SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Low Level LASER(LLLT)
Therapy(Biostimulation).
Laser classification according
power
 Lasers were classified according to power
into
 1-Hard or hot surgical
lasers(CO2,Nd:YAG……..)These types of
lasers are usually used with high power I.e
power is measured in watt.
 2-Cold or soft lasers (Diode,HeNe in red and
IR region) The power is usually measured in
mw.
Advantages of LLLT
 Accelerate wound healing
 Enhance repair and remolding of bone
 Accelerate restoration of normal neural
function after injuries
 Pain attenuation
 Stimulate endorphin release
Biological effects of LLLT
 The major absorption
structures(chromospheres) for red and near
IR used in LLLT are proteins
 The exact receptor is still not known but it is
believed that it may be present in
mitochondrial cytochrome system or
endogenous prophyrins in the cell
 Penetration depth of laser energy ranges 5-
10mm(may be coherent or non coherent eg
NASA)
Effect on fibroblasts
 The low doses e.g. 2J /cm² stimulates
proliferation ,while higher doses e.g. 16J/ cm²
suppress proliferation
 Fibroblast maturation and locomotion
through matrix so increase the tensile
strength
 In low doses stimulate production of basic
fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) so increase
proliferation.
Transformation of fibroblasts to
myofibroblasts responsible for wound
contraction which occurs early as 24 h
after laser irradiation
LLLT stimulate immune cells to secrete
cytokines and other growth regulatory
factors for fibrobalsts
Macrophages release unknown factor
which promote fibroblast proliferation
Effect Of LLLT on immune cells
 Increase both phagocytosis and
chemotactic activities so enhances
debridment and establish conditions
necessary for proliferative phase
Effect OF LLLT on epithelial
cells
 LLLT increases the mobility of human
keratinocytes
Effect OF LLLT on bone cells
 Increases cell proliferation and DNA
synthesis (when the cells in active
phase)
 Invitro it increases accumulation of
calcium in bone and accelerate
calcification
Effect on blood vascular system
 Vascular spasm can result in tissue
ischemia , and has been linked to a
many painful conditions .LLLT can
induce relaxation in vascular smooth
muscles so decrease ischemia and so
lower pain
Soft tissue applications of LLLT
 1-Rheumatoid arthritis , chronic pain
and muscle strain
 2-Accelerate wound healing
 3- Accelerate healing of dentoalveolar
abscess
 4Analgesia either direct or indirect as in
case of acupuncture
 5-Nerve regeneration
6-Post surgical pain
7-Sinusitis (improves
microcirculation and reduce edema
8-Post herpetic neuralgia
9-Gingivitis
LLLT in hard tissue
 Treatment of TMJ pain
 Decrease dental hypersensitivity by inducing
changes in neural transmission network
within the pulp
 Decrease periodontal ligament pain during
tooth movement in orthodontic treatment by
decreasing secretion of prostaglandins and
interleukin-1
 Effect on microorganisms (PDT)
 Never use LLLT in cancer patient
15
Laser in phototherapy
Presented by :
• Ahmed
• Adham
• Kawther
• Ghada seif mohammed
Photochemistry and photobiology group.
16
Laser used in medical applications
laser alone
• Photo ablation
• Lasik
• Enhance healing
• Photocoagulaton
• tatoo
With photosensitizer
• In photo dynamic
therapy (PDT)
• treat superficial cancers
• destroy tumors
• relieve certain symptoms
of cancer
17
Laser alone
• is often given through a flexible endoscope
• It is inserted through an opening in the body
18
Laser in PDT
• PDT
What is PDT
Mechanism
• What is photosensitization and photosensitizer
Two possible mechanisms
Good photosensitizer
• Singlet oxygen
• Treatment using laser
Types of laser used incancer therapy
Advantage
Limitations
19
What is PDT
Is a ternary treatment for cancer in which
• PDT uses laser, or other light sources, combined with
a light-sensitive drug to destroy cancer cells
• It is also being investigated for treatment of psoriasis
and acne, and is an approved treatment for wet
macular degeneration.
20
Mecanism of PDT
In PDT, visible light, a light sensitive drug
(photosensitizer) and oxygen are combined,
leading to the production of reactive oxygen
species to inactivate ( or destroy) tumor
cells, viruses, bacteria….
It involves two main processes
1) Photosensitization of the patient
2) Exposure of the photosensitized patient to
light preferably laser light
21
• Mechanism:
a) Sensitizer + hv  Sensitizer*
b) Sensitizer* + 3O2 Sensitizer + 1O2
c) 1O2 + Substrate  Oxidative damage
22
Photosensitization and photosensitizer
• Photosensitization is a reaction to light that is mediated by a
light-absorbing molecule that is not the ultimate target
observed or assessed.
• . photosensitizer is a chemical compound that readily
undergoes photoexcitation and then transfers its energy to
other molecules, thus making the reaction mixture more
sensitive to light.
• NOT all light-absorbing molecules are photosensitizers
23
24
Two possible Mechanisms
• Type I photosensitization the excited
photosensitizer (3Sen*) abstracts an
electron/hydrogen atom from another
component
• Type 2 reactions the photosensitizer transfers
its excitation energy to ground state dioxygen
resulting in singlet oxygen (1O2) and ground
state photosensitizer.
25
26
Good photosensitizer
• Absorb photons efficiently (have high molar extinction coefficient)
• Have a high quantum yield of triplet formation
• The triplet must be long-lived
• Able to donate and /or accept electron easily (type I)
• Generate 1O2 with high yields
• Cell penetration
• Extent relation to quenchers
• Best if amphiphilic
• transparency of biological tissues
• minimum toxicity in the dark
• rapidly excreted from the body
• (Basic or acidic ( according to the type of target substrate
27
Singlet oxygen
• When O2 has excess energy, the two unpaired electrons in the
outer orbital can pair up. Giving singlet oxygen.
• There are two forms of singlet oxygen
1) Short lived , highly reactive 1O2
2) 1 O2 is involved in photosensitization.
Singlet oxygen is not a free radical because all electrons are spin-
paired. It is electrophilic and thus reacts readily with electron-rich
molecules
28
Photosensitizer and oxygen
29
Treatment using laser
• photosensitizer or photosensitizing agent, is
injected into a patient and absorbed by cells
all over the patient’s body
• After a couple of days, the agent is found
mostly in cancer cells.
• Laser light is then used to activate the agent
and destroy cancer cells.
30
31
· What types of lasers are used in
cancer treatment?
• CO2 and argon lasers can cut the skin’s surface
without going into deeper layers
• Argon lasers are often used to activate the
drugs used in PDT.
• Nd:YAG laser is more commonly applied
through an endoscope to treat internal organs
• . Each of these can shrink or destroy tumors
and can be used with endoscopes
32
Advantages of Lasers in PDT.
 Monochromaticity provides maximum effectiveness
 Lasers can produce high irradiance to minimize the
therapeutic exposure time
 Lasers can be readily coupled to fiberoptics, enabling light
delivery to any organ
Output needs to be 1-4W
 Drug free, pain free, side effect free
 Reduction or elimination of withdrawal symptoms and the
pain
33
several limitations of laser therapy
• expensive and requires bulky equipment
• may not last long, so may have to repeat
• Surgeons must have specialized training
before they can do laser therapy
• strict safety precautions must be followed.
• There are many environmental considerations
(smoking)
• Sensitivity to light , Swelling
34
35

More Related Content

What's hot

Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT)
Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT)Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT)
Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT)
Daniel Woodward
 
Cancer Hyperthermia part2
Cancer Hyperthermia part2Cancer Hyperthermia part2
Cancer Hyperthermia part2
Esraa Hassanen
 
Laser therapy
Laser therapyLaser therapy
Laser therapy
Saima Mustafa
 
LASER
LASER LASER
LASER
Apatel99094
 
Laser Therapy
 Laser Therapy Laser Therapy
Laser Therapy
Saima Mustafa
 
Magnetic nanoliposomes for combined hyperthermia and drug delivery
Magnetic nanoliposomes for combined hyperthermia and drug deliveryMagnetic nanoliposomes for combined hyperthermia and drug delivery
Magnetic nanoliposomes for combined hyperthermia and drug delivery
Priyank Kulshrestha
 
Lasers in dermatology
Lasers in dermatologyLasers in dermatology
Lasers in dermatology
karoline Enoch
 
Low level light theraphy /prosthodontic courses
Low level light theraphy  /prosthodontic courses Low level light theraphy  /prosthodontic courses
Low level light theraphy /prosthodontic courses
Indian dental academy
 
Laser characteristics as applied to medicine and biology
Laser characteristics as applied to medicine and biologyLaser characteristics as applied to medicine and biology
Laser characteristics as applied to medicine and biology
karoline Enoch
 
Laser
LaserLaser

What's hot (10)

Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT)
Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT)Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT)
Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT)
 
Cancer Hyperthermia part2
Cancer Hyperthermia part2Cancer Hyperthermia part2
Cancer Hyperthermia part2
 
Laser therapy
Laser therapyLaser therapy
Laser therapy
 
LASER
LASER LASER
LASER
 
Laser Therapy
 Laser Therapy Laser Therapy
Laser Therapy
 
Magnetic nanoliposomes for combined hyperthermia and drug delivery
Magnetic nanoliposomes for combined hyperthermia and drug deliveryMagnetic nanoliposomes for combined hyperthermia and drug delivery
Magnetic nanoliposomes for combined hyperthermia and drug delivery
 
Lasers in dermatology
Lasers in dermatologyLasers in dermatology
Lasers in dermatology
 
Low level light theraphy /prosthodontic courses
Low level light theraphy  /prosthodontic courses Low level light theraphy  /prosthodontic courses
Low level light theraphy /prosthodontic courses
 
Laser characteristics as applied to medicine and biology
Laser characteristics as applied to medicine and biologyLaser characteristics as applied to medicine and biology
Laser characteristics as applied to medicine and biology
 
Laser
LaserLaser
Laser
 

Similar to د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة Dr.Hatem EL-Bitar

Mode of Action of Laser In Tissues
Mode of Action of Laser In TissuesMode of Action of Laser In Tissues
Mode of Action of Laser In Tissues
Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College
 
Photodynamic therapy
Photodynamic therapyPhotodynamic therapy
Photodynamic therapy
Nilesh Kucha
 
LASER THERAPY.pptx
LASER THERAPY.pptxLASER THERAPY.pptx
LASER THERAPY.pptx
ShubhamSingh890487
 
Photo dynamic therapy
Photo dynamic therapyPhoto dynamic therapy
Photo dynamic therapy
Lalitha Kavya
 
Photo dynamic therapy
Photo dynamic therapyPhoto dynamic therapy
Photo dynamic therapy
lalitha kavya
 
Wellman center geral sobre LLLT hamblin
Wellman center geral sobre LLLT  hamblinWellman center geral sobre LLLT  hamblin
Wellman center geral sobre LLLT hamblin
capellux
 
photodynamic therapy in periodontology.pptx
photodynamic therapy in periodontology.pptxphotodynamic therapy in periodontology.pptx
photodynamic therapy in periodontology.pptx
mangeshandhare1
 
Therapeutic LASER
Therapeutic LASERTherapeutic LASER
Therapeutic LASER
Sohel Ahmed
 
Photochemistry in Medicine.pptx
Photochemistry in Medicine.pptxPhotochemistry in Medicine.pptx
Photochemistry in Medicine.pptx
DebasishSharma7
 
Laser and its use in veterinary practice
Laser and its use in veterinary practiceLaser and its use in veterinary practice
Laser and its use in veterinary practice
Manzoor Bhat
 
Laser & Light Therapy
Laser & Light TherapyLaser & Light Therapy
Laser & Light Therapy
JLS10
 
Laser On Soft Tissue.
Laser On Soft Tissue.Laser On Soft Tissue.
Laser On Soft Tissue.
Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College
 
Radiation poisoning
Radiation poisoningRadiation poisoning
Radiation poisoning
Nandhini Sekar
 
Laser on Hard Tissue
Laser on Hard TissueLaser on Hard Tissue
LASER - Presentation on Laser in Electrotherapy
LASER - Presentation on Laser in Electrotherapy LASER - Presentation on Laser in Electrotherapy
LASER - Presentation on Laser in Electrotherapy
ZaherRahat1
 
Photodynamic therapy and mechanism
Photodynamic therapy and mechanismPhotodynamic therapy and mechanism
Photodynamic therapy and mechanism
karoline Enoch
 
Medical applications of laser 3
Medical applications of laser 3 Medical applications of laser 3
Medical applications of laser 3
Bio Physics
 
LASERS IN ORAL MEDICINE.docx
LASERS IN ORAL MEDICINE.docxLASERS IN ORAL MEDICINE.docx
LASERS IN ORAL MEDICINE.docx
43NehaUpreti
 
LASER SURGERY VSR.pptx
LASER SURGERY VSR.pptxLASER SURGERY VSR.pptx
LASER SURGERY VSR.pptx
DrKanteshkumarMJ
 
Light Therapy
Light TherapyLight Therapy
Light Therapy
JLS10
 

Similar to د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة Dr.Hatem EL-Bitar (20)

Mode of Action of Laser In Tissues
Mode of Action of Laser In TissuesMode of Action of Laser In Tissues
Mode of Action of Laser In Tissues
 
Photodynamic therapy
Photodynamic therapyPhotodynamic therapy
Photodynamic therapy
 
LASER THERAPY.pptx
LASER THERAPY.pptxLASER THERAPY.pptx
LASER THERAPY.pptx
 
Photo dynamic therapy
Photo dynamic therapyPhoto dynamic therapy
Photo dynamic therapy
 
Photo dynamic therapy
Photo dynamic therapyPhoto dynamic therapy
Photo dynamic therapy
 
Wellman center geral sobre LLLT hamblin
Wellman center geral sobre LLLT  hamblinWellman center geral sobre LLLT  hamblin
Wellman center geral sobre LLLT hamblin
 
photodynamic therapy in periodontology.pptx
photodynamic therapy in periodontology.pptxphotodynamic therapy in periodontology.pptx
photodynamic therapy in periodontology.pptx
 
Therapeutic LASER
Therapeutic LASERTherapeutic LASER
Therapeutic LASER
 
Photochemistry in Medicine.pptx
Photochemistry in Medicine.pptxPhotochemistry in Medicine.pptx
Photochemistry in Medicine.pptx
 
Laser and its use in veterinary practice
Laser and its use in veterinary practiceLaser and its use in veterinary practice
Laser and its use in veterinary practice
 
Laser & Light Therapy
Laser & Light TherapyLaser & Light Therapy
Laser & Light Therapy
 
Laser On Soft Tissue.
Laser On Soft Tissue.Laser On Soft Tissue.
Laser On Soft Tissue.
 
Radiation poisoning
Radiation poisoningRadiation poisoning
Radiation poisoning
 
Laser on Hard Tissue
Laser on Hard TissueLaser on Hard Tissue
Laser on Hard Tissue
 
LASER - Presentation on Laser in Electrotherapy
LASER - Presentation on Laser in Electrotherapy LASER - Presentation on Laser in Electrotherapy
LASER - Presentation on Laser in Electrotherapy
 
Photodynamic therapy and mechanism
Photodynamic therapy and mechanismPhotodynamic therapy and mechanism
Photodynamic therapy and mechanism
 
Medical applications of laser 3
Medical applications of laser 3 Medical applications of laser 3
Medical applications of laser 3
 
LASERS IN ORAL MEDICINE.docx
LASERS IN ORAL MEDICINE.docxLASERS IN ORAL MEDICINE.docx
LASERS IN ORAL MEDICINE.docx
 
LASER SURGERY VSR.pptx
LASER SURGERY VSR.pptxLASER SURGERY VSR.pptx
LASER SURGERY VSR.pptx
 
Light Therapy
Light TherapyLight Therapy
Light Therapy
 

More from د حاتم البيطار

د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة D...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة  D...د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة  D...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة D...
د حاتم البيطار
 
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة ...
 د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة  ... د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة  ...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة ...
د حاتم البيطار
 
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة D...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة  D...د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة  D...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة D...
د حاتم البيطار
 
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة D...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة  D...د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة  D...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة D...
د حاتم البيطار
 
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة D...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة  D...د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة  D...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة D...
د حاتم البيطار
 
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة D...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة  D...د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة  D...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة D...
د حاتم البيطار
 
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة D...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة  D...د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة  D...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة D...
د حاتم البيطار
 
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة مح...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة مح...د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة مح...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة مح...
د حاتم البيطار
 
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة مح...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة مح...د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة مح...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة مح...
د حاتم البيطار
 
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة مح...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة مح...د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة مح...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة مح...
د حاتم البيطار
 
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة مح...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة مح...د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة مح...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة مح...
د حاتم البيطار
 
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة D...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة  D...د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة  D...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة D...
د حاتم البيطار
 
Drhatem el bitar hospital management lecturer_01005684344
Drhatem el bitar hospital management  lecturer_01005684344Drhatem el bitar hospital management  lecturer_01005684344
Drhatem el bitar hospital management lecturer_01005684344
د حاتم البيطار
 
Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (10)
 Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (10) Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (10)
Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (10)
د حاتم البيطار
 
Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (7)
 Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (7) Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (7)
Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (7)
د حاتم البيطار
 
Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (6)
 Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (6) Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (6)
Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (6)
د حاتم البيطار
 
Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (5)
 Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (5) Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (5)
Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (5)
د حاتم البيطار
 
Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (4)
 Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (4) Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (4)
Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (4)
د حاتم البيطار
 
Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (3)
 Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (3) Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (3)
Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (3)
د حاتم البيطار
 
Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (2)
 Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (2) Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (2)
Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (2)
د حاتم البيطار
 

More from د حاتم البيطار (20)

د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة D...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة  D...د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة  D...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة D...
 
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة ...
 د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة  ... د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة  ...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة ...
 
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة D...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة  D...د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة  D...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة D...
 
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة D...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة  D...د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة  D...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة D...
 
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة D...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة  D...د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة  D...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة D...
 
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة D...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة  D...د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة  D...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة D...
 
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة D...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة  D...د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة  D...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة D...
 
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة مح...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة مح...د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة مح...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة مح...
 
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة مح...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة مح...د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة مح...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة مح...
 
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة مح...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة مح...د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة مح...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة مح...
 
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة مح...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة مح...د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة مح...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة مح...
 
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة D...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة  D...د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة  D...
د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة D...
 
Drhatem el bitar hospital management lecturer_01005684344
Drhatem el bitar hospital management  lecturer_01005684344Drhatem el bitar hospital management  lecturer_01005684344
Drhatem el bitar hospital management lecturer_01005684344
 
Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (10)
 Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (10) Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (10)
Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (10)
 
Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (7)
 Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (7) Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (7)
Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (7)
 
Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (6)
 Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (6) Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (6)
Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (6)
 
Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (5)
 Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (5) Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (5)
Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (5)
 
Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (4)
 Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (4) Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (4)
Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (4)
 
Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (3)
 Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (3) Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (3)
Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (3)
 
Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (2)
 Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (2) Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (2)
Mob 01005684344د حاتم الببطار (2)
 

Recently uploaded

Basavarajeeyam - Ayurvedic heritage book of Andhra pradesh
Basavarajeeyam - Ayurvedic heritage book of Andhra pradeshBasavarajeeyam - Ayurvedic heritage book of Andhra pradesh
Basavarajeeyam - Ayurvedic heritage book of Andhra pradesh
Dr. Madduru Muni Haritha
 
How STIs Influence the Development of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease.pptx
How STIs Influence the Development of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease.pptxHow STIs Influence the Development of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease.pptx
How STIs Influence the Development of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease.pptx
FFragrant
 
Cardiac Assessment for B.sc Nursing Student.pdf
Cardiac Assessment for B.sc Nursing Student.pdfCardiac Assessment for B.sc Nursing Student.pdf
Cardiac Assessment for B.sc Nursing Student.pdf
shivalingatalekar1
 
Role of Mukta Pishti in the Management of Hyperthyroidism
Role of Mukta Pishti in the Management of HyperthyroidismRole of Mukta Pishti in the Management of Hyperthyroidism
Role of Mukta Pishti in the Management of Hyperthyroidism
Dr. Jyothirmai Paindla
 
Best Ayurvedic medicine for Gas and Indigestion
Best Ayurvedic medicine for Gas and IndigestionBest Ayurvedic medicine for Gas and Indigestion
Best Ayurvedic medicine for Gas and Indigestion
Swastik Ayurveda
 
Top-Vitamin-Supplement-Brands-in-India List
Top-Vitamin-Supplement-Brands-in-India ListTop-Vitamin-Supplement-Brands-in-India List
Top-Vitamin-Supplement-Brands-in-India List
SwisschemDerma
 
Dehradun #ℂall #gIRLS Oyo Hotel 8107221448 #ℂall #gIRL in Dehradun
Dehradun #ℂall #gIRLS Oyo Hotel 8107221448 #ℂall #gIRL in DehradunDehradun #ℂall #gIRLS Oyo Hotel 8107221448 #ℂall #gIRL in Dehradun
Dehradun #ℂall #gIRLS Oyo Hotel 8107221448 #ℂall #gIRL in Dehradun
chandankumarsmartiso
 
#cALL# #gIRLS# In Dehradun ꧁❤8107221448❤꧂#cALL# #gIRLS# Service In Dehradun W...
#cALL# #gIRLS# In Dehradun ꧁❤8107221448❤꧂#cALL# #gIRLS# Service In Dehradun W...#cALL# #gIRLS# In Dehradun ꧁❤8107221448❤꧂#cALL# #gIRLS# Service In Dehradun W...
#cALL# #gIRLS# In Dehradun ꧁❤8107221448❤꧂#cALL# #gIRLS# Service In Dehradun W...
chandankumarsmartiso
 
Thyroid Gland- Gross Anatomy by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Thyroid Gland- Gross Anatomy by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptxThyroid Gland- Gross Anatomy by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Thyroid Gland- Gross Anatomy by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore
 
Adhd Medication Shortage Uk - trinexpharmacy.com
Adhd Medication Shortage Uk - trinexpharmacy.comAdhd Medication Shortage Uk - trinexpharmacy.com
Adhd Medication Shortage Uk - trinexpharmacy.com
reignlana06
 
Top Effective Soaps for Fungal Skin Infections in India
Top Effective Soaps for Fungal Skin Infections in IndiaTop Effective Soaps for Fungal Skin Infections in India
Top Effective Soaps for Fungal Skin Infections in India
SwisschemDerma
 
Muscles of Mastication by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Muscles of Mastication by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptxMuscles of Mastication by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Muscles of Mastication by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore
 
Local Advanced Lung Cancer: Artificial Intelligence, Synergetics, Complex Sys...
Local Advanced Lung Cancer: Artificial Intelligence, Synergetics, Complex Sys...Local Advanced Lung Cancer: Artificial Intelligence, Synergetics, Complex Sys...
Local Advanced Lung Cancer: Artificial Intelligence, Synergetics, Complex Sys...
Oleg Kshivets
 
8 Surprising Reasons To Meditate 40 Minutes A Day That Can Change Your Life.pptx
8 Surprising Reasons To Meditate 40 Minutes A Day That Can Change Your Life.pptx8 Surprising Reasons To Meditate 40 Minutes A Day That Can Change Your Life.pptx
8 Surprising Reasons To Meditate 40 Minutes A Day That Can Change Your Life.pptx
Holistified Wellness
 
Integrating Ayurveda into Parkinson’s Management: A Holistic Approach
Integrating Ayurveda into Parkinson’s Management: A Holistic ApproachIntegrating Ayurveda into Parkinson’s Management: A Holistic Approach
Integrating Ayurveda into Parkinson’s Management: A Holistic Approach
Ayurveda ForAll
 
TEST BANK For Community Health Nursing A Canadian Perspective, 5th Edition by...
TEST BANK For Community Health Nursing A Canadian Perspective, 5th Edition by...TEST BANK For Community Health Nursing A Canadian Perspective, 5th Edition by...
TEST BANK For Community Health Nursing A Canadian Perspective, 5th Edition by...
Donc Test
 
Journal Article Review on Rasamanikya
Journal Article Review on RasamanikyaJournal Article Review on Rasamanikya
Journal Article Review on Rasamanikya
Dr. Jyothirmai Paindla
 
Ear and its clinical correlations By Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Ear and its clinical correlations By Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptxEar and its clinical correlations By Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Ear and its clinical correlations By Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore
 
Light House Retreats: Plant Medicine Retreat Europe
Light House Retreats: Plant Medicine Retreat EuropeLight House Retreats: Plant Medicine Retreat Europe
Light House Retreats: Plant Medicine Retreat Europe
Lighthouse Retreat
 
Histololgy of Female Reproductive System.pptx
Histololgy of Female Reproductive System.pptxHistololgy of Female Reproductive System.pptx
Histololgy of Female Reproductive System.pptx
AyeshaZaid1
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Basavarajeeyam - Ayurvedic heritage book of Andhra pradesh
Basavarajeeyam - Ayurvedic heritage book of Andhra pradeshBasavarajeeyam - Ayurvedic heritage book of Andhra pradesh
Basavarajeeyam - Ayurvedic heritage book of Andhra pradesh
 
How STIs Influence the Development of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease.pptx
How STIs Influence the Development of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease.pptxHow STIs Influence the Development of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease.pptx
How STIs Influence the Development of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease.pptx
 
Cardiac Assessment for B.sc Nursing Student.pdf
Cardiac Assessment for B.sc Nursing Student.pdfCardiac Assessment for B.sc Nursing Student.pdf
Cardiac Assessment for B.sc Nursing Student.pdf
 
Role of Mukta Pishti in the Management of Hyperthyroidism
Role of Mukta Pishti in the Management of HyperthyroidismRole of Mukta Pishti in the Management of Hyperthyroidism
Role of Mukta Pishti in the Management of Hyperthyroidism
 
Best Ayurvedic medicine for Gas and Indigestion
Best Ayurvedic medicine for Gas and IndigestionBest Ayurvedic medicine for Gas and Indigestion
Best Ayurvedic medicine for Gas and Indigestion
 
Top-Vitamin-Supplement-Brands-in-India List
Top-Vitamin-Supplement-Brands-in-India ListTop-Vitamin-Supplement-Brands-in-India List
Top-Vitamin-Supplement-Brands-in-India List
 
Dehradun #ℂall #gIRLS Oyo Hotel 8107221448 #ℂall #gIRL in Dehradun
Dehradun #ℂall #gIRLS Oyo Hotel 8107221448 #ℂall #gIRL in DehradunDehradun #ℂall #gIRLS Oyo Hotel 8107221448 #ℂall #gIRL in Dehradun
Dehradun #ℂall #gIRLS Oyo Hotel 8107221448 #ℂall #gIRL in Dehradun
 
#cALL# #gIRLS# In Dehradun ꧁❤8107221448❤꧂#cALL# #gIRLS# Service In Dehradun W...
#cALL# #gIRLS# In Dehradun ꧁❤8107221448❤꧂#cALL# #gIRLS# Service In Dehradun W...#cALL# #gIRLS# In Dehradun ꧁❤8107221448❤꧂#cALL# #gIRLS# Service In Dehradun W...
#cALL# #gIRLS# In Dehradun ꧁❤8107221448❤꧂#cALL# #gIRLS# Service In Dehradun W...
 
Thyroid Gland- Gross Anatomy by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Thyroid Gland- Gross Anatomy by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptxThyroid Gland- Gross Anatomy by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Thyroid Gland- Gross Anatomy by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
 
Adhd Medication Shortage Uk - trinexpharmacy.com
Adhd Medication Shortage Uk - trinexpharmacy.comAdhd Medication Shortage Uk - trinexpharmacy.com
Adhd Medication Shortage Uk - trinexpharmacy.com
 
Top Effective Soaps for Fungal Skin Infections in India
Top Effective Soaps for Fungal Skin Infections in IndiaTop Effective Soaps for Fungal Skin Infections in India
Top Effective Soaps for Fungal Skin Infections in India
 
Muscles of Mastication by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Muscles of Mastication by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptxMuscles of Mastication by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Muscles of Mastication by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
 
Local Advanced Lung Cancer: Artificial Intelligence, Synergetics, Complex Sys...
Local Advanced Lung Cancer: Artificial Intelligence, Synergetics, Complex Sys...Local Advanced Lung Cancer: Artificial Intelligence, Synergetics, Complex Sys...
Local Advanced Lung Cancer: Artificial Intelligence, Synergetics, Complex Sys...
 
8 Surprising Reasons To Meditate 40 Minutes A Day That Can Change Your Life.pptx
8 Surprising Reasons To Meditate 40 Minutes A Day That Can Change Your Life.pptx8 Surprising Reasons To Meditate 40 Minutes A Day That Can Change Your Life.pptx
8 Surprising Reasons To Meditate 40 Minutes A Day That Can Change Your Life.pptx
 
Integrating Ayurveda into Parkinson’s Management: A Holistic Approach
Integrating Ayurveda into Parkinson’s Management: A Holistic ApproachIntegrating Ayurveda into Parkinson’s Management: A Holistic Approach
Integrating Ayurveda into Parkinson’s Management: A Holistic Approach
 
TEST BANK For Community Health Nursing A Canadian Perspective, 5th Edition by...
TEST BANK For Community Health Nursing A Canadian Perspective, 5th Edition by...TEST BANK For Community Health Nursing A Canadian Perspective, 5th Edition by...
TEST BANK For Community Health Nursing A Canadian Perspective, 5th Edition by...
 
Journal Article Review on Rasamanikya
Journal Article Review on RasamanikyaJournal Article Review on Rasamanikya
Journal Article Review on Rasamanikya
 
Ear and its clinical correlations By Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Ear and its clinical correlations By Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptxEar and its clinical correlations By Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Ear and its clinical correlations By Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
 
Light House Retreats: Plant Medicine Retreat Europe
Light House Retreats: Plant Medicine Retreat EuropeLight House Retreats: Plant Medicine Retreat Europe
Light House Retreats: Plant Medicine Retreat Europe
 
Histololgy of Female Reproductive System.pptx
Histololgy of Female Reproductive System.pptxHistololgy of Female Reproductive System.pptx
Histololgy of Female Reproductive System.pptx
 

د حاتم البيطار استشاري وجراح الفم والاسنان 01005684344 اتصل للحجز بالعيادة Dr.Hatem EL-Bitar

  • 1.
  • 3. Laser classification according power  Lasers were classified according to power into  1-Hard or hot surgical lasers(CO2,Nd:YAG……..)These types of lasers are usually used with high power I.e power is measured in watt.  2-Cold or soft lasers (Diode,HeNe in red and IR region) The power is usually measured in mw.
  • 4. Advantages of LLLT  Accelerate wound healing  Enhance repair and remolding of bone  Accelerate restoration of normal neural function after injuries  Pain attenuation  Stimulate endorphin release
  • 5. Biological effects of LLLT  The major absorption structures(chromospheres) for red and near IR used in LLLT are proteins  The exact receptor is still not known but it is believed that it may be present in mitochondrial cytochrome system or endogenous prophyrins in the cell  Penetration depth of laser energy ranges 5- 10mm(may be coherent or non coherent eg NASA)
  • 6. Effect on fibroblasts  The low doses e.g. 2J /cm² stimulates proliferation ,while higher doses e.g. 16J/ cm² suppress proliferation  Fibroblast maturation and locomotion through matrix so increase the tensile strength  In low doses stimulate production of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) so increase proliferation.
  • 7. Transformation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts responsible for wound contraction which occurs early as 24 h after laser irradiation LLLT stimulate immune cells to secrete cytokines and other growth regulatory factors for fibrobalsts Macrophages release unknown factor which promote fibroblast proliferation
  • 8. Effect Of LLLT on immune cells  Increase both phagocytosis and chemotactic activities so enhances debridment and establish conditions necessary for proliferative phase
  • 9. Effect OF LLLT on epithelial cells  LLLT increases the mobility of human keratinocytes
  • 10. Effect OF LLLT on bone cells  Increases cell proliferation and DNA synthesis (when the cells in active phase)  Invitro it increases accumulation of calcium in bone and accelerate calcification
  • 11. Effect on blood vascular system  Vascular spasm can result in tissue ischemia , and has been linked to a many painful conditions .LLLT can induce relaxation in vascular smooth muscles so decrease ischemia and so lower pain
  • 12. Soft tissue applications of LLLT  1-Rheumatoid arthritis , chronic pain and muscle strain  2-Accelerate wound healing  3- Accelerate healing of dentoalveolar abscess  4Analgesia either direct or indirect as in case of acupuncture  5-Nerve regeneration
  • 13. 6-Post surgical pain 7-Sinusitis (improves microcirculation and reduce edema 8-Post herpetic neuralgia 9-Gingivitis
  • 14. LLLT in hard tissue  Treatment of TMJ pain  Decrease dental hypersensitivity by inducing changes in neural transmission network within the pulp  Decrease periodontal ligament pain during tooth movement in orthodontic treatment by decreasing secretion of prostaglandins and interleukin-1  Effect on microorganisms (PDT)  Never use LLLT in cancer patient
  • 15. 15
  • 16. Laser in phototherapy Presented by : • Ahmed • Adham • Kawther • Ghada seif mohammed Photochemistry and photobiology group. 16
  • 17. Laser used in medical applications laser alone • Photo ablation • Lasik • Enhance healing • Photocoagulaton • tatoo With photosensitizer • In photo dynamic therapy (PDT) • treat superficial cancers • destroy tumors • relieve certain symptoms of cancer 17
  • 18. Laser alone • is often given through a flexible endoscope • It is inserted through an opening in the body 18
  • 19. Laser in PDT • PDT What is PDT Mechanism • What is photosensitization and photosensitizer Two possible mechanisms Good photosensitizer • Singlet oxygen • Treatment using laser Types of laser used incancer therapy Advantage Limitations 19
  • 20. What is PDT Is a ternary treatment for cancer in which • PDT uses laser, or other light sources, combined with a light-sensitive drug to destroy cancer cells • It is also being investigated for treatment of psoriasis and acne, and is an approved treatment for wet macular degeneration. 20
  • 21. Mecanism of PDT In PDT, visible light, a light sensitive drug (photosensitizer) and oxygen are combined, leading to the production of reactive oxygen species to inactivate ( or destroy) tumor cells, viruses, bacteria…. It involves two main processes 1) Photosensitization of the patient 2) Exposure of the photosensitized patient to light preferably laser light 21
  • 22. • Mechanism: a) Sensitizer + hv  Sensitizer* b) Sensitizer* + 3O2 Sensitizer + 1O2 c) 1O2 + Substrate  Oxidative damage 22
  • 23. Photosensitization and photosensitizer • Photosensitization is a reaction to light that is mediated by a light-absorbing molecule that is not the ultimate target observed or assessed. • . photosensitizer is a chemical compound that readily undergoes photoexcitation and then transfers its energy to other molecules, thus making the reaction mixture more sensitive to light. • NOT all light-absorbing molecules are photosensitizers 23
  • 24. 24
  • 25. Two possible Mechanisms • Type I photosensitization the excited photosensitizer (3Sen*) abstracts an electron/hydrogen atom from another component • Type 2 reactions the photosensitizer transfers its excitation energy to ground state dioxygen resulting in singlet oxygen (1O2) and ground state photosensitizer. 25
  • 26. 26
  • 27. Good photosensitizer • Absorb photons efficiently (have high molar extinction coefficient) • Have a high quantum yield of triplet formation • The triplet must be long-lived • Able to donate and /or accept electron easily (type I) • Generate 1O2 with high yields • Cell penetration • Extent relation to quenchers • Best if amphiphilic • transparency of biological tissues • minimum toxicity in the dark • rapidly excreted from the body • (Basic or acidic ( according to the type of target substrate 27
  • 28. Singlet oxygen • When O2 has excess energy, the two unpaired electrons in the outer orbital can pair up. Giving singlet oxygen. • There are two forms of singlet oxygen 1) Short lived , highly reactive 1O2 2) 1 O2 is involved in photosensitization. Singlet oxygen is not a free radical because all electrons are spin- paired. It is electrophilic and thus reacts readily with electron-rich molecules 28
  • 30. Treatment using laser • photosensitizer or photosensitizing agent, is injected into a patient and absorbed by cells all over the patient’s body • After a couple of days, the agent is found mostly in cancer cells. • Laser light is then used to activate the agent and destroy cancer cells. 30
  • 31. 31
  • 32. · What types of lasers are used in cancer treatment? • CO2 and argon lasers can cut the skin’s surface without going into deeper layers • Argon lasers are often used to activate the drugs used in PDT. • Nd:YAG laser is more commonly applied through an endoscope to treat internal organs • . Each of these can shrink or destroy tumors and can be used with endoscopes 32
  • 33. Advantages of Lasers in PDT.  Monochromaticity provides maximum effectiveness  Lasers can produce high irradiance to minimize the therapeutic exposure time  Lasers can be readily coupled to fiberoptics, enabling light delivery to any organ Output needs to be 1-4W  Drug free, pain free, side effect free  Reduction or elimination of withdrawal symptoms and the pain 33
  • 34. several limitations of laser therapy • expensive and requires bulky equipment • may not last long, so may have to repeat • Surgeons must have specialized training before they can do laser therapy • strict safety precautions must be followed. • There are many environmental considerations (smoking) • Sensitivity to light , Swelling 34
  • 35. 35