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CHEMICAL IMBALANCES
Katherine Cho
Moncy Mathews




            “You are your synapses”- LeDoux
INTRODUCTION
    A chemical imbalance is an irregularity in the cell-

    to-cell communication that occurs through vari...
TO REITERATE HERE LIES THE CONTROVERSY…

    There has yet to be a specific study which states this specific

    neurotr...
WHAT DOES THE DSM HAVE TO SAY?

 “The pathophysiology of a Major Depressive Episode
  may involve a dysregulation of a num...
FOOD FOR THOUGHT


       Nature              Nurture



                Synapses




           Mind and Behavior
       ...
WHY BOTHER WITH THE BRAIN?
    Study of the diseased brain has furthered our

    understanding of the normal brain.

   ...
STRUCTURAL MEASUREMENTS
    CAT/CT scan3:

        A computerized axial tomography scan is an x-ray
    
        procedu...
FUNCTIONAL MEASUREMENTS

    Positron emission tomography (PET):

         A highly specialized imaging technique that us...
NEUROTRANSMITTERS

    Chemicals which relay, amplify, and

    modulate signals between neurons and other
    cells
    ...
NOREPINEPHRINE

  Neurotransmitter in the catecholamine family


 Mediates communication in the sympathetic
  nervous sy...
DOPAMINE

  Neurotransmitter in the catecholamine family


 Neurohormone

 Involved in the regulation of:
     secreti...
SERATONIN

  Neurotransmitter


 Involved in the regulation of:
     Moods  (particularly anger and aggression)
     B...
GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID

  Neurotransmitter also known GABA


 Regulates neuronal excitability

 1950: discovered to be...
NORMAL VS. AFFECTED BRAIN

                    5


                        Frontal Lobe:
                        -consider...
ARE WE CAPABLE OF MEASURING
THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
SIMULTANEOUSLY?

Currently: No
This creates another issue:
Currentl...
INFLUENCE OF GENETICS
    Current studies support that chemical imbalances have a

    genetic component
    Npas4 gene6
...
RESEARCH MAGAZINE7

    VOLUME XXIII NUMBER 1 SPRING 2008
    “Anatomical causes of epilepsy are often easily identified b...
WE KNOW WHAT THE RESEARCH SAYS, LET’S
LOOK AT A PRACTICAL EXAMPLE
But before that…
http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/matt...
8




Although weight, number of drinks, type of drink, and gender may all vary
between two individuals, the fact remains ...
OPTIMALITY AND ROBUSTNESS OF A
BIOPHYSICAL DECISION-MAKING MODEL
UNDER NOREPINEPHRINE MODULATION9
PHILIP ECKHOFF,1 K. F. W...
TREATMENT

  Varies across conditions and severity of

  disorder
 Identify neurotransmitter involved

 Therapy

 Life...
MEDICATION

 “Given that many forms of psychopathology has

 been associated with various imbalances in
 neurotransmitter...
ONE LAST VIDEO
http://stream1.jay.net/lundbeck/sero5.wmv
                              10




                            ...
SUMMARY
    Medical community acknowledges that chemical

    imbalances exist and play a role in mental/psychotic
    di...
REFERENCES
      http://chemicalimbalance.org/?p=21
1.

      Joseph LeDoux. 2002, Synaptic Self. How Our brains become wh...
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Chem Imbalance (For)

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Chem Imbalance (For)

  1. 1. CHEMICAL IMBALANCES Katherine Cho Moncy Mathews “You are your synapses”- LeDoux
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION A chemical imbalance is an irregularity in the cell-  to-cell communication that occurs through various neurotransmitters and hormones There is no/very little controversy regarding the  existence of chemical imbalances in severe cases of mental/psychotic disorders The controversy lies in cases where the disorder is  determined to be mild
  3. 3. TO REITERATE HERE LIES THE CONTROVERSY… There has yet to be a specific study which states this specific  neurotransmitter causes this specific disorder, however it is not improbable to identify the potential causal relationship between chemical imbalances and neural disorders. Fact: A certain amount of neurotransmitters are required to  achieve optimum nerve conduction, therefore if this minimal/required amount is lacking, (a chemical imbalance) the neuron will not function efficiently. -Supported by Medical Model. From Neurobiology: Molecules, Cells, and Systems.
  4. 4. WHAT DOES THE DSM HAVE TO SAY? “The pathophysiology of a Major Depressive Episode may involve a dysregulation of a number of neurotransmitter systems, including the serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, acetylcholine, and gamma-aminobuytric systems. There is also evidence of alteration of several neuropeptides, including corticotropin-releasing hormone…None of these changes are present in all individuals in a Major Depressive Episode, however, nor is any particular disturbance specific to depression” (DSM-IV-TR)1
  5. 5. FOOD FOR THOUGHT Nature Nurture Synapses Mind and Behavior (the self) FIGURE 1.22
  6. 6. WHY BOTHER WITH THE BRAIN? Study of the diseased brain has furthered our  understanding of the normal brain. Historically studying the brain involved certain  injury/death to the patient. Currently there are various brain scanning techniques used to study the brain without cutting through a single layer of tissue. Scanning methods of measuring include  structural vs. functional aspects of the brain.
  7. 7. STRUCTURAL MEASUREMENTS CAT/CT scan3:  A computerized axial tomography scan is an x-ray  procedure that combines multiple x-ray images to generate cross-sectional views and, if needed, three-dimensional images of the internal organs and structures of the body. MRI4: A radiology technique designed to image internal structures of the body using magnetism, radio waves to produce the images of body structures. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the scanner is a tube surrounded by a giant circular magnet.
  8. 8. FUNCTIONAL MEASUREMENTS Positron emission tomography (PET):  A highly specialized imaging technique that uses  short-lived radioactive substances to produce three- dimensional colored images of those substances functioning within the body. PET studies metabolic activity or body function. PET has been used primarily in cardiology, neurology, and oncology. fMRI:  The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to  learn which regions of the brain are active in a specific function, as in speech. Abbreviated as fMRI.
  9. 9. NEUROTRANSMITTERS Chemicals which relay, amplify, and  modulate signals between neurons and other cells  Norepinephrine  Dopamine  Seratonin  GABA
  10. 10. NOREPINEPHRINE Neurotransmitter in the catecholamine family   Mediates communication in the sympathetic nervous system  Stress hormone: released when body senses stressful conditions; also known as the “fight or flight” response  Affects attention and responding actions
  11. 11. DOPAMINE Neurotransmitter in the catecholamine family   Neurohormone  Involved in the regulation of:  secretionof some hormones  mood and emotional stability  pain processing
  12. 12. SERATONIN Neurotransmitter   Involved in the regulation of:  Moods (particularly anger and aggression)  Body temperature  Sleep  Appetite  Metabolism
  13. 13. GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID Neurotransmitter also known GABA   Regulates neuronal excitability  1950: discovered to be an integral part of mammalian central nervous system
  14. 14. NORMAL VS. AFFECTED BRAIN 5 Frontal Lobe: -considerable less chemical activity in the frontal lobes of affected individuals -indicates less communication between cells upon stimulation
  15. 15. ARE WE CAPABLE OF MEASURING THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION SIMULTANEOUSLY? Currently: No This creates another issue: Currently studies are based on the function of neurons as clusters or scientifically known as circuits/neural pathways due to the lack of multifaceted simultaneous structure and function testing capabilities.
  16. 16. INFLUENCE OF GENETICS Current studies support that chemical imbalances have a  genetic component Npas4 gene6  Discovered in 2008 by neuroscientists at the Children’s  Hospital of Boston Research has been opened to doctors at Harvard and MIT  “Master switch” for synapses  Synapses are the site for signal exchanges between cells/neurons  Represses or activates genes  Linked to the function of more than 200 genes that calm down  over stimulated genes if over stimulated genes are not controlled, it can lead to  epilepsy, autism, or schizophrenia With the discovery of this gene, scientists are optimistic in finding a  possible cure for the epilepsy, autism and schizophrenia
  17. 17. RESEARCH MAGAZINE7 VOLUME XXIII NUMBER 1 SPRING 2008 “Anatomical causes of epilepsy are often easily identified but are  responsible for less than half of all cases [150,000 Canadians]– leaving nearly 60 per cent of epilepsy patients with more questions than answers. The majority of cases are likely the result of a chemical imbalance in the brain, causing it to function incorrectly, says Dobson. [Prof. Howard Dobson, Department of Clinical Studies] But what causes the imbalance is unknown. Currently, researchers think the chemical imbalance can be caused by any number of factors, including stress, improper nutrition, illness and depression. They suspect it results in the nerve fibers – the information highways of the brain – functioning improperly, leaving the dog or human more susceptible to having a seizure.”
  18. 18. WE KNOW WHAT THE RESEARCH SAYS, LET’S LOOK AT A PRACTICAL EXAMPLE But before that… http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/matthews/actionp.html
  19. 19. 8 Although weight, number of drinks, type of drink, and gender may all vary between two individuals, the fact remains the same, even consuming one drink affects your BAC7. The same can be attributed to chemical imbalances.
  20. 20. OPTIMALITY AND ROBUSTNESS OF A BIOPHYSICAL DECISION-MAKING MODEL UNDER NOREPINEPHRINE MODULATION9 PHILIP ECKHOFF,1 K. F. WONG-LIN,1,2 AND PHILIP HOLMES1,2,3 1PROGRAM IN APPLIED AND COMPUTATIONAL MATHEMATICS, 2CENTER FOR THE STUDY OF BRAIN, MIND, AND BEHAVIOR, AND 3DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND AEROSPACE ENGINEERING, PRINCETON UNIVERSITY, PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY 08544 “NE [Norepinephrine]released by efferent LC fibers (locus ceruleus- a nucleus in the brainstem) changes cellular excitability and synaptic efficacy (Berridge and Waterhouse, 2003) and can alter performance in behavioral tasks (Berridge and Waterhouse, 2003; Aston-Jones and Cohen, 2005; Bouret and Sara, 2005). Dysregulation of NE is also implicated in cognitive disorders (Arnsten, 2007).” The Journal of Neuroscience, April 1, 2009, 29(13):4301-4311; doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5024-08.2009
  21. 21. TREATMENT Varies across conditions and severity of  disorder  Identify neurotransmitter involved  Therapy  Lifestyle changes
  22. 22. MEDICATION “Given that many forms of psychopathology has  been associated with various imbalances in neurotransmitter substances…it is not surprising that many of the medications used to treat various disorders have the synapse as their site of action” –Neurotransmission and Abnormal Behavior (2.1) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ngi4Hyzp11k 
  23. 23. ONE LAST VIDEO http://stream1.jay.net/lundbeck/sero5.wmv 10 Chemical Imbalances Exist and Are very Real
  24. 24. SUMMARY Medical community acknowledges that chemical  imbalances exist and play a role in mental/psychotic disorders; the field is still growing as doctors and scientists continue to investigate the extent to which chemical imbalances are involved Chemical Imbalances must exist to account for the non-  anatomical causes of neural disorders, although the effects maybe mild and symptoms may not express themselves severely, as in anatomical cases. Treating and correcting chemical imbalances early on would be a preventive step to avoid the full onset of symptoms.
  25. 25. REFERENCES http://chemicalimbalance.org/?p=21 1. Joseph LeDoux. 2002, Synaptic Self. How Our brains become who we are. 2. http://www.medicinenet.com/cat_scan/article.htm 3. http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=11609 4. http://www.pharmacology2000.com/Central/psychotics/Antipsy_obj1.htm (PET 5. Scan) http://www.blisstree.com/autismvox/a-master-switch-for-synapses-npas4/ 6. (Npas4) http://www.uoguelph.ca/research/publications/Assets/PDF/ResearchMagazine/ 7. cfi.pdf http://www.ou.edu/oupd/bac.htm 8. The Journal of Neuroscience, April 1, 2009, 29(13):4301-4311; 9. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5024-08.2009 http://www.blisstree.com/healthbolt/files/2007/03/synapse.jpg 10.

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