Ragland, E., and D. Tropp. 2009. USDA National Farmers’ Market Manager Survey 2006, USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service.
should I do a GIS map here?http://search.ams.usda.gov/farmersmarkets/#
Otto, D., and T. Varner. 2005. Consumers, Vendors, and the Economic Importance of Iowa Farmers’ Markets: An Economic Impact Survey Analysis, Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture, Ames, IA. Accessed April 2012 at: http://www.leopold.iastate.edu/pubs-and-papers/2005-05-farmers-markets.
Hughes et al. Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, April 2008.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, Office of Research and Analysis, Characteristics of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Households: Fiscal Year 2010, by EsaEslami, Kai Filion, and Mark Strayer. Project Officer, Jenny Genser. Alexandria, VA: 2010.
Switch from coupons to SNAP was helpful in many sectors but came at a cost to farmers markets.Central POS is most common.Owens, Nora and Verel, Kelly. SNAP/EBT at your Farmers Market: Seven Steps to Success. Project for Public Spaces Inc. and Wholesome Wave. July, 2010.
WV is classified under Mid-AtlanticRagland, E., and D. Tropp. 2009. USDA National Farmers’ Market Manager Survey 2006, USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service.
Ragland, E., and D. Tropp. 2009. USDA National Farmers’ Market Manager Survey 2006, USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service.
D.C. Hunger Solutions. Food Stamps Accepted Here: Attracting Low-Income Consumers to Farmers Markets. August 2007. Accessed 16 April 2012 <http://www.dchunger.org/pdf/foodstampsacceptedhere.pdf>
Local FoodSpace for Conversation Roanna Martin WVU Dietetic Intern Bootcamp 1 August 8, 2012
Presentation OutlineIntroductionA Local SnackDefinitionsMovementsRole of the DietitianResourcesConclusionOff to the Farmer‘s Market
Why talk about Local Foods?My personal interestA growing movementPotential for nutrition education
My Personal InterestRaised on a farm in Lancaster County, PAWorked with my mom in the gardenCanned and froze much of our own produceVolunteered at Mount Joy Farmers‘ MarketInterned at 2 CSA (Community SupportedAgriculture) farmsInternational Travel
A Growing MovementThe number of farmers markets has more than tripled inthe past 15 years and there are now more than 7,175around the countryIn 1986 there were two community supported agricultureoperations, today there are over 4,000There are farm to school programs in 48 states, totalingmore than 2,200 and up from two in 1996All 50 states in the U.S. have agricultural brandingprograms, such as "Jersey Fresh" or "Simply Kansas‖As Governor of Iowa, Tom Vilsack started one of the firstfood policy councils. Today there are over 100 food policycouncilsAnd the National Restaurant Association declared "locallysourced meats and seafood" and "locally grown produce"as the top two trends for 2011.Source: Know Your Farmer, Know Your Food Mission
Nutrition OutreachLocal foods venues offer a forum to talk withpeople about their food experience in a positivewayFarmers‘ Markets bring people to a commonmeeting placeCSA‘s introduce consumers to new vegetablesregularlyChildren get excited about being involved in theprocess of growing foods
Whole Wheat Pepperoni RollThe pepperoni roll was invented by Giuseppe "Joseph"Argiro at the Country Club Bakery in Fairmont, WestVirginia, in 1927. The rolls originated as a lunch option for the coal miners ofnorth-central West Virginia in the first half of the 20thcentury.Pepperoni rolls do not need to be refrigerated for storageand could readily be packed for lunch by miners.Pepperoni and other Italian foods became popular in north-central West Virginia in the early 20th century, when thebooming mines and railroads attracted many immigrantsfrom Italy.The pepperoni roll bears a resemblance to the pasty andsausage roll, which originated in the mining communities ofGreat Britain, as well as to the Italian calzone.
National ProgramsUnited States Department of Agriculture
Farm to SchoolA program that connects schools (K-12) and local farms with theobjectives of:• Serving healthy meals in school cafeterias• Improving student nutrition• Providing agriculture, health and nutrition education opportunities• Supporting local and regional farmers www.farmtoschool.o rg
Development of Farm To School1996-1997: Pilot Programs in California andFlorida2000: USDA Initiative for Future Agriculture &Food Systems (IFAFS) established the NationalFarm to School Program.2004: Estimated 400 programs in 22 states.2009: Estimated over 2000 programs in 40states.Currently, there are 10000 schools involved inthe Farm to School program, spanning all 50states.
WV Farm to School Conference:Morgantown Sept. 27-28• 92 attendees- from shool food service directors to farmers, andothers involved in strengthening farm-to-school efforts.• Discussions of food safety on the farm: Good Agricultural Practices(GAP) and Good Handling Practices (GHP)• Ideas for tying farm to school to curricula, promoting educationaloutreach, container and school gardens, menu ideas, and gettingmore people engaged.
Nutrition Education with Farm to Schoolhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KR8qQm1mJ
School Gardens: Regional Gathering May 21, 2012Charleston, WV29 RepresentativesAmeriCorps Members Building School Gardens: FayetteCounty, Pocahontas CountyFarm to School Successes:•Fayette County Schools: Currently purchasing from 3 farmers, looking toexpand •David Seay, Food Service Director has asked WV farmers to bid on a contract to produce 100,000 pounds of beef.•Cabell County: Currently purchases as many eggs as possible from a 4-Hmember, and students planted over 900 lbs of sweet potatoes to produce for
Farm to School RoadblocksLack of quantity productionCost of production vs. available fundsTransport of productUndertrained school food service staffLack of interest among personnel How could you as a dietitian help to overcome this?
Hospital Involvement June 2011 survey of 89 facilities 94.1 percent purchased and served local food or beverages 81.8 percent of respondents host a farmers‘ market, farm stand or community-supported agriculture (CSA program on-site) 60 percent purchased directly from a farm, ranch or farm cooperativeFor more information, visit: http://www.healthyfoodinhealthcare.org./http://www.noharm.org/us_canada/news_hcwh/2011/nov/hcwh2011-11-14.php
What is a CSA?Community supported agriculture (CSA) is arelatively new idea in farming, one that has beengaining momentum since its introduction to theUnited States from Europe in the mid-1980sThe CSA concept originated in the 1960s inSwitzerland and Japan, where consumersinterested in safe food and farmers seekingstable markets for their crops joined together ineconomic partnerships.Source:http://www.nal.usda.gov/afsic/pubs/csa/csadef.shtml
Farmers MarketsMulti-stall market at which farmer-producers sellagricultural products directly the general public Held at a central or fixed location Fresh fruits and vegetables Meat products Dairy products Grains(http://www.fns.usda.gov/snap/ebt/fm-scrip-what_is_fm.htm)
Average farmers‘ market sales by region, 2005 $243 $150 $306 $220 $155 $210 $90 $477 (Ragland and Tropp, 2009)
FarmersMarkets inWV•59 markets with map coordinatesin WV•76 listed atsearch.ams.uwda.gov/farmersmarkets
West VirginiaA Mountain State with a whole lot of potential
2007 USDA Ag Census West Virginia23,618 farms in WV3,697,606 acresFarms with direct sales 2002: 1,434 2007: 1,990 (8.4% of all farms).Average direct sales per farm 2002: $3,199 2007: $3,567
West Virginia Food System: SeasonalProduction Expansion and its Impacts Released by the West Virginia Food and Farm Coalition in 2012 Focus on Fruit and Vegetable Production There are 166,500 acres with slopes less than 2%, over 10 times more land area than needed to grow 100% of West Virginia‘s in-season consumer demand. If this amount was produced: 1,723 new jobs (690 farming, 510 food and beverage) $120.8 million in sales
Impact on Local EconomiesIowa Each dollar spent at farmers‘ markets in Iowa generated 58 cents in indirect and induced sales (Multiplier of 1.58). Each dollar of personal income earned at farmer‘s markets generated an additional 47 cents in indirect and induced income (Multiplier of 1.47). Each full-time equivalent job created at farmers markets created .45 additional jobs in other sectors of Iowa economy (Multiplier of 1.45).(Otto and Varner, 2005)
Economic Impact of Farmer‘s Markets in WVConducted in 2005 using an opportunity cost framework34 markets across the state, with total of 331 vendorsEstimated $1.725 million spent at WV farmer‘s markets in 2005Using IMPLAN-based input-output model, calculated that farmer‘smarkets create: 119 jobs (69 FTE) $2.389 million in output, including $1.48 million in gross state product (GSP)Accounting for direct revenue losses, reduced to: 82 jobs (43 FTE) $1.075 million in output, $0.653 million in GSP
SNAP1961- pilot Food Stamp Program first recipients in Paynesville, WV (McDowell County)Food Stamp Act of 1964 created the federallyfunded nutrition programElectronic Benefit Transfer (EBT) became statewidein WV in May 2003Food Stamp Program was renamed SNAP in 2008to reduce stigma
2010 SNAP in WVIn West Virginia, there were 331,000 participants in151,000 households that were enrolled in SNAPWV monthly benefit per household: $257Total monthly SNAP benefits distributed in WV:$38,724,000Total distributed for the year: $464.68 millionTotal redeemed: $462.30 millionEstimated that every $5 in new SNAP = $9.00 in totaleconomic activity
Two SystemsCentral Point of Sale (POS) One Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) permit Customers swipe EBT at central location of the market Market is responsible to distribute payment to vendorsIndividual POS Individual farmers/vendors operate their own terminalWireless POS terminalWired POS terminal when access to electricity andlandlinesOption of using telephone and paper vouchers
USDA AMS Farmers‘ Market Search76 total farmers‘ markets listed10 of them listed as authorized SNAP retailers Barbour County Community Garden Market Bridgeport Farmers‘ Market Charleston Farmers‘ Market Elkins Farmers‘ Market Fayette County Farmers‘ Market Ittle Bitty Farms (listed twice) Lewisburg Farmers‘ Market Morgantown Farmers‘ Market Pocahontas County Farmer‘s Market (*unlisted) South Morgantown Community Farmers Market Winter Blues Farmers‘ Market (*unlisted)
MethodsContacted each market by emailFollowed up with phone call if necessary In what year did the market begin to accept SNAP benefits? What was the dollar amount of SNAP benefits processed at the market in any years that SNAP/EBT was accepted? What was your total market sales in the years that SNAP/EBT was accepted?
Total Market Sales at WV Farmers’ Markets that accept SNAP Elkins Farmers Market 2011 $70,000.00 Winter Blues 2012 $18,500.00 Winter Blues 2011 $12,000.00 Pocahontas County Farmers Market 2011 $30,000.00 Pocahontas County Farmers Market 2010South Morgantown Community Farmers Market $45,215.00 SNAP 2011South Morgantown Community Farmers Market Total Market Sales $36,580.00 2010 Morgantown Farmers Market 2011 $38,500.00 Morgantown Farmers Market 2010 Barbour County Market 2011 $28,000.00 Barbour County Market 2010 $21,000.00 $0 $10,000$20,000$30,000$40,000$50,000$60,000$70,000
Total SNAP Redemptions at WV Farmers’ Markets that accept SNAP Ittle Bitty Farms 2011 $125.00 Elkins Farmers Market 2011 $1,200.00 Winter Blues 2012 $225.00 Winter Blues 2011 $180.00Pocahontas County Farmers Market 2011 $750.00Pocahontas County Farmers Market 2010 $709.00 SNAP South Morgantown Community Farmers Total Market Sales $358.00 Market 2011 South Morgantown Community Farmers $463.00 Market 2010 Morgantown Farmers Market 2011 $500.00 Barbour County Market 2011 $242.20 Barbour County Market 2010 $303.01 $0 $20,000 $40,000 $60,000 $80,000
SNAP Percentage of Total Market Sales in West Virginia Ittle Bitty Farms 2011 3.13% Elkins Farmers Market 2011 1.71% Winter Blues 2012 1.22% Winter Blues 2011 1.50% Pocahontas County Farmers Market 2011 2.50%South Morgantown Community Farmers Market 2011 0.79%South Morgantown Community Farmers Market 2010 1.27% Morgantown Farmers Market 2011 1.30% Barbour County Market 2011 0.87% Barbour County Market 2010 1.44% 0.00% 0.50% 1.00% 1.50% 2.00% 2.50% 3.00% 3.50%
SummaryTotal market redemptions ranged from $125-1,200SNAP redemptions comprised between .79%and 8.80% of total market revenueSNAP benefits redeemed total 2010: $1,655.01 2011: $3,400.00
Pilot ProgramCurrently, WV is inthe process ofpiloting variousprograms to increaseSNAP Participation.WVU Mon CountyExtension Service atMorgantownFarmers‘ Market
Government Programs- National ParticipationWomen, Infants, and Children Farmers MarketNutrition Program (WIC FMNP) 60.7% of markets participatedSenior Farmers Market Nutrition Program (SFMNP) 45.4% of markets participatedEBT 6.8% of markets participated (Ragland and Tropp, 2009)
Barriers for Market VendorsCost of acquiring and installing wireless EBTterminalLack of ElectricityLack of Telephone LineVendor operated POS terminals
Barriers for ConsumersLack of educationPerceived higher cost of produceLack of transportation
Attracting Low IncomeCustomers to Farmers Markets Provide necessary infrastructure to serve low-income customers who rely on federal nutrition programs. Build partnerships designed to involve and give back to the community. Conduct targeted community outreach. Foster a market environment that is welcoming to customers of various cultures. Offer, at affordable prices, a product mix that is responsive to diverse customers‘ preferences and needs. Advocate for public and private subsidization of farmers‘ markets serving low-income communities. (DC Hunger Solutions, 2007)
―Unless we are prepared to tolerate twovery different food systems, one thatserves an elite class very well and one thatserves all others poorly, I recommend thatwe invest our public and private charitabledollars in healthy food at every opportunity.The cost of healthy food, which shouldinclude local and organic wheneverpracticable, should not be a limitation forany class of citizens‖ Mark Winne, Closing the Food Gap.
Local Food ≠ ExpensiveReduce meat consumptionBuy in season and freeze or canUse SNAP benefits to purchase seedsNetwork with friendsVisit the farmers‘ market towards the end of theday for seconds
Jobs Involving Local Foods Cooperative Extension Work with FoodCorps Blogging
In Any PositionBe prepared with evidence-based informationHelp people to celebrate foodsUse farmers‘ markets and school gardens as avenue for community outreachLook for Food Policy Councils in your geographicregion
ResourcesOnline, Books, Films, Organizations, and Others
BooksAnimal, Vegetable, Miracle. Barbara KingsolverOmnivores Dilemma. Michael PollanClosing the Food Gap. Mark WinneFree For All: Fixing School Food in America.Janet PoppendieckSimply in Season Cookbook. Herald PressOther Authors: Wes Jackson, WendellBerry, Carlo Petrini, Peter Singer.
Films―Food, Inc.‖―Fast Food Nation‖―Ingredients‖―Food Beware‖ –French Success Story
OrganizationsWest Virginia Food and Farm Coalition www.wvhub.org/wvffcHunger and Environmental Nutrition Dietetic PracticeGroup www.hendpg.orgCommunity Food Security Coalition www.foodsecurity.orgWVU Small Farms CenterWVU Extension Service
OtherWest Virginia Small Farms Conference February 28-March 2, 2013Food Sleuth Radio- MelindaHemmelgarn, M.S., R.D. http://www.prx.org/series/32432-food-sleuth-radio
Conclusions• The local foods movement is growing, and dietitians can use it as a springboard for talking about healthy food choices.• Farm to Institution movements offer a great conversation starter.• Enjoy the food, and the relationships that build from it.
Words of CautionVegetables are still vegetables, no matter wherethey come fromMarketing is powerful. ―Eggs from a farmer are ‗go‘ foods, right?‖ (Quote from a child at 4—H Camp)Do not allow personal biases to influence yourhealth recommendations to clients