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‫ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻢ‬
#‫ﻧﻮاﺣﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫وﺣﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻌﺮف‬ ‫ﺳﻮف‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫هﺬا‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬:
١-...
٤-‫اﻟﻌﻄﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫وﺗﻘﻮم‬)‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻷﺟﺰاء‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎص‬‫اﻟﻮﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬(‫أﺿﺎءت‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬‫اﻟﻠﻤﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻹﺷﻌﺎر‬...
#‫اﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳ‬‫واﻟﻤﺸﻐﻼت‬ ‫ﺎت‬:
‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻮﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫وﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫هﻨﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻐﺬﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺪر‬ ‫هﻲ‬‫اﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫آﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺸﻪ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳ...
Input conditioners ١-‫اﻟﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻴﻒ‬
‫اﻟﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻴﻒ‬‫اﻟﻤﺮﺳ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎز‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎرة‬‫ﻠﺔ‬‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫وﻳﺮﺳﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺤ...
‫ﺗﺮ‬‫ﺳﻞ‬‫إﻟﻰ‬‫وﺣﺪة‬‫أﻟﺨﺮوج‬‫اﻟﻤﺸﻐﻼت‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ ‫وﻣﻦ‬.
#‫اﻹﺷﺎرة‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬&‫اﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت‬
‫ﺳﺒﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎ...
An ECU with an EPROM
NTC
Negative Temperature Co-efficient
#‫اﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﺎت‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺠﻪ‬ ‫ذاﻟﻚ‬ ‫وﺑﻌﺪ‬:
‫آﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫آﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬...
(SENSOR RESISTANCE DECREASES WHEN TEMPERATURE INCREASES)
‫ﻻﺣﻆ‬‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫ودرﺟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﻮﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬
NTC
PTC
Positive ...
(The RESISTANCE INCREASES WHEN TEMPERATURE INCREASES)
(‫اﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‬ ‫)ﺣﺴﺎس‬POSITION SENSOR
THROTTLE HOUSING
HEATING SENSOR.
INDUCTIVE SENSOR
(‫اﻟﻔﺠﻮة‬ ‫)ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ‬HALL EFFECT
(‫اﻟﻔﺠﻮة‬ ‫)ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ‬HALL EFFECT
(‫اﻟﻔﺠﻮة‬ ‫)ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ‬HALL EFFECT
Piezo-electric type
OCR
# If the ECU were to give a permanent earth the ball bearing would rise to the top of the magnet.
...
(‫اﻟﻌﺎدم‬ ‫ﻏﺎزات‬ ‫ﺑﺈرﺟﺎع‬ ‫)اﻟﺨﺎص‬EGR SOLENOID VALVE
Stepper motorM Motorized butterfly
valve
#‫ﻟﻮﺟﺪﻧﺎ‬ ‫وأﻣﺎآﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺸﻐﻼت‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫وﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺣﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﺗﺠﻬﻨﺎ‬ ‫وﻟﻮ‬
‫آﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫أﻧﻬﺎ‬:
‫اﻟ...
‫اﻟﺜﻼث‬ ‫واﻧﻮاﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎس‬)‫اﻟﺘﺮآﻴﺐ‬ ‫أﻣﺎآﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬: (
‫اﻟﺨﺎﻧﻖ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎس‬
‫اﻟﺒﺪال‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎس‬)‫اﻟﺪﻋﺴﺔ‬(
‫اﻟﻜﺮﻧﻚ‬ ‫وﻋﻤﻮد‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺎﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻮد‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎس‬
‫اﻟﻬﻮاء‬ ‫وﺣﺮارة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺣﺮارة‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎس‬
‫اﻷآﺴﺠﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎس‬)‫ﻟﻤﺪا‬(
‫اﻟﻮﻗﻮد‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻬﻮاء‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎس‬
‫اﻟﺤﺮآﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎس‬)‫اﻟﺠﺮﺑﻮآﺲ‬(
‫ﺳﻮﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺄذآﺮهﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻮاﺿﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﺪة‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺮاﺑﻂ‬ ‫وﻧﻈﺮا‬)‫اﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬ ...
‫ﻣﺠﻤ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺧﺬ‬ ‫ﻟﺬاﻟﻚ‬‫اﻟﺮﺳﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻹﺷﺎرات‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻮﻋﺔ‬
‫اﻓﻀﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠ...
ECU ‫وهﻮ‬ Electronic Control Unit ‫اﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬
‫وهﻮ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫وهﻮ‬ ‫واﻟﻜﻮاﺑﻞ‬ ‫اﻻﺳﻼك‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻘﺎﺑﺲ‬ ‫وﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ...
Throttle position sensor ‫ﺣﺴﺎس‬ ‫اﻟﺪواﺳﺔ‬
‫وﻳﺮﺳﻞ‬ ‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻒ‬ ‫وﺑﻪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﻔﻮﻟﺪ‬ ‫دواﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻧﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺑﻮط‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎس‬...
O2 Sensor ‫اﻷآﺴﺠﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎس‬
‫وهﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎدم‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻧﺒﻮب‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﻮد‬)‫اﻟﻬﻴﺪر‬(‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺘﺮق‬ ‫اﻟﻬﻮاء‬ ‫وﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫آﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎس‬ ‫ووﻇﻴﻔﺘ...
Fuel Pump ‫اﻟﺒﻨﺰﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻀﺨﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻀﺨﺔ‬ ‫وهﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺈﺷﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﻮد‬ ‫ﻟﻀﺦ‬ ‫آﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫آﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫رة‬ ECU ‫ﻟﻠﺒﺨﺎﺧﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﻮد‬ ‫ﻟ...
‫وارﺗﻔﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺤﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻻﺣﻆ‬‫ع‬‫اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻈﺮوف‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺮك‬ ‫ﻟﻔﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬
‫اﻟﺤﻘﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺮة‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻠﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺪورﻩ‬ ‫وهﺬا‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺪء‬ ‫إﺛﻨﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻄﺎرﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﻟﻄﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫هﺒﻮط‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻳﺤﺼﻞ‬ ‫دوﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻏﻮب‬ ‫...
ESA (Electronic Spark Advance) System ‫اﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻲ‬ ‫اﻹﺷﻌﺎل‬
‫اﻟﻤﺨ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺮك‬ ‫ﻇﺮوف‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮارة‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻘﺪﻳﻢ‬ ‫ﻳ...
ISC (Idle Speed Control) System ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬‫اﻟﻤﺜ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻟﻴ‬‫ﺔ‬
‫اﺳﺘﻬﻼ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺎم‬ ‫هﺬا‬ ‫وﺟﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻐﺮض‬‫اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻈ...
‫أن‬ ‫وﻗﺒﻞ‬‫أﻧﻬﻲ‬‫اﻟﻮﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﺑﺄن‬ ‫ﺳﺄوﺿﺢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮع‬‫اﻷ‬‫ﺑﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻴﺔ‬‫أ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫آﺜﻴﺮة‬ ‫أﻣﻮر‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫ت‬
‫اﻟﺴﻴﺎرا‬‫اﻷﻣﺜﻠ...
Ecu arabic
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Ecu arabic

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Ecu arabic

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Ecu arabic

  1. 1. ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻢ‬ #‫ﻧﻮاﺣﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫وﺣﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻌﺮف‬ ‫ﺳﻮف‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫هﺬا‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬: ١-‫اﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ‬ ٢-‫اﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ‬ ٣-‫ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺘﻬﺎ‬ ٤-‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺸﻐﻼ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺘﻬﺎ‬‫ت‬ ٥-‫ﻟﻠﻮﺣﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ‬ ٦-‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺤﻤﻮل‬ ‫أﻋﻄﺎﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ‬)‫اﻻﺳﻜﻨﺮ‬( ‫ال‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ECU‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬‫اﺳﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أآﺜﺮ‬: #‫ال‬ ‫اآﺘﺸﺎف‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ECU‫اﻟﻌﺎدم‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻮﺛﺎت‬ ‫وﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﻮد‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻬﻼك‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻔﺎدي‬‫اﻻﻟﻜﺘﻼوﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬ ‫وﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺎﻟ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫وﻇﺎﺋﻔﻬﺎ‬ ‫أهﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﺨﻴﺺ‬ ‫وﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺮك‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ‬ ‫هﻲ‬‫ﻲ‬: ١-‫اﻟﻤﺤﺮك‬ ‫اوﻇﺎع‬ ‫ﺗﺮاﻗﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺳﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎل‬. ٢-‫ﺑﻤﻌ‬ ‫وﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫هﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬‫ﻣﺨﺰﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬)‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﻪ‬(‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺞ‬ ‫داﺧﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬. ٣-‫وإ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮآﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﻳﺠﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬‫اﻟﻤﺸﻐﻼت‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻦ‬ ‫أﻣﺮ‬ ‫رﺳﺎل‬)*‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬‫ﺷﺮح‬ ‫واﻟﻤﺸﻐﻼت‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫واﻓﻲ‬(.
  2. 2. ٤-‫اﻟﻌﻄﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫وﺗﻘﻮم‬)‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻷﺟﺰاء‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎص‬‫اﻟﻮﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬(‫أﺿﺎءت‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬‫اﻟﻠﻤﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻹﺷﻌﺎر‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﻠﻮن‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﺬﻳﺮﻳﺔ‬‫ﻗﺎﺋﺪ‬‫اﻟﺬاآﺮة‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻄﻞ‬ ‫هﺬا‬ ‫ﻳﺨﺰن‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺎء‬ ‫ﻋﻄﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮآﺒﺔ‬ KAM‫ﺟﻬﺎز‬ ‫ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺮاءﺗﻬﺎ‬ ‫وﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻔﺮة‬‫اﻟﻔﺤﺺ‬. : ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎت‬ #‫وﺣﺪة‬‫اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬‫اﻹ‬‫ﻟﻜﺘﺮ‬‫اﻷﺟﺰ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺁﻻف‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮي‬ ‫وﻧﻴﺔ‬‫اء‬‫اﻹ‬ ‫واﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬‫ﻟﻜﺘﺮ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﺒﺘﺔ‬ ‫وﻧﻴﺔ‬‫ﺷﺮاﺋﺢ‬‫ﺷﻔﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﻨﻮﻋﺔ‬‫اﻟﻤﻮﺻﻠﺔ‬ ‫أﻟﺒﺴﺘﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﺎدة‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﻟﻠﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎء‬‫دوا‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎرة‬ ‫وهﻲ‬‫ﺋ‬‫ﺮ‬‫آﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴ‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﻨﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻣﺠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻴﻠﻜﻮ‬ ‫ﺷﺮاﺋﺢ‬‫ن‬‫اﻟﺴ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫آﻤﺎ‬‫ﺎﺑﻖ‬. #‫ﺗﻢ‬‫وﺣﺪة‬ ‫وﺿﻊ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬‫ﻣﻘﺼﻮرة‬ ‫داﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺪﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﻏﻼف‬‫اﻟﺮآﺎب‬‫ﻣﻨﻌ‬‫ﺎ‬‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫ﻟﻮﺻﻮل‬ ‫داﺧﻠﻬ‬‫ﺎ‬‫وﺣﻤﺎﻳﺘﻬ‬‫ﺎ‬‫اﻟﺼﺪﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬. #‫اﻹ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬‫ﻟﻜﺘﺮ‬‫ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻟ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫وﻧﻴﺔ‬‫ﺔ‬‫اﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫اﻷﺧﺮى‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫إﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺮآﻴﺒﻬﺎ‬‫اﻟﻤﻌﺪﻧﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻐﻼف‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫وهﺬ‬‫ا‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ‬‫إﺷﻌﺎع‬‫اﻟﺨﺎرج‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺮج‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ‬ ‫وﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺸﻐﻼت‬ Figure 1
  3. 3. #‫اﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳ‬‫واﻟﻤﺸﻐﻼت‬ ‫ﺎت‬: ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻮﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫وﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫هﻨﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻐﺬﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺪر‬ ‫هﻲ‬‫اﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫آﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺸﻪ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﻦ‬. #‫اﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮهﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺿﺢ‬ ‫ﺳﻮف‬ ‫وأﻻن‬: ECU ‫اﻟﺨﺎرﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﺷﺎرات‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺎﻗﻠﺔ‬‫اﻟﺬاآﺮة‬Memory ‫اﻟﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻴﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬‫اﻟﺼﻐﻴﺮ‬ Microcomputer ‫اﻟﻤﺮآﺰﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬ CPU
  4. 4. Input conditioners ١-‫اﻟﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻴﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻴﻒ‬‫اﻟﻤﺮﺳ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎز‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎرة‬‫ﻠﺔ‬‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫وﻳﺮﺳﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟ‬‫ﺞ‬‫اﻟﺼﻔ‬‫ﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ‬‫ﻳﺘﻌﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﻣ‬‫اﻟﺼﻔﻴﺮﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺞ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻞ‬.‫اﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﺮ‬ ‫وﻳﺤﺘﻮي‬: :(AMP) ١(‫اﻹﺷﺎرة‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻤﻞ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﺗﻜﺒﻴﺮ‬)‫ﺗﻀﺨﻴﻢ‬(‫اﻟ‬ ‫اﻹﺷﺎرة‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺮﺳﻠﺔ‬‫ا‬‫أﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﺎت‬‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‬ ‫إﺷﺎرة‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺪر‬ ‫اﻻآﺴﺠﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎس‬. :(AD) ٢(‫ﻣﺤﻮل‬‫اﻹﺷﺎرة‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻮل‬‫ﺑﺼﻤﺎم‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻬﺰ‬ ‫اﻹﺷﺎرة‬‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻲ‬‫اﻷ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻤﻞ‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺳﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺴﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺎم‬ ‫أرﻗﺎم‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬‫ر‬‫ﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬‫اﻟﺼﻔﻴﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺞ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫أﻟﻠﻐﺔ‬ ‫وهﻲ‬. Microcomputer ٢-‫اﻟﺼﻐﻴﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬‫اﻟﺼﻐﻴﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬‫إﺷﺎرة‬‫رﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﻣﻜﻴﻒ‬‫ﻋﻠﺮ‬ ‫وﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬ ، ‫اﻟﺪاﺧﻞ‬‫ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ‬‫هﺬ‬‫ﻩ‬‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬‫اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﻤﺮﺳﻠﺔ‬‫داﺧﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺰﻧﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬‫اﻟﺬاآﺮة‬‫اﻷوا‬ ‫إﺻﺪار‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ ‫وﻣﻦ‬‫ﻣﺮ‬‫اﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬. CPU ٣-‫اﻟﻤﺮآﺰﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬ ‫هﺬﻩ‬‫ﻣﺮا‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻮﺟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮم‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻐﻴﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫أﺟﺰاء‬ ‫أهﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺣﺪة‬‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﺣﻞ‬‫اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬‫وﺑﺈﺟﺮاء‬ ‫ﻣ‬‫ﻌﺎ‬‫اﻟﻤﻌﻄﻴﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﺠﺔ‬.‫اﻟﻤﺮآﺰﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺣﺪة‬‫اﻟﺒﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬.‫ﺑﺤﺠﻢ‬‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺗﻬﺎ‬‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫وﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫وﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎت‬ ‫اﻷواﻣﺮ‬‫وآﺬاﻟﻚ‬‫اﻷﻗﺼﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﻌﺔ‬‫ﻟﻘﺪرة‬‫اﻻﺧﺘﺰان‬‫اﻟﻤﻤﻜﻦ‬‫اﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻟﻪ‬‫ﻓﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬. Memory ٤-‫اﻟﺬاآﺮة‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬‫ﺗ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬‫ﺨ‬‫وﻗ‬ ‫ﺰﻳﻦ‬‫اﻟﺬا‬ ‫وﺗﺤﺘﻮي‬ ‫واﻟﻤﺆﻗﺘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺪاﺛﻤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﺮاءة‬‫آﺮة‬‫واﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻮاﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﺗ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺤﺘﻮي‬ ‫ﺷﺮﺣﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﻻﺣﻘﺎ‬ RAM-PROM-KAM ‫ﺁﻻف‬‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎوﻳﻦ‬.‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﻮاع‬ ‫ﺛﻼث‬ ‫وﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬‫اﻟﺬاآﺮة‬ Bus ٥-‫اﻟﻨﺎﻗﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬‫ﻋﻠ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺎﻗﻼت‬‫ﻲ‬‫اﻟﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻊ‬‫ﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ‬‫اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﺔ‬.‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺎﻗﻼت‬ ‫وﺑﻮاﺳﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺰوﻳﺪ‬‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺞ‬ ‫داﺧﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺣﺪات‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻴﻊ‬‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬‫واﻹﺷﺎرات‬‫واﻟﻌﻨﺎوﻳﻦ‬.‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬‫وﺣﺪة‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬‫ﻋﺪد‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺮك‬ ‫ﻧﻮع‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫وﻋﺪدهﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺸﻐﻼت‬ ‫هﺬﻩ‬ ‫وﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺸﻐﻼت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﻟﺬا‬‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺟﻮع‬ ‫ﻳﺠﺐ‬‫آﺘﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻴﺎﻧﺔ‬‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺸﻐﻼت‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬‫ا‬‫ﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬‫وﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﻃﻮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺎ‬‫اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬. ‫ﻻﺣﻘﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺸﻐﻼت‬ ‫أهﻢ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫أﺗﻄﺮق‬ ‫وﺳﻮف‬( ) Signals output ٦-‫اﻟﺨﺎرﺟﺔ‬ ‫اﻹﺷﺎرات‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬‫اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬.‫وﺣﺪة‬‫اﻻواﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺮر‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬‫ﺣﺎﻻت‬ ‫ﺣﻮل‬‫اﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻠﻴ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮآﺒﺔ‬‫ﺔ‬‫اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ‬. ‫ﺛﻢ‬‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬‫ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫اﻟﻘﺮارا‬ ‫هﺬا‬‫ت‬‫ﺑﺎﺻﺪارا‬‫ﻻواﻣﺮ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫إﺷﺎرة‬ ‫هﻴﺌﺔ‬‫آﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬‫رﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬‫اﻹﺷﺎرات‬ ‫هﺬﻩ‬
  5. 5. ‫ﺗﺮ‬‫ﺳﻞ‬‫إﻟﻰ‬‫وﺣﺪة‬‫أﻟﺨﺮوج‬‫اﻟﻤﺸﻐﻼت‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ ‫وﻣﻦ‬. #‫اﻹﺷﺎرة‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬&‫اﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت‬ ‫ﺳﺒﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎ‬‫أن‬ ‫ﻟﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻀﺢ‬‫اﻹﺷﺎرات‬‫ﻣﻦ‬‫اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﺎت‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﻳ‬‫ﺘﻢ‬‫ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻠﻬﺎ‬‫ﻣ‬‫ﻦ‬‫إﺷﺎرات‬‫ﻣﻘﺎﺳﻪ‬‫إﻟﻰ‬‫أرﻗﺎم‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﻮﻻت‬‫ا‬‫ﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‬)(‫وآﺬ‬‫اﻹﺷﺎرات‬ ‫ﻟﻚ‬‫اﻟﻘﺎدﻣﺔ‬‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬‫ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﺒﻀﺎت‬‫اﻟﺪواﺋ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﺗﺸﻜﻞ‬‫ﻧﺒﻀﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫هﺬﻩ‬ ‫وﺗﺠﻤﻊ‬‫اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬‫ﺗﻘﻮم‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪﺧﻼت‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺑﺪورهﺎ‬‫ﺑﺘﺮﺣﻴﻠﻬﺎ‬‫رﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﻮرة‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻘﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻗﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮم‬ ‫اﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻹﺷﺎرات‬ ‫هﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫وﺑﻨﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻗﻠﺔ‬ ‫إﻟﻲ‬‫إﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬‫اﻟﺬاآﺮة‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫إﺷﺎرة‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺳﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺪورهﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ CPU ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ (ROM) ‫ﺗﻘﺮءاهﺎ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬‫اﻟﻘﺮاء‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬‫ة‬ (RAM)‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺸﻐﻼت‬.
  6. 6. An ECU with an EPROM NTC Negative Temperature Co-efficient #‫اﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﺎت‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺠﻪ‬ ‫ذاﻟﻚ‬ ‫وﺑﻌﺪ‬: ‫آﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫آﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻴﺰﻳﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﺤﻮل‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎز‬ ‫وهﻮ‬)‫اﻟﻔﻴﺰﻳﺎﺋﻴ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺮات‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬: ( *‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎس‬ *‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎس‬ RPM *‫ﺣﺴﺎ‬‫س‬ *‫اﻻهﺘﺰازات‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎس‬)‫اﻟﻄﺮق‬( *‫اﻹزاﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎس‬)‫واﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫اﻻﺷﺘﻘﺎق‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺴﺎرع‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬( *‫اﻟﺰواﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎس‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺿﺢ‬ ‫ﺻﻮر‬ ‫ﻧﺪرج‬ ‫وﺳﻮف‬)‫اﻟﻜﻬﺮوﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻴ‬‫ﺔ‬(&)‫واﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻴ‬‫ﺔ‬(&‫وﻏﻴﺮهﺎ‬....
  7. 7. (SENSOR RESISTANCE DECREASES WHEN TEMPERATURE INCREASES) ‫ﻻﺣﻆ‬‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫ودرﺟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﻮﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ NTC PTC Positive Temperature Co-efficient ENGINE COOLANT TEMPERATURE INTAKE AIR TEMPERATURE SENSOR
  8. 8. (The RESISTANCE INCREASES WHEN TEMPERATURE INCREASES) (‫اﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‬ ‫)ﺣﺴﺎس‬POSITION SENSOR THROTTLE HOUSING HEATING SENSOR.
  9. 9. INDUCTIVE SENSOR (‫اﻟﻔﺠﻮة‬ ‫)ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ‬HALL EFFECT
  10. 10. (‫اﻟﻔﺠﻮة‬ ‫)ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ‬HALL EFFECT (‫اﻟﻔﺠﻮة‬ ‫)ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ‬HALL EFFECT
  11. 11. Piezo-electric type OCR # If the ECU were to give a permanent earth the ball bearing would rise to the top of the magnet. # This would represent 100% OCR. # If the ECU were to switch the earth the same amount ON and OFF then the ball bearing would hover half way into the magnet. # This would represent 50% OCR.
  12. 12. (‫اﻟﻌﺎدم‬ ‫ﻏﺎزات‬ ‫ﺑﺈرﺟﺎع‬ ‫)اﻟﺨﺎص‬EGR SOLENOID VALVE Stepper motorM Motorized butterfly valve
  13. 13. #‫ﻟﻮﺟﺪﻧﺎ‬ ‫وأﻣﺎآﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺸﻐﻼت‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫وﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺣﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﺗﺠﻬﻨﺎ‬ ‫وﻟﻮ‬ ‫آﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫أﻧﻬﺎ‬: ‫اﻟﻜﺮﻧﻚ‬ ‫زاوﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎس‬
  14. 14. ‫اﻟﺜﻼث‬ ‫واﻧﻮاﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎس‬)‫اﻟﺘﺮآﻴﺐ‬ ‫أﻣﺎآﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬: (
  15. 15. ‫اﻟﺨﺎﻧﻖ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎس‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺪال‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎس‬)‫اﻟﺪﻋﺴﺔ‬(
  16. 16. ‫اﻟﻜﺮﻧﻚ‬ ‫وﻋﻤﻮد‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺎﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻮد‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎس‬ ‫اﻟﻬﻮاء‬ ‫وﺣﺮارة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺣﺮارة‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎس‬
  17. 17. ‫اﻷآﺴﺠﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎس‬)‫ﻟﻤﺪا‬( ‫اﻟﻮﻗﻮد‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻬﻮاء‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎس‬
  18. 18. ‫اﻟﺤﺮآﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎس‬)‫اﻟﺠﺮﺑﻮآﺲ‬( ‫ﺳﻮﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺄذآﺮهﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻮاﺿﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﺪة‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺮاﺑﻂ‬ ‫وﻧﻈﺮا‬)‫اﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻇﺮوف‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﻄﻄﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ‬ ‫و‬ ‫واﻟﻤﺸﻐﻼت‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﺎت‬ ‫وﻋﻼﻗﺘﻬﺎ‬‫اﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻼت‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺳﻢ‬ ‫وﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ‬ ‫اﻷﺟﺰاء‬ ‫ﻬﺬﻩ‬: ( ‫اﻟﺒﻨﺰﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺮآﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬)‫اﻟﺠﺎزوﻟﻴﻦ‬(‫أﻓﻀﻞ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ‬)‫ﺧﻠﻴﻂ‬–‫اﻧﻀﻐﺎط‬–‫إﺷﻌﺎل‬(‫ﺿﺮوف‬ ‫رﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺮة‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺤﺮك‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬)‫اﻟﺒﺎرد‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬–‫اﻟﻌﺎدي‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻤﻞ‬–‫ﺣﻤﻞ‬ ‫أﻗﺼﻲ‬:(
  19. 19. ‫ﻣﺠﻤ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺧﺬ‬ ‫ﻟﺬاﻟﻚ‬‫اﻟﺮﺳﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻹﺷﺎرات‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﻓﻀﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮل‬)‫ﺧﻠﻴﻂ‬–‫اﻧﻀﻐﺎط‬–‫إﺷﻌﺎل‬(‫ﻟﻠﻮﻗﻮد‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬: ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺸﻐﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﻹﺷﺎرة‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺮﺳﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻮﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺠﻪ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻹﺷﺎرات‬ ‫هﺬﻩ‬ )‫اﻟﺒﺨﺎخ‬(‫ﺑﺎﻟ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻳﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫وهﺬا‬‫اﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺤﻘﻦ‬ EFI ‫هﻮ‬ Electronic Fuel Injection ‫ﺣﻘﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ‬ ‫اﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﻮد‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺎم‬ ‫هﺬا‬ ‫ﺑﺪاﻳﺎت‬ ‫آﺎﻧﺖ‬١٩٨٤‫اﻟﻔﻜﺮة‬ ‫ﺑﺪأت‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺑﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻜﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﺿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﺟﺎء‬ ‫وهﻨﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺨﺎﺧﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺮﺑﺮﻳﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫اﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻌ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮآﺎت‬ ‫وﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺮآﺎت‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﻮاﻟﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻈﺎم‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺮآﺎت‬ ‫إﻧﺘﺎج‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﻨﻌﻮن‬ ‫واﺧﺮج‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺎﻋﺎ‬ ‫اﻷﻓﻜﺎر‬ ‫اﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫أﺻﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫واﻻﺑﺘﻜﺎرات‬ ‫اﻷﻓﻜﺎر‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫هﻴﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻴﺎرة‬)‫اﻟﺤﺮآﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺎت‬‫اﻟﻤﻜﻴﻒ‬‫واﻟﻨﻮاﻓﺬ‬ ‫اﻷﺑﻮاب‬ ‫ﻗﻔﻞ‬‫اﻷﻣﺎن‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻮﻧﺎت‬ (...... ‫ﻧﻈﺎم‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻜﺮة‬ ‫إذا‬ EFI ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻜ‬ ‫هﻮ‬‫ﻢ‬ ‫واﻹﺣﺎﻃﺔ‬ ‫ودوراﻧﻪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺮك‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫اﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻲ‬ ‫هﻴﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫وآﺒﻴﺮة‬ ‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮة‬ ‫ﺑﻜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﻮد‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬ ‫هﻮ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﻤﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻴﺎرة‬ ‫اﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬ ‫واﻟﺬي‬ ‫اﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺤﺮآﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﻘﻄﻊ‬ ‫ﺳﺄﺷﺮﺣﻪ‬ ‫اﻟﺬي‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺎم‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤ‬ ‫أﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻄﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻼ‬ ‫ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬‫اﻷوروﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﺧﺮى‬ ‫ﺤﺮآﺎت‬ ‫واﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺮك‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺿﺢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎم‬ ‫هﻮ‬،‫اﻹﺷﺎرة‬ ‫هﺬﻩ‬ ‫وﺑﻤﻮﺟﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫وﻳﻼﺣﻆ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﻮد‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺴﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﺣﻤﺎل‬ ‫أﺗﻨﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺨﺎخ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻈﺎهﺮة‬:
  20. 20. ECU ‫وهﻮ‬ Electronic Control Unit ‫اﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬ ‫وهﻮ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫وهﻮ‬ ‫واﻟﻜﻮاﺑﻞ‬ ‫اﻻﺳﻼك‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻘﺎﺑﺲ‬ ‫وﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻘﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫داﺋﺮة‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎرة‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺜﻴﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬)‫اﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ‬(‫ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬ ‫وهﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺣﺪة‬ ‫وهﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫آﻬﺮﺑﻴﺎ‬ ‫وﻣ‬ ‫اﻻﺣﺘﺮاق‬ ‫وﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺮك‬‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﻮد‬ ‫ﻀﺨﺔ‬ ( ‫واﻟﻜﻮاﺑﻞ‬ ‫اﻷﺳﻼك‬)‫اﻟﻈﻔﻴﺮﻩ‬ ‫اﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ‬ ‫اﺗﺨﺎذ‬ ‫هﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺣﺪة‬ ‫هﺬﻩ‬ ‫وﻇﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺮك‬ ‫دوران‬ ‫ﻟﺒﺪاﻳﺔ‬ starring ‫واﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﻮد‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻮاﻋﻴﺪ‬ Injection Timing ‫اﻻﺷﺘﻌﺎل‬ ‫وﻣﻮاﻋﻴﺪ‬ Firing Order ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫وﻣﺴﺘﻮي‬ ‫اﻟﺪوران‬ Idle Speed ‫اﻟﺒﻨﺰﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻀﺨﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫وﻣﻮﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬ ECU ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫داﺧﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺮﺟﻢ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺮك‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻮاردة‬ ‫اﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫أواﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻨﺰﻳﻦ‬ ‫وﻣﻀﺨﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﺣﺘﺮاق‬ ‫وﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﺨﺎﺧﺎت‬ ‫ﺻﺎدرة‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﺟﺰاء‬ Intake Air Temperature sensor ‫ﺣﺴﺎس‬ ‫اﻟﺪاﺧﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻬﻮاء‬ ‫ﺣﺮارة‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫وﻓﻠﺘﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﻔﻮﻟﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﻮد‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎس‬‫ووﻇﻴﻔﺘﻪ‬ ‫اﻟﻬﻮاء‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻠﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻻﺗﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻬﻮاء‬ ‫ﺣﺮارة‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺮك‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫واﻟﺬي‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻹﺷﺎرة‬ ‫ﻳﺮﺳﻞ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ ECU
  21. 21. Throttle position sensor ‫ﺣﺴﺎس‬ ‫اﻟﺪواﺳﺔ‬ ‫وﻳﺮﺳﻞ‬ ‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻒ‬ ‫وﺑﻪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﻔﻮﻟﺪ‬ ‫دواﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻧﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺑﻮط‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎس‬ ‫إﺷ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺴﺎس‬ ‫هﺬا‬‫ﺎرات‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻴﺔ‬ECU ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺺ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫زﻳﺎدة‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﻔﻮﻟﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎب‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺮك‬ ‫ﻟﻔﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬ rpm Vacuum sensor ‫ﺣﺴﺎس‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻔﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﺪاﺧﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻬﻮاء‬ ‫ﺷﻔﻂ‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫هﻲ‬ ‫ووﻇﻴﻔﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﻔﻮﻟﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﻮد‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎس‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺮك‬ ‫ﻟﺮاس‬ ‫ﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﻔﻮﻟﺪ‬ ‫داﺧﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎس‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪا‬ ‫أو‬‫اﻹﺷﺎرة‬ ‫ﺳﻞ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ECU
  22. 22. O2 Sensor ‫اﻷآﺴﺠﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎس‬ ‫وهﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎدم‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻧﺒﻮب‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﻮد‬)‫اﻟﻬﻴﺪر‬(‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺘﺮق‬ ‫اﻟﻬﻮاء‬ ‫وﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫آﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎس‬ ‫ووﻇﻴﻔﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﺎدم‬ ‫اﻷآﺴﺠﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﻴﺎس‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺮك‬ ‫اﺣﺘﺮاق‬ ‫آﻔﺎءة‬ ‫ﻳﺤﺪد‬ ‫وﻣﻨﻪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺮك‬ Idle Speed Control (ICS) valve ‫اﻟﺪوران‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﺻﻤﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﻜ‬ ‫ﺻﻤﺎم‬‫اﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﻔﻮﻟﺪ‬ ‫دواﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ‬ ‫ﺘﺮوﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺠﺎﻧﺐ‬ Throttle position sensor ‫ووﻇﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫هﺬا‬ ‫دوران‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﺜﺒﺖ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﺾ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺮك‬ ‫دوران‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻌﺪل‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫هﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻤﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺮك‬ ‫دوران‬ ‫اﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬٧٠٠ RPM ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺤﺮك‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻼ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﺮﻓﻊ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬٢٠٠٠ RPM ‫ﺑﺮودة‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫اﻟﻤﺤﺮك‬ Temperature sensor ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎس‬‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﺤﺪد‬ ‫ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎس‬ ‫وهﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺮك‬ ‫ﺑﺮاس‬ ‫ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﻮد‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺮك‬ ‫ﺣﺮارة‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﺮﺳﻠﻬﺎ‬ECU ‫ﻳﺮﺑﻄﻪ‬ ‫اﻟﺬي‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻴﺎ‬ (ICS) ‫ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﺻﻤﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﺪوران‬
  23. 23. Fuel Pump ‫اﻟﺒﻨﺰﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻀﺨﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻀﺨﺔ‬ ‫وهﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺈﺷﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﻮد‬ ‫ﻟﻀﺦ‬ ‫آﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫آﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫رة‬ ECU ‫ﻟﻠﺒﺨﺎﺧﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﻮد‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻀﺦ‬ ‫ﺧﺎرج‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻨﺰﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﺰان‬ ‫ﺑﺪاﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﻮدة‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫وﻗﺪ‬ Injector ‫اﻟﺒﺨﺎخ‬ ‫آﻬﺮﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﺻﻤﺎم‬ ‫وهﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻀﺨﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻀﻐﻮﻃﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﻮد‬ ‫ﻳﺎﺗﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺮك‬ ‫راس‬ ‫داﺧﻞ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﻮد‬ ‫ﻟﻀﺦ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫آﻬﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺈﺷﺎرة‬ ‫ﻳﻔﺘﺢ‬ ‫واﻟﺒﺨﺎخ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺨﺎخ‬ ECU ‫ﻣﺘﻀﻤﻨﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﺦ‬ ‫وآﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻋﺪ‬
  24. 24. ‫وارﺗﻔﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺤﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻻﺣﻆ‬‫ع‬‫اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻈﺮوف‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺮك‬ ‫ﻟﻔﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬
  25. 25. ‫اﻟﺤﻘﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺮة‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻠﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺪورﻩ‬ ‫وهﺬا‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺪء‬ ‫إﺛﻨﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻄﺎرﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﻟﻄﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫هﺒﻮط‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻳﺤﺼﻞ‬ ‫دوﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻏﻮب‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ‬ ‫وهﺬا‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﻮد‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻬﻮاء‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺰﻳﺪ‬ ‫وﺑﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬‫ﻓﺘﺮة‬ ‫ﺑﺰﻳﺎدة‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮم‬ ‫ﺬاﻟﻚ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫اﻧﻈﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻘﻦ‬:
  26. 26. ESA (Electronic Spark Advance) System ‫اﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻲ‬ ‫اﻹﺷﻌﺎل‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺮك‬ ‫ﻇﺮوف‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮارة‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻘﺪﻳﻢ‬ ‫ﻳﻬﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎم‬ ‫هﻮ‬‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪا‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫واﻷ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺮك‬‫ﺣﻤﺎل‬،‫ﻣﻠﻮ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻔﺎدى‬ ‫اﻹﺷﻌﺎل‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺣﺪة‬ ‫وﺗﻘﻮم‬‫اﻟﺼﻔﻊ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎدم‬ ‫ﺛﺎت‬.
  27. 27. ISC (Idle Speed Control) System ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬‫اﻟﻤﺜ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻟﻴ‬‫ﺔ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻬﻼ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺎم‬ ‫هﺬا‬ ‫وﺟﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻐﺮض‬‫اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻈﺮوف‬ ‫أﺛﻨﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﻮد‬ ‫ك‬
  28. 28. ‫أن‬ ‫وﻗﺒﻞ‬‫أﻧﻬﻲ‬‫اﻟﻮﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﺑﺄن‬ ‫ﺳﺄوﺿﺢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮع‬‫اﻷ‬‫ﺑﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻴﺔ‬‫أ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫آﺜﻴﺮة‬ ‫أﻣﻮر‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻴﺎرا‬‫اﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻚ‬ ‫وﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺎم‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺠﻌﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ذاﻟﻚ‬ ‫وآﻞ‬ ‫ت‬‫اﻟ‬‫اﻷﻣﺎﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﻈﻼم‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬‫اﻟﺨﺎﻓﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻮر‬‫و‬‫اﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫آﺬاﻟﻚ‬‫اﻟ‬‫ﻣﻘﺪار‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫إ‬‫اﻷﺣﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻴﺎرة‬ ‫رﺗﻔﺎع‬)‫اﻷوزان‬(‫اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬‫و‬‫ﺣ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻴﺎرة‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻗﻒ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻧﻮم‬ ‫ﻟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﺋﻖ‬)‫ﻋﻦ‬‫ر‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻞ‬ ‫زاوﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻌﺮف‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎس‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬‫أ‬‫اﻟﺴﺎﺋﻖ‬ ‫س‬(‫وﻏﻴﺮهﺎ‬. ‫اﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬: ‫م‬/‫ﻗﺼﺎدي‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺳﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﻦ‬ ‫ﺣ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫أي‬ ‫وﺟﻮد‬ ‫ﺎﻟﺔ‬‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫رﺳﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫إرﺳﺎل‬ ‫ﻳﺮﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎت‬: HQUSADI@YAHOO.COM

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