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Wednesday 7b-stout


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Trees and Utilities Conference 2017

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Wednesday 7b-stout

  1. 1. Bee diversity surveys of power line rights-of-way in Pennsylvania: Defining opportunities for pollinator conservation Hannah L. (Cave) Stout, Ph.D. Conservation Entomologist Certified Taxonomist & Biological Consultant
  2. 2. What are bees? 2016 Penn State Hymenoptera Pollinator Survey Can ROWs help the bees?
  3. 3. “Most children have a bug period, and I never grew out of mine.” E.O. Wilson
  4. 4. What are bees?
  5. 5. Honey bees are freaks. 1. they are social. 2. they make honey. 3. they don’t live underground.
  6. 6. WHAT ARE BEES? Insect Order Hymenoptera (ants, bees & wasps) group within Hymenoptera: Anthophila (“flower lover”) More than 20,000 bee species are known worldwide ~3500 bee species in U.S.
  7. 7. 6 Main types (Families) of bees in the U.S. • Mining bees (Andrenidae) • Bumble bees, Carpenter bees, Honey bees, etc. (Apidae) • Masked bees and Plasterer bees (Colletidae) • Sweat bees (Halictidae) • Leaf-cutter bees (Megachilidae) • Oil-collecting bees (Melittidae)
  8. 8. Mining bees (Family Andrenidae) ~1200 species in U.S. Active at cooler temperatures Solitary, ground-nesting
  9. 9. Mining bees (Andrenidae) some Andrena bees live communally (≈ apartment buildings)
  10. 10. Perdita minima = smallest bee in North America Mining bees (Andrenidae)
  11. 11. Bumble bees, Carpenter bees, Cuckoo bees, Honey bees, Nomad bees & Squash bees (Family Apidae) ~1000 species in U.S. VERY diverse family! Long-tongued bees
  12. 12. Diadasia bees live in “neighborhoods” of ground nests (“chimney bees”) Bumbles, Carpenters, Cuckoos, Honeys, Nomads & Squash bees (Apidae)
  13. 13. male Euglossa bees apply fragrances to woo females (“orchid bees”) Bumbles, Carpenters, Cuckoos, Honeys, Nomads & Squash bees (Apidae)
  14. 14. Nomada bees are nest-parasites (“cuckoo bees”) Bumbles, Carpenters, Cuckoos, Honeys, Nomads & Squash bees (Apidae)
  15. 15. Peponapis pruinosa is a squash specialist (“pruinose squash bee”) Bumbles, Carpenters, Cuckoos, Honeys, Nomads & Squash bees (Apidae)
  16. 16. Trigona minima is the smallest bee in the world …and it eats rotting meat! (a “vulture bee”) Bumbles, Carpenters, Cuckoos, Honeys, Nomads & Squash bees (Apidae)
  17. 17. Xylocopa bees are the largest bees in the U.S. (“large carpenter bees”) Bumbles, Carpenters, Cuckoos, Honeys, Nomads & Squash bees (Apidae)
  18. 18. Masked bees & Plasterer bees (Family Colletidae) ~200 species in U.S. Some nest in twigs, nail holes and abandoned burrows Short-tongued bees
  19. 19. Colletes bees make a cellophane-like material to line their nests (“cellophane bees”) Masked bees & Plasterer bees (Colletidae)
  20. 20. Hylaeus bees are Hawaii’s only native bees (“masked bees”) Masked bees & Plasterer bees (Colletidae)
  21. 21. Sweat bees (Family Halictidae) ~500 species in U.S. Solitary, communal, or social Often metallic/brilliantly colored Some nocturnal species
  22. 22. Augochlora pura comes in many colors Sweat bees (Halictidae)
  23. 23. Lasioglossum texanum is an evening primrose specialist (“nocturnal sweat bee”) Sweat bees (Halictidae)
  24. 24. Leafcutter bees & Mason bees (Family Megachilidae) ~600 species in U.S. Line walls of nests with leaves, hairs, or flower petals Some are “super-pollinators”
  25. 25. Megachile pluto is the largest bee in the world (“Wallace’s giant bee”) Leafcutter bees & Mason bees (Megachilidae)
  26. 26. SUPER-POLLINATOR! one Osmia lignaria bee can do the work of 300 honey bees (“blue orchard bee”) Leafcutter bees & Mason bees (Megachilidae)
  27. 27. Oil-collecting bees (Family Melittidae) Uncommon. (33 species in U.S.) All solitary ground-nesters Most are specialists No nectar in larval diet
  28. 28. Macropis bees collect oil from yellow loosestrife flowers Oil-collecting bees (Melittidae)
  29. 29. 2016 Penn State Hymenoptera Pollinator Survey
  30. 30. 1952 - impacts of vegetation management practices on wildlife Past surveys: Plants Mammals Birds Reptiles Amphibians Butterflies Rights-of-Way Research and Demonstration Projects “Bramble and Byrnes”
  31. 31. Do different vegetation treatment methods at powerline rights-of-way affect bees ?
  32. 32. “2016 Penn State Hymenoptera Pollinator Survey” Project Leader: Carolyn G. Mahan, Ph.D. Professor of Biology & Environmental Studies Penn State Altoona, PA Funded by: Asplundh Dow AgroSciences FirstEnergy PECO/Exelon Penn State University
  33. 33. Penn State Hymenoptera Pollinator Survey at State Game Lands 33
  34. 34. Treatment Sites Description High Volume Foliar Broadcast application using hydraulic equipment. Dilute, broad-leaf herbicide. Stem Foliar (Ultra Low Volume) Selective nozzle application. Oil-based, broad-leaf herbicide. Mowing Mechanical mowing that cuts and mulches vegetation. No herbicide application. Mowing + Herbicide (Cut Stubble) Mowing followed by selective treatment to woody stems and soil. Dilute, broad-leaf herbicide. Low Volume Basal Selective application to individual target woody vegetation up to 6 inches in diameter. Oil-based herbicide. Hand-cutting Individual cutting of target (non-compatible) woody vegetation, usually with a chainsaw. No herbicide application.
  35. 35. Mining bee on Prunus flower Nomad bee on wild strawberry BEES OF SGL33
  36. 36. Bee predators and mimics “Bee wolf” wasp (Philanthus sp.) Robber fly (Laphria sp.) Thick-headed fly (Physocephala sp.)
  37. 37. Bee populations of SGL33 - 2016 Survey 1056 individual bees collected *20% were honey bees 95 unique bee taxa collected *9 specialist species
  38. 38. Notable bee species of SGL33 2016 Survey 1 new state record (a leaf-cutter bee) 1 Vulnerable species (yellow bumble bee) 1 rare species (an oil-collecting bee)
  39. 39. Hand Cut site at SGL33 July 2016
  40. 40. Can ROWs help the bees?
  41. 41. Habitat loss and fragmentation are major threats to bees and wildlife. There are millions of acres of transportation and utility ROWs in the U.S. ROWs = OPPORTUNITY! *Native flowering plants *Nesting habitat
  42. 42. THANK YOU !
  43. 43. Photo Credits • What are bees?: @BeesBackyard • Andrenidae: Debbi Brusco ( Andrena, Perdita minima: @BeesBackyard • Apidae: Apis mellifera: Pat Cassidy ( Diadasia: Barbara H. Swissler ( Euglossa dilemma: Tamara Pokorny (Ruhr Universität Bochum) Nomada: Denis A. Doucet ( Peponapis pruinosa: Ilona L. ( Trigona minima: Xylocopa: Michael Battenberg ( • Colletidae: Dave Beaudette ( Colletes: Evan Dankowicz ( Hylaeus: Sean McCann ( • Halictidae: RE Reed ( Augochlora pura: Blue: Dossy Lewin Copper: Will Stuart Green: Hobo Joe Lasioglossum texanum: Mark H. Brown ( • Megachilidae: Megachile pluto: Rachel Parle (Oxford University Museum of Natural History) Osmia lignaria: Kim Phillips ( • Melittidae: Alice Abela ( Macropis: Joel Gardner ( • Notable bee species of SGL33 2016 Survey: Heriades leavitti: John Ascher ( Bombus fervidus: Todd J. Dreyer ( Macropis ciliata: Hadel Go ( • Thank You! :