Zend framework: Getting to grips (ZF1)


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Zend Framework appears to be a gargantuan beast to the outsider looking in. Finding where to start and picking up the basic principals can be a real headache and a time consuming business for those new to the framework.

I'm going to break down that learning curve, with a few simple principals to get you started knowing where to look, so you can progress under your own steam with greater ease.

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  • Zend framework: Getting to grips (ZF1)

    2. 2. WHO IS RYAN MAUGER? • Zend Framework Contributor • Zend Framework CR Team Member • Technical Editor for Zend Framework: A Beginners Guide • Community Supporter • Zend Certified PHP5 Engineer • Developer at Lupimedia • Dad
    3. 3. WHAT ARE YOU GOING TO TAKE AWAY Fundamental concepts to help you figure things out for yourself
    4. 4. WHERE TO START? • Tutorials • Akrabat’s (Rob Allen): http://akrabat.com/zft • Official Quickstart: http://bit.ly/zf-quickstart • Build your own sandbox • KEEP IT! • Add to it, keep additions for later reference
    5. 5. WHATS NEXT? • Dispatch cycle • Autoloaders, Plugin Loaders & Resource Loaders • Plugins • Helpers • Models • Forms, Decorators, Validators & Filters
    7. 7. BUT WHAT SHOULD I TACKLE FIRST? • Understand the Lifecycle of a ZF request
    8. 8. BUT WHAT SHOULD I TACKLE FIRST? • Understand the Lifecycle of a ZF request • Understand the Lifecycle of a ZF request
    9. 9. BUT WHAT SHOULD I TACKLE FIRST? • Understand the Lifecycle of a ZF request • Understand the Lifecycle of a ZF request • Understand the Lifecycle of a ZF request
    10. 10. BUT WHAT SHOULD I TACKLE FIRST? • Understand the Lifecycle of a ZF request • Understand the Lifecycle of a ZF request • Understand the Lifecycle of a ZF request • Understand the Lifecycle of a ZF request
    11. 11. EXECUTION LIFECYCLE Bootstrap Route Dispatch Simple?
    12. 12. HOW ABOUT A FLOWCHART? Source: Polly Wong http://www.slideshare.net/polleywong/zend-framework-dispatch-workflow
    13. 13. YIKES!
    14. 14. SOMETHING SIMPLER Bootstrap routeStartup route routeShutdown dispatchLoopStartup preDispatch dispatch (action) postDispatch dispatchLoopShutdown
    15. 15. SOMETHING SIMPLER FC Plugin routeStartup Router route routeShutdown dispatchLoopStartup Controller preDispatch preDispatch Dispatch Loop dispatch (action) postDispatch postDispatch dispatchLoopShutdown
    17. 17. BOOTSTRAPPING • Initialise everything you may need • Make things ready for your request to be dispatched • Do nothing module specific • Remember your module bootstraps, even if they are empty!
    18. 18. MODULE BOOTSTRAPS resources.frontController.moduleDirectory = APPLICATION_PATH "/modules" resources.frontController.controllerDirectory.default = APPLICATION_PATH "/controllers" resources.modules[] = "" <?php class Abcd_Bootstrap extends Zend_Application_Module_Bootstrap { protected function _initRest() { $fc = Zend_Controller_Front::getInstance(); $restRoute = new Zend_Rest_Route($fc, array(), array( 'abcd' => array('contacts'), )); $fc->getRouter()->addRoute('contacts', $restRoute); } }
    20. 20. FRONT CONTROLLER PLUGINS • Provide hooks into various points in the request lifecycle • Run Automatically • Should be able to run independently of the action controller itself • Exceptionsthrown in preDispatch will not prevent further plugins preDispatch calls being run • Are easier to use if you have no constructor parameters.
    21. 21. ADDING A FRONT CONTROLLER PLUGIN • In the config autoloaderNamespaces[] = " My_ " resources.frontController.plugins[] = "My_Controller_Plugin"; • In the bootstrap (useful for modules) <?php class ModuleName_Bootstrap extends Zend_Application_Module_Bootstrap { protected function _initPlugins() { $this->getApplication() ->getResourcePlugin('frontController') ->registerPlugin(new ModuleName_Plugin_Acl()); } }
    22. 22. ACTION HELPERS • Provide hooks into the request lifecycle • Run automatically, or on demand • Are intended to either replace repeated code in your actions (think DRY) or to extend functionality of action controllers • Thrown Exceptions in pre/postDispatch will stop further execution of other action helpers
    23. 23. ADDING AN ACTION HELPER • In the config resources.frontController.actionHelperPaths.My_Action_Helper = "My/Action/Helper" • In the bootstrap (useful for modules) <?php class Abcd_Bootstrap extends Zend_Application_Module_Bootstrap { protected function _initActionHelpers() { Zend_Controller_Action_HelperBroker::addPath( 'My/Action/Helper', 'My_Action_Helper' ); Zend_Controller_Action_HelperBroker::addHelper( new My_Action_Helper_Thingy() ); } }
    24. 24. ACTION HELPER OR FC PLUGIN? START Front Controller Plugin Action Helper Do you need to Error Handler interact with it from the controller? Yes Redirector Layout Flash Messenger No Action stack Context Switch Do you need to Yes hook earlier than preDispatch? No View Renderer
    25. 25. AUTOLOADING
    26. 26. AUTOLOADING Autoloading
    27. 27. AUTOLOADING Autoloading Plugin loading
    28. 28. AUTOLOADING Autoloading Plugin loading Resource loading
    29. 29. AUTOLOADING • Library components • Follows PEAR naming • Used where ever you see: • new Zend_Form() • new Zend_Db() • new Zend_Service_...
    30. 30. PLUGIN LOADING • Prefixes names to resolve a classname, and path to load • Can work away from the include_path • Is used wherever a class is created with only a suffix • FormElements, View Helpers, Action Helpers, Resource plugins
    31. 31. RESOURCE LOADING • Resolves classnames which do not map 1:1 with the filesystem Application_Model_Page : application/models/Page.php • Is used for module components (forms, models, services) • Provide a namespace for the module • Iscreated automatically for modules with a module bootstrap • Makes your modules directories ‘tidier’ (controllers, views, models, forms, etc)
    32. 32. LOADERS IN ACTION Plugin Loading <?php class My_Form extends Zend_Form { public function init() { $this->addElement('Text', 'aTextBox', array('label' => 'A text Box')); } } “Text” is resolved to Zend_Form_Element_Text by looping through the given prefix paths until a match is found
    33. 33. LOADERS IN ACTION Adding your own prefix path <?php class My_Form extends Zend_Form { public function init() { $this->addElementPrefixPath('My_Form_Element_', 'My/Form/Elements/'); $this->addElement('Text', 'aTextBox', array('label' => 'A text Box')); } } Zend_Form::addElementPrefixPath() is an example of accessing a resource loader to add an extra prefix path. There is also an optional third parameter, to specifically supply a path for only elements, decorators, filters, or validators
    34. 34. LOADERS IN ACTION Autoloading [production] phpSettings.display_startup_errors = 0 phpSettings.display_errors = 0 autoloaderNamespaces[] = "My_" includePaths.library = APPLICATION_PATH "/../library" bootstrap.path = APPLICATION_PATH "/Bootstrap.php" bootstrap.class = "Bootstrap" <?php class IndexController extends Zend_Controller_Action { public function indexAction() { $myComponent = new My_Cool_Component(); } }
    35. 35. LOADERS IN ACTION Resource Loading <?php class Admin_IndexController extends Zend_Controller_Action { public function indexAction() { $form = new Admin_Form_EditPage(); $this->view->form = $form; } }
    36. 36. CONSTRUCTOR OPTIONS What can I put in $options?
    37. 37. WHAT CAN I PUT IN $OPTIONS? • $options is always an associative array • Each key is normalised and turned into a method name for a setter. ‘foo’ becomes ‘setFoo’, ‘bar’ becomes ‘setBar’ • If that setter exists, it is called, and the value at that index is passed as a single argument • Generally, exceptions are not thrown for invalid options. • Some components will store any options without a setter for other purposes, e.g. Zend_Form, options without a setter become attributes
    38. 38. WHERE CAN I SEE THE AVAILABLE SETTERS? • The API documentation (http://framework.zend.com/apidoc/ core) • Your IDE (autocomplete) • The manual
    39. 39. ADVANTAGES OF USING OPTIONS ARRAYS • Flexibility of configuration • Easily extended • Largely self documenting
    40. 40. TAKING ADVANTAGE OF THE OPTIONS ARRAY IN ZEND_FORM <?php setPage() is called class Admin_Form_EditPage extends Zend_Form { protected $_page; before init(), allowing public function init() you to pass through the { $this->addElements(array( constructor an object, //... $multi = new Zend_Form_Element_Select('multi'), //... array, or scalar value to )); be used for any } $multi->setMultiOptions($this->_page->getOptions()); purpose when public function setPage(Application_Model_Page $page) initialising your form. { $this->_page = $page; return $this; } }
    41. 41. DECORATORS
    42. 42. HOW THE HECK DO DECORATORS WORK THEN? Label <dt><label></label></dt> Rendered inside-out, HtmlTag <dd>...</dd> each wrapping, appending or Element <input.../> prepending Description <p>...</p> content to the content from Errors <ul>...</ul> the previous decorator
    43. 43. DEFINING A DECORATOR STACK $multi->setMultiOptions($this->_page->getOptions()) ->setDecorators(array( 'ViewHelper', 'Description', 'Errors', array('HtmlTag', array('tag' => 'dd')), array('Label', array('tag' => 'dt')), )); ViewHelper - Renders the element Description - renders a paragraph beneath the element (if a description is set) Errors - Adds a ul beneath the element HtmlTag - Renders the dd element Label - Renders the label and dt tags
    45. 45. THE M IN YOUR MVC
    46. 46. MODELLING DATA • Business logic • Domain logic • Services • Mappers • Entities • Models
    47. 47. Application Front Controller Domain logic RDBMS Action Controller View
    48. 48. Zend_Db_Table based models DIRECT TDG Domain? RDBMS Zend_Db_Table
    49. 49. Zend_Db_Table based models TDG WRAPPER BASED Domain MODEL RDBMS Entity Zend_Db_Table
    50. 50. DataMapper based models QUICKSTART MAPPER Domain Mapper RDBMS Entity Zend_Db_Table
    51. 51. DataMapper based models DOCTRINE2 Domain DBAL Entity Mapper RDBMS
    52. 52. WHICH PATTERN TO USE? • Maintenance cycle • Complexity of the application • Project timeframe • Available solutions (Doctrine, Propel, phpDataMapper), do they suit you?
    53. 53. WHAT DOES ZF SUPPORT? DB Abstraction
    54. 54. WHAT DOES ZF SUPPORT? DB Abstraction Expect some sort of integration with Doctrine2 when ZF2 arrives Doctrine2 is gaining popularity as the ORM of choice for ZF on the whole Doctrine 1.x is already a very common choice of ORM, though based on Active Record
    55. 55. THANKS FOR LISTENING Questions?