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© Copyright Read Theory LLC, 2012. All rights reserved. 1
READTHEORY
Name________________
Date________________
•• AAnnttoonnyymmss 11 Level 8
DDiirreeccttiioonnss:: Choose the word that is most nearly opposite in meaning to the word in capital letters.
1. AGONY
A. comfort
B. anguish
C. success
D. grief
E. security
2. MYRIAD
A. mass
B. scarcity
C. void
D. excess
E. pyramid
3. GRATIFY
A. puncture
B. coddle
C. disappoint
D. fatigue
E. thrill
4. CULTIVATE
A. labor
B. neglect
C. renounce
D. further
E. cede
5. MULTIPLY
A. bisect
B. accumulate
C. lessen
D. deliver
E. add
6. MISUNDERSTAND
A. grasp
B. analyze
C. nurture
D. instruct
E. reminisce
7. SUBSEQUENT
A. consequential
B. illogical
C. later
D. former
E. consistent
8. MANUAL
A. improved
B. antiquated
C. standard
D. industrialized
E. automated
9. JUSTIFY
A. explain
B. rationalize
C. apologize
D. pardon
E. invalidate
10. PUNISHMENT
A. profit
B. purgatory
C. penalty
D. bounty
E. abuse
© Copyright Read Theory LLC, 2012. All rights reserved. 2
Answers and Explanations
1) A
The word agony means extreme physical or mental suffering. Someone who is in a great deal of pain is experiencing
agony. The opposite of agony is being free of mental or physical pain. Because comfort is a state of being free of pain,
choice (A) is correct.
(B) is incorrect because anguish is severe mental or physical pain. This is synonymous with agony, not the opposite of it.
(C) is incorrect because success is the achievement of a goal. This is not the opposite of agony.
(D) is incorrect because grief is sorrow. This is not the opposite of agony.
(E) is incorrect because security is the state of being free from threat. This is not the opposite of agony.
2) B
The word myriad means an extremely great number. If there is a myriad of reasons not to do something, then there are a
great number of reasons to not do it. The opposite of myriad is small in number. Because scarcity means a small quantity
or the state of not having enough of something, choice (B) is correct.
(A) is incorrect because a mass is a large amount. This is synonymous with myriad, not the opposite of it.
(C) is incorrect because a void is a completely empty space. This is not the opposite of myriad, because its meaning is too
limited and extreme.
(D) is incorrect because excess is an amount of something that is more than necessary. This is practically synonymous
with myriad, not the opposite of it.
(E) is incorrect because a pyramid is a monumental structure with a square base and sides that slant to meet at a point at
the top. This is not the opposite of myriad.
3) C
The word gratify means to give pleasure or satisfaction. Anything that provides comfort can gratify someone. The opposite
of gratify is to cause pain or not give pleasure. Because disappoint means to fail to fulfill someone’s hopes or to not
please someone, choice (C) is correct.
(A) is incorrect because puncture means to make a hole in something. This is not the opposite of gratify.
(B) is incorrect because coddle means to treat in an overprotective way. This is not the opposite of gratify.
(D) is incorrect because fatigue means to tire out or exhaust. This is not the opposite of gratify, because something that
brings someone pleasure might also exhaust him or her.
(E) is incorrect because thrill means to excite. This is not the opposite of gratify.
4) B
The word cultivate means to grow or nurture for growth. When one plants and cares for the crops he or she planted, he or
she is cultivating said crops. The opposite of cultivate is to harm or not nurture into growing. Because neglect means to
fail to care for properly, choice (B) is correct.
(A) is incorrect because labor means to work. This is not the opposite of cultivate.
(C) is incorrect because renounce means to formally declare one’s abandonment of a principle or belief. This is not the
opposite of cultivate.
(D) is incorrect because further means to advance or help the growth of. This is practically synonymous with cultivate, not
the opposite of it.
(E) is incorrect because cede means to give up territory. This is not the opposite of cultivate.
5) C
The word multiply means to greatly increase in quantity. When one’s problems multiply, one acquires many more troubles.
The opposite of multiply is to reduce in quantity. Because lessen means to decrease in number or size, choice (C) is
correct.
(A) is incorrect because bisect means to split into two equal parts. This is not the opposite of multiply, because splitting
something into two pieces does not decrease its overall size.
© Copyright Read Theory LLC, 2012. All rights reserved. 3
(B) is incorrect because accumulate means to gradually gather or increase in quantity. This is practically synonymous with
multiply, not the opposite of it.
(D) is incorrect because deliver means to hand over something. This is not the opposite of multiply.
(E) is incorrect because add means to increase in size. This is similar in meaning to multiply, not the opposite of it.
6) A
The word misunderstand means to fail to correctly interpret. When one misinterprets something someone else says, he or
she misunderstands it. The opposite of misunderstand is to understand. Because grasp means to comprehend firmly,
choice (A) is correct.
(B) is incorrect because analyze means to examine methodically and in detail. This is not the opposite of misunderstand,
because one can analyze something and still not correctly interpret it.
(C) is incorrect because nurture means to care for and encourage the growth of. This is not the opposite of
misunderstand.
(D) is incorrect because instruct means to teach. This is not the opposite of misunderstand.
(E) is incorrect because reminisce means to indulge in enjoyable recollection of past events. This is not the opposite of
misunderstand.
7) D
The word subsequent means occurring afterward. New Year’s Day is the holiday that occurs subsequently after New
Year’s Eve. The opposite of subsequent is occurring first or before. Because former means occurring previously in time,
choice (D) is correct.
(A) is incorrect because consequential means following as a result or effect. This is practically synonymous with
subsequent, not the opposite of it.
(B) is incorrect because illogical means lacking sense. This is not the opposite of subsequent.
(C) is incorrect because later means occurring afterward. This is synonymous with subsequent, not the opposite of it.
(E) is incorrect because consistent means unchanging over time. This is not the opposite of subsequent.
8) E
The word manual means done with the hands or not automatic. For example, a task such as chopping wood with an axe
is manual labor. The opposite of manual is automatic. Because automated means controlled by automation, choice (E) is
correct.
(A) is incorrect because improved means to make better. This is not the opposite of manual.
(B) is incorrect because antiquated means old-fashioned or no longer used. This is not the opposite of manual.
(C) is incorrect because standard means accepted as normal or average. This is not the opposite of manual.
(D) is incorrect because industrialized means having industry or manufacturing on a wide level. This is not the opposite of
manual, because having industry is not synonymous with being automated or automatic.
9) E
The word justify means to prove to be right or reasonable. For example, one might justify a decision by proving the logic
behind it. The opposite of justify is to prove not right or unreasonable. Because invalidate means to make something
erroneous or prove something to be unsound, choice (E) is correct.
(A) is incorrect because explain means to clarify or make clearer by describing something in more detail. This is not the
opposite of justify.
(B) is incorrect because rationalize means to attempt to explain something using logical reasons. This is practically
synonymous with justify, not the opposite of it.
(C) is incorrect because apologize means to express regret for something one has done wrong. This is not the opposite of
justify.
(D) is incorrect because pardon means to forgive. This is not the opposite of justify.
10) D
© Copyright Read Theory LLC, 2012. All rights reserved. 4
The word punishment means the infliction of a penalty as a result of an offense committed. For example, a prison term is
a punishment for many crimes. The opposite of punishment is a reward. Because a bounty is a gift or reward, choice (D)
is correct.
(A) is incorrect because a profit is a financial gain earned through a business. This is not the opposite of punishment,
because money earned through a business is not synonymous with a reward.
(B) is incorrect because purgatory is mental anguish or suffering. This is not the opposite of punishment.
(C) is incorrect because a penalty is a punishment inflicted for committing a crime. This is synonymous with punishment,
not the opposite of it.
(E) is incorrect because abuse is cruel and violent treatment of a person or animal. This is not the opposite of punishment.

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Level 8 antonyms_1

  • 1. © Copyright Read Theory LLC, 2012. All rights reserved. 1 READTHEORY Name________________ Date________________ •• AAnnttoonnyymmss 11 Level 8 DDiirreeccttiioonnss:: Choose the word that is most nearly opposite in meaning to the word in capital letters. 1. AGONY A. comfort B. anguish C. success D. grief E. security 2. MYRIAD A. mass B. scarcity C. void D. excess E. pyramid 3. GRATIFY A. puncture B. coddle C. disappoint D. fatigue E. thrill 4. CULTIVATE A. labor B. neglect C. renounce D. further E. cede 5. MULTIPLY A. bisect B. accumulate C. lessen D. deliver E. add 6. MISUNDERSTAND A. grasp B. analyze C. nurture D. instruct E. reminisce 7. SUBSEQUENT A. consequential B. illogical C. later D. former E. consistent 8. MANUAL A. improved B. antiquated C. standard D. industrialized E. automated 9. JUSTIFY A. explain B. rationalize C. apologize D. pardon E. invalidate 10. PUNISHMENT A. profit B. purgatory C. penalty D. bounty E. abuse
  • 2. © Copyright Read Theory LLC, 2012. All rights reserved. 2 Answers and Explanations 1) A The word agony means extreme physical or mental suffering. Someone who is in a great deal of pain is experiencing agony. The opposite of agony is being free of mental or physical pain. Because comfort is a state of being free of pain, choice (A) is correct. (B) is incorrect because anguish is severe mental or physical pain. This is synonymous with agony, not the opposite of it. (C) is incorrect because success is the achievement of a goal. This is not the opposite of agony. (D) is incorrect because grief is sorrow. This is not the opposite of agony. (E) is incorrect because security is the state of being free from threat. This is not the opposite of agony. 2) B The word myriad means an extremely great number. If there is a myriad of reasons not to do something, then there are a great number of reasons to not do it. The opposite of myriad is small in number. Because scarcity means a small quantity or the state of not having enough of something, choice (B) is correct. (A) is incorrect because a mass is a large amount. This is synonymous with myriad, not the opposite of it. (C) is incorrect because a void is a completely empty space. This is not the opposite of myriad, because its meaning is too limited and extreme. (D) is incorrect because excess is an amount of something that is more than necessary. This is practically synonymous with myriad, not the opposite of it. (E) is incorrect because a pyramid is a monumental structure with a square base and sides that slant to meet at a point at the top. This is not the opposite of myriad. 3) C The word gratify means to give pleasure or satisfaction. Anything that provides comfort can gratify someone. The opposite of gratify is to cause pain or not give pleasure. Because disappoint means to fail to fulfill someone’s hopes or to not please someone, choice (C) is correct. (A) is incorrect because puncture means to make a hole in something. This is not the opposite of gratify. (B) is incorrect because coddle means to treat in an overprotective way. This is not the opposite of gratify. (D) is incorrect because fatigue means to tire out or exhaust. This is not the opposite of gratify, because something that brings someone pleasure might also exhaust him or her. (E) is incorrect because thrill means to excite. This is not the opposite of gratify. 4) B The word cultivate means to grow or nurture for growth. When one plants and cares for the crops he or she planted, he or she is cultivating said crops. The opposite of cultivate is to harm or not nurture into growing. Because neglect means to fail to care for properly, choice (B) is correct. (A) is incorrect because labor means to work. This is not the opposite of cultivate. (C) is incorrect because renounce means to formally declare one’s abandonment of a principle or belief. This is not the opposite of cultivate. (D) is incorrect because further means to advance or help the growth of. This is practically synonymous with cultivate, not the opposite of it. (E) is incorrect because cede means to give up territory. This is not the opposite of cultivate. 5) C The word multiply means to greatly increase in quantity. When one’s problems multiply, one acquires many more troubles. The opposite of multiply is to reduce in quantity. Because lessen means to decrease in number or size, choice (C) is correct. (A) is incorrect because bisect means to split into two equal parts. This is not the opposite of multiply, because splitting something into two pieces does not decrease its overall size.
  • 3. © Copyright Read Theory LLC, 2012. All rights reserved. 3 (B) is incorrect because accumulate means to gradually gather or increase in quantity. This is practically synonymous with multiply, not the opposite of it. (D) is incorrect because deliver means to hand over something. This is not the opposite of multiply. (E) is incorrect because add means to increase in size. This is similar in meaning to multiply, not the opposite of it. 6) A The word misunderstand means to fail to correctly interpret. When one misinterprets something someone else says, he or she misunderstands it. The opposite of misunderstand is to understand. Because grasp means to comprehend firmly, choice (A) is correct. (B) is incorrect because analyze means to examine methodically and in detail. This is not the opposite of misunderstand, because one can analyze something and still not correctly interpret it. (C) is incorrect because nurture means to care for and encourage the growth of. This is not the opposite of misunderstand. (D) is incorrect because instruct means to teach. This is not the opposite of misunderstand. (E) is incorrect because reminisce means to indulge in enjoyable recollection of past events. This is not the opposite of misunderstand. 7) D The word subsequent means occurring afterward. New Year’s Day is the holiday that occurs subsequently after New Year’s Eve. The opposite of subsequent is occurring first or before. Because former means occurring previously in time, choice (D) is correct. (A) is incorrect because consequential means following as a result or effect. This is practically synonymous with subsequent, not the opposite of it. (B) is incorrect because illogical means lacking sense. This is not the opposite of subsequent. (C) is incorrect because later means occurring afterward. This is synonymous with subsequent, not the opposite of it. (E) is incorrect because consistent means unchanging over time. This is not the opposite of subsequent. 8) E The word manual means done with the hands or not automatic. For example, a task such as chopping wood with an axe is manual labor. The opposite of manual is automatic. Because automated means controlled by automation, choice (E) is correct. (A) is incorrect because improved means to make better. This is not the opposite of manual. (B) is incorrect because antiquated means old-fashioned or no longer used. This is not the opposite of manual. (C) is incorrect because standard means accepted as normal or average. This is not the opposite of manual. (D) is incorrect because industrialized means having industry or manufacturing on a wide level. This is not the opposite of manual, because having industry is not synonymous with being automated or automatic. 9) E The word justify means to prove to be right or reasonable. For example, one might justify a decision by proving the logic behind it. The opposite of justify is to prove not right or unreasonable. Because invalidate means to make something erroneous or prove something to be unsound, choice (E) is correct. (A) is incorrect because explain means to clarify or make clearer by describing something in more detail. This is not the opposite of justify. (B) is incorrect because rationalize means to attempt to explain something using logical reasons. This is practically synonymous with justify, not the opposite of it. (C) is incorrect because apologize means to express regret for something one has done wrong. This is not the opposite of justify. (D) is incorrect because pardon means to forgive. This is not the opposite of justify. 10) D
  • 4. © Copyright Read Theory LLC, 2012. All rights reserved. 4 The word punishment means the infliction of a penalty as a result of an offense committed. For example, a prison term is a punishment for many crimes. The opposite of punishment is a reward. Because a bounty is a gift or reward, choice (D) is correct. (A) is incorrect because a profit is a financial gain earned through a business. This is not the opposite of punishment, because money earned through a business is not synonymous with a reward. (B) is incorrect because purgatory is mental anguish or suffering. This is not the opposite of punishment. (C) is incorrect because a penalty is a punishment inflicted for committing a crime. This is synonymous with punishment, not the opposite of it. (E) is incorrect because abuse is cruel and violent treatment of a person or animal. This is not the opposite of punishment.