom line • Empowerment for you, not punishment for them © 2010 William L. Ury 18
  • 19. 2. BATNA QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor Use BATNA to Determine Your Bottom Line BATNA Bottom line Bottom line = minimum acceptable agreement © 2010 William L. Ury 19
  • 20. 2. BATNA QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor Develop Your BATNA • Brainstorm many alternatives, develop a few, select one • Develop a sequence of BATNAs - from intermediate to ultimate • Look for creative alternatives - e.g. mediation “BATNA = POWER” © 2010 William L. Ury 20
  • 21. 2. BATNA QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor Know Their BATNA, Too • What is their BATNA? • What is the worst they can do to you? (Your WATNA) • Take away their stick © 2010 William L. Ury 21
  • 22. QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor Interests-Based Negotiation Focus Protect Connect P R E 1 2 3 P A Balcony BATNA Their Side R E N E G 4 5 6 O T Reframe Positive Golden I No Bridge A T E © 2010 William L. Ury 22
  • 23. Connect QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor 3. Step to Their Side From Face to Face to Side by Side © 2010 William L. Ury 23
  • 24. 3. Their Side QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor Put Yourself in Their Shoes • Listen more than you talk • Listen to understand, not to refute • Paraphrase © 2010 William L. Ury 24
  • 25. QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor © 2010 William L. Ury 25
  • 26. QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor © 2010 William L. Ury 26
  • 27. 3. Their Side QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor The Power of Respect • To look again (re-spect) -- to see the Other • To give value to yourself and the Other • To pay positive attention to the Other © 2010 William L. Ury 27
  • 28. QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor Interests-Based Negotiation Focus Protect Connect P R E 1 2 3 P A Balcony BATNA Their Side R E N E G 4 5 6 O T Reframe Positive Golden I No Bridge A T E © 2010 William L. Ury 28
  • 29. Focus QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor 4. Reframe • Reframing is one of your greatest powers • Move the spotlight away from positions to interests, options, and criteria • Ask problem-solving questions © 2010 William L. Ury 29
  • 30. 4. Reframe QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor Reframe Positions as Interests Ask why: “Help me understand your needs.” “What will this achieve for you?” Ask why not?: “What would be wrong with…?” “As I understand your interests, they are… Where have I misunderstood them?” … Don’t reject, redirect © 2010 William L. Ury 30
  • 31. 4. Reframe QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor Reframe Positions as Options • Invent before you evaluate • Brainstorm a wide range of options • Leverage differences • Brainstorm jointly as “wizards” © 2010 William L. Ury 31
  • 32. 4. Reframe QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor Use Objective Criteria (independent standards for deciding what is fair) • Market value • Costs • Precedent • Efficiency • Law • Equal treatment • Reciprocity • Scientific judgment © 2010 William L. Ury 32
  • 33. QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor Interests-Based Negotiation Focus Protect Connect P R E 1 2 3 P A Balcony BATNA Their Side R E N E G 4 5 6 O T Reframe Positive Golden I No Bridge A T E © 2010 William L. Ury 33
  • 34. Protect QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor 5. Deliver a Positive NO • Begin with a Yes to your interests • Proceed with a neutral, matter-of-fact No • End with a Yes: a constructive proposal “Stand on your feet, not on their toes” © 2010 William L. Ury 34
  • 35. QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor © 2010 William L. Ury 35
  • 36. QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor Help Them Move Through the Process of Acceptance Anger Anxiety Sadness Denial Acceptance Avoidance Problem- solving © 2010 William L. Ury 36
  • 37. What is Your Yes! No. Yes? QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor “Because I/we “Yes!” stand for/need… ……………… … … … … … …” “I say No to/will not… … … … … “No.” ……………… … …” “I therefore propose… … … “Yes?” ……………… … … … … … …” © 2010 William L. Ury 37
  • 38. QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor Interests-Based Negotiation Focus Protect Connect P R E 1 2 3 P A Balcony BATNA Their Side R E N E G 4 5 6 O T Reframe Positive Golden I No Bridge A T E © 2010 William L. Ury 38
  • 39. Connect QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor 6. Build a Golden Bridge Start from where their thinking is: Make it attractive for them to say “YES.” © 2010 William L. Ury 39
  • 40. 6. Bridge QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor Satisfy Unmet Needs Examples: • Recognition • Security • Autonomy • Power © 2010 William L. Ury 40
  • 41. 6. Bridge QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor Help Write Their “Victory” Speech • Imagine that they say Yes to your proposal • How could they sell this to their constituents? • What would be their key talking points? © 2010 William L. Ury 41
  • 42. 6. Bridge QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor Their “Victory” Speech Th Con ency(i.e., the boss, union m rs, city council, etc.) eir stitu ir embe KeyThemes Thir Vic ry S h of e to peec 1. 2. 3. 4. Mo L st ikelyCriticisms Bes R pon t es ses 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. © 2010 William L. Ury 42
  • 43. QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor Interests-Based Negotiation Focus Protect Connect P R E 1 2 3 P A Balcony BATNA Their Side R E N E G 4 5 6 O T Reframe Positive Golden I No Bridge A T E © 2010 William L. Ury 43
  • 44. QuickTime™ and a .............................................................................................................................................................. are needed to see this picture. decompressor Much Success in Your Negotiations! © 2010 William L. Ury 44