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African Runners Dominance in Distance Running Steve Magness
Objectives ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Dominance ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Larsen, H.  Kenyan dominance in distance running.  Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A 136 (2003) 161–170
Best Non-African Performance ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Time Comparison 1.84% 3.21% 2.44% 2.81% 1.45% .68% % difference 2:06:16 27:08.23 12:55.76 8:06.91 3:28.98 1:41.7 Best Non African 2:03:59 26:17.53 12:37.35 7:53.63 3:26.00 1:41.11 Best African Marathon 10k 5k 3k steeple 1500 800
How Dominant are they? ,[object Object],[object Object],Tanser, T. (2008) More Fire. Westholme Publishing, Pennsylvania. 22 27 59 103 34 USA 12 13 34 74 23 Britain 490 296 86 17 0 Kenya 2005 2000 1995 1985 1975 Nation
Tribal Dominance ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Scott, R. et al.  Genetics and the success of East African distance runners. International SportsMed Journal.  Vol. 7 No.3 2006
Rift Valley phenomenon ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Genetics ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Mitochondrial DNA-Ethiopians ,[object Object],[object Object],Scott, R. et al.  Genetics and the success of East African distance runners. International SportsMed Journal.  Vol. 7 No.3 2006
Mitochondrial DNA-Ethiopians ,[object Object],Scott, R. et al.  Genetics and the success of East African distance runners. International SportsMed Journal.  Vol. 7 No.3 2006
Y-Chromosome- Ethiopians ,[object Object],[object Object],Scott, R. et al.  Genetics and the success of East African distance runners. International SportsMed Journal.  Vol. 7 No.3 2006
[object Object],Scott, R. et al.  Genetics and the success of East African distance runners. International SportsMed Journal.  Vol. 7 No.3 2006
ACE gene  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Scott RA, Moran C, Wilson RH, et al.  No association between Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) gene variation and endurance athlete status in Kenyans.  Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2005;141(2):169-175.
Physiology of African Runners ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Saltin B, Larsen H, Terrados N, et al.  Aerobic exercise capacity at sea level and at altitude in Kenyan boys, junior and senior runners compared with Scandinavian runners. Scand J Med Sci Sports 1995;5(4):209-221.
Lactate ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Saltin B, Larsen H, Terrados N, et al.  Aerobic exercise capacity at sea level and at altitude in Kenyan boys, junior and senior runners compared with Scandinavian runners. Scand J Med Sci Sports 1995;5(4):209-221.  - Larsen, H.  Kenyan dominance in distance running.  Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A 136 (2003) 161–170
Fractional Utilization of VO2max ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Larsen, H.  Kenyan dominance in distance running.  Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A 136 (2003) 161–170   BILLAT, V. et al.Training and Bioenergetic Characteristics in Elite Male and Female Kenyan Rusnners.  Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.  Vol. 35, No. 2, pp. 297-304. 2003.
Running Economy Weston et al. (2000). Running Economy of African and Caucasian Runners. Med. Sci. Sports Exercise. Vol 32. No. 6. pg. 1130-34.
Running Economy ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Saltin B, Larsen H, Terrados N, et al.  Aerobic exercise capacity at sea level and at altitude in Kenyan boys, junior and senior runners compared with Scandinavian runners. Scand J Med Sci Sports 1995;5(4):209-221.  - Larsen, H.  Kenyan dominance in distance running.  Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A 136 (2003) 161–170
Reason for difference? Saltin, B. (2003). The Kenya Report.  New Studies in Athletics. Vol 18, no.2, pg 15-24.
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Biomechanics De Heer,H. et al. Anthropometric, gait and strength characteristics of Kenyan distance runners. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2008)  7,  499-504.
Muscle Fiber Type Saltin B, Kim CK, Terrados N, et al.  Morphology, enzyme activities and buffer capacity in leg muscles of Kenyan and Scandinavian runners.  Scand J Med Sci Sports 1995;5(4):222-30.
Muscle Fiber Type Quadriceps Femoris Saltin, B. (2003). The Kenya Report.  New Studies in Athletics. Vol 18, no.2, pg 15-24.
Oxidative Enzyme Concentration ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Saltin, B. (2003). The Kenya Report.  New Studies in Athletics. Vol 18, no.2, pg 15-24. Saltin B, Kim CK, Terrados N, et al.  Morphology, enzyme activities and buffer capacity in leg muscles of Kenyan and Scandinavian runners.  Scand J Med Sci Sports 1995;5(4):222-30.
HAD enzyme concentration Saltin, B. (2003). The Kenya Report.  New Studies in Athletics. Vol 18, no.2, pg 15-24. HAD enzyme concentration- indicator of ability to utilize fat as fuel.
Capillaries ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Saltin, B. (2003). The Kenya Report.  New Studies in Athletics. Vol 18, no.2, pg 15-24. Larsen, H.  Kenyan dominance in distance running.  Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A 136 (2003) 161–170
Lactate Transporters ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Harley, Y. et al. Skeletal muscle monocarboxylate transporter content is not different between black and white runners. Eur J Appl Physiol (2009) 105:623–632
Closer look of Comparison by Saltin et al.
Cultural and Social Factors ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Altitude and Sea level comparison 10k Avg. Difference: 13.33sec 10sec 27'36"34 27'46"70 Wilberforce  TALEL 20sec 27'24"55 27'44"44 John  KORIR 10sec 27'34"  27'44"14 Paul  KOSGEI Difference PB  at  Sea-Level PB  in  altitude (Nairobi,  1750m) ATHLETE
Altitude and Sea Level comparison ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Altitude NOT the only answer ,[object Object],[object Object],Hamilton, B. East African running dominance: what is behind it? Br J Sports Med. 2000 Oct;34(5):391-4.
Psychological Factors ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Psychological Factors ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Hamilton, B. East African running dominance: what is behind it? Br J Sports Med. 2000 Oct;34(5):391-4.
Diet ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Fudge, B. et al. Evidence of negative energy balance using doubly labelled water in elite Kenyan endurance runners prior to competition. British Journal of Nutrition. 2006, 95, 59-66.
Diet ,[object Object]
Money ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Onywera VO, Scott RA, Boit MK, et al.  Demographic characteristics of elite Kenyan endurance runners.  J Sports Sci 2006; 24(4):415-422.  Motivation for Running
Active Lifestyle ,[object Object]
Active Lifestyle- Kenyans Onywera VO, Scott RA, Boit MK, et al.  Demographic characteristics of elite Kenyan endurance runners.  J Sports Sci 2006; 24(4):415-422.
Active Lifestyle-Ethiopians Distance Traveled to School  (5-20km is the light black) Method of Transportation  Dark black- Transportation Light black- Run Scott RA, Georgiades E, Wilson RH, et al.  Demographic characteristics of elite Ethiopian endurance runners.  Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003;35(10):1727-1732.
Active Lifestyle De Heer,H. et al. Anthropometric, gait and strength characteristics of Kenyan distance runners. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2008)  7,  499-504.
Active Lifestyle ,[object Object],[object Object],Hamilton, B. East African running dominance: what is behind it? Br J Sports Med. 2000 Oct;34(5):391-4.
Training ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Trainability ,[object Object],[object Object],Larsen, H.B. et al. Training response of adolescent Kenyan town and village boys to endurance running.  Scandinanivan Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports . In press, 2003. Saltin, B. (2003). The Kenya Report.  New Studies in Athletics. Vol 18, no.2, pg 15-24.
Trainability of kids ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Saltin, B. (2003). The Kenya Report.  New Studies in Athletics. Vol 18, no.2, pg 15-24. Larsen, H.B. et al. Training response of adolescent Kenyan town and village boys to endurance running.  Scandinanivan Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports . In press, 2003.
Trainability of kids ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Comparison of Elite Training ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Berg, K. Endurance Training and Performance in Runners  Sports Med 2003; 33 (1): 59-73
Comparison of Training Kenyan Training My Training Now  College ,[object Object],2.3% 3.5km 4.8% 7.2km 6.67% 10km 150km 9.2% 12km 0% 0 3% 4km 130
Moses Mosop Training before World Cross Country Championships Source: Renato Canova 202.4 141.1 206.6 199.7 Weekly mileage (in Km) 809.5 625 915 856 Total  Mileage 28 31 31 30 Days (number) 48 35 54 51 Running  Sessions (number) % of total Km/ number % of total Km/ number % of total Km/ number % of total Km/ number February January December November Monthly Analysis
Moses Mosop 0 0 4 3 Sessions for Strength (number) 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.44% 4 0.23% 2 Medium  Length  Hills  (200m >< 300m) 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.12% 1 Short  Length  Hills  (60m >< 150m) 0.00% 0 0.22% 1.4 0.11% 1 0.12% 1 Speed  (faster than  15” per 100m) 1.54% 12.5 1.49% 9.3 0.00% 0 1.29% 11 Specific  Speed  Endurance  Mileage (4:25-0) 8.09% 65.5 8.29% 51.8 7.49% 68.5 7.83% 67 Aerobic  Power  Mileage  (4:50- 4:25) 9.26% 75 3.04% 19 12.24% 112 16.00% 137 Aerobic  Endurance  Mileage (5:30-4:50) 26.25% 212.5 19.68% 123 32.51% 297.5 29.91% 256 Basic Aerobic Mileage  (6:10/mi ><5:30) 54.85% 444 67.28% 420.5 47.21% 432 44.51% 381 Regeneration  Mileage  (< 6:10/mi) %total Km % total Km %total Km %total Km February January December November Monthly Analysis
Lactate Response ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
MaxLass ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Source: Renato Canova 20.6 mmol 10.8 mmol 9.3 mmol 9.0 mmol 8.7 mmol 16.6 mmol 9.7mmol 8.4 mmol 7.7 mmol 7.4 mmol 5.4 mmol 10.2 mmol 8.8 mmol 8.3 mmol 8.0 mmol 6.5 mmol
What does this all mean? ,[object Object],[object Object]
What does this all mean? ,[object Object],Hamilton, B. East African running dominance: what is behind it? Br J Sports Med. 2000 Oct;34(5):391-4.
References ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]

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African Runner Domination- Nature or Nurture?

  • 1. African Runners Dominance in Distance Running Steve Magness
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  • 5. Time Comparison 1.84% 3.21% 2.44% 2.81% 1.45% .68% % difference 2:06:16 27:08.23 12:55.76 8:06.91 3:28.98 1:41.7 Best Non African 2:03:59 26:17.53 12:37.35 7:53.63 3:26.00 1:41.11 Best African Marathon 10k 5k 3k steeple 1500 800
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  • 19. Running Economy Weston et al. (2000). Running Economy of African and Caucasian Runners. Med. Sci. Sports Exercise. Vol 32. No. 6. pg. 1130-34.
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  • 21. Reason for difference? Saltin, B. (2003). The Kenya Report. New Studies in Athletics. Vol 18, no.2, pg 15-24.
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  • 23. Biomechanics De Heer,H. et al. Anthropometric, gait and strength characteristics of Kenyan distance runners. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2008) 7, 499-504.
  • 24. Muscle Fiber Type Saltin B, Kim CK, Terrados N, et al.  Morphology, enzyme activities and buffer capacity in leg muscles of Kenyan and Scandinavian runners.  Scand J Med Sci Sports 1995;5(4):222-30.
  • 25. Muscle Fiber Type Quadriceps Femoris Saltin, B. (2003). The Kenya Report. New Studies in Athletics. Vol 18, no.2, pg 15-24.
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  • 27. HAD enzyme concentration Saltin, B. (2003). The Kenya Report. New Studies in Athletics. Vol 18, no.2, pg 15-24. HAD enzyme concentration- indicator of ability to utilize fat as fuel.
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  • 30. Closer look of Comparison by Saltin et al.
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  • 32. Altitude and Sea level comparison 10k Avg. Difference: 13.33sec 10sec 27'36&quot;34 27'46&quot;70 Wilberforce TALEL 20sec 27'24&quot;55 27'44&quot;44 John KORIR 10sec 27'34&quot; 27'44&quot;14 Paul KOSGEI Difference PB at Sea-Level PB in altitude (Nairobi, 1750m) ATHLETE
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  • 41. Active Lifestyle- Kenyans Onywera VO, Scott RA, Boit MK, et al. Demographic characteristics of elite Kenyan endurance runners.  J Sports Sci 2006; 24(4):415-422.
  • 42. Active Lifestyle-Ethiopians Distance Traveled to School (5-20km is the light black) Method of Transportation Dark black- Transportation Light black- Run Scott RA, Georgiades E, Wilson RH, et al.  Demographic characteristics of elite Ethiopian endurance runners.  Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003;35(10):1727-1732.
  • 43. Active Lifestyle De Heer,H. et al. Anthropometric, gait and strength characteristics of Kenyan distance runners. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2008) 7, 499-504.
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  • 51. Moses Mosop Training before World Cross Country Championships Source: Renato Canova 202.4 141.1 206.6 199.7 Weekly mileage (in Km) 809.5 625 915 856 Total Mileage 28 31 31 30 Days (number) 48 35 54 51 Running Sessions (number) % of total Km/ number % of total Km/ number % of total Km/ number % of total Km/ number February January December November Monthly Analysis
  • 52. Moses Mosop 0 0 4 3 Sessions for Strength (number) 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.44% 4 0.23% 2 Medium Length Hills (200m >< 300m) 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.12% 1 Short Length Hills (60m >< 150m) 0.00% 0 0.22% 1.4 0.11% 1 0.12% 1 Speed (faster than 15” per 100m) 1.54% 12.5 1.49% 9.3 0.00% 0 1.29% 11 Specific Speed Endurance Mileage (4:25-0) 8.09% 65.5 8.29% 51.8 7.49% 68.5 7.83% 67 Aerobic Power Mileage (4:50- 4:25) 9.26% 75 3.04% 19 12.24% 112 16.00% 137 Aerobic Endurance Mileage (5:30-4:50) 26.25% 212.5 19.68% 123 32.51% 297.5 29.91% 256 Basic Aerobic Mileage (6:10/mi ><5:30) 54.85% 444 67.28% 420.5 47.21% 432 44.51% 381 Regeneration Mileage (< 6:10/mi) %total Km % total Km %total Km %total Km February January December November Monthly Analysis
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