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High Performance Web Sites

14 rules for faster-loading pages by Steve Souders souders@yahoo-inc.com and Tenni Theurer tenni@yahoo-inc.com

1 of 97
High Performance Web Sites 14 rules for faster-loading pages Steve Souders [email_address] Tenni Theurer [email_address]
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Rough Cuts: now Hardcopy: Summer 2007 http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/9780596514211/
The Importance of Front-End Performance
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High Performance Web Sites

  • 1. High Performance Web Sites 14 rules for faster-loading pages Steve Souders [email_address] Tenni Theurer [email_address]
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5. Rough Cuts: now Hardcopy: Summer 2007 http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/9780596514211/
  • 6. The Importance of Front-End Performance
  • 7. Back-end vs. Front-end percentage of time spent on the front-end 95% 97% youtube.com 88% 95% yahoo.com 88% 80% wikipedia.org 86% 96% myspace.com 95% 97% msn.com 64% 86% google.com 92% 98% ebay.com 92% 81% cnn.com 86% 94% aol.com 86% 82% amazon.com Full Cache Empty Cache
  • 8.
  • 9.
  • 10.
  • 11. slow crawl boring snail stagnant unexceptional yawn unresponsive impatient delay moderate blah subdue drag apathetic prolong slack load sluggish sleepy late unexciting reduced lag complex heavy unmemorable obscure why wait perceived response time what is the end user’s experience? performance speed enjoyable urgent instant accelerate perception snap achievement better improve action pleasant pace quick promote swift cool maximum drive prompt advance fast hurry rush satisfying feel exceptional brisk rapid exciting
  • 12.
  • 14.
  • 15. Empty vs. Full Cache 1 user requests www.yahoo.com 2 user requests other web pages 3 user re-requests www.yahoo.com
  • 16. Empty vs. Full Cache with an empty cache 1 user requests www.yahoo.com 2 user requests other web pages 3 user re-requests www.yahoo.com
  • 17. Empty vs. Full Cache 1 user requests www.yahoo.com 2 user requests other web pages 3 user re-requests www.yahoo.com
  • 18. Empty vs. Full Cache Expires header 3 user re-requests www.yahoo.com with a full cache 1 user requests www.yahoo.com 2 user requests other web pages
  • 19.
  • 20.
  • 22.
  • 23.
  • 24. Browser Cache Experiment total # of 200 responses # of 200 + # of 304 responses What percentage of page views are done with an empty cache? # unique users with at least one 200 response total # unique users What percentage of users view with an empty cache? } 1 px
  • 25. Surprising Results 40-60% ~20% page views with empty cache users with empty cache
  • 26.
  • 28. HTTP Quick Review HTTP response header sent by the web server: HTTP/1.1 200 OK Content-Type: text/html; charset=utf-8 Set-Cookie: C=abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz; domain=.yahoo.com 1 user requests www.yahoo.com
  • 29. HTTP Quick Review HTTP request header sent by the browser: GET / HTTP/1.1 Host: finance.yahoo.com User-Agent: Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 6.0; … Cookie: C=abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz; 1 user requests www.yahoo.com 2 user requests finance.yahoo.com
  • 30. HTTP Quick Review HTTP request header sent by the browser: GET / HTTP/1.1 Host: autos.yahoo.com User-Agent: Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 6.0; … Cookie: C=abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ; 1 user requests www.yahoo.com 3 user requests autos.yahoo.com
  • 31. HTTP Quick Review HTTP request header sent by the browser: GET / HTTP/1.1 Host: mail.yahoo.com User-Agent: Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 6.0; … Cookie: C=abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz; 1 user requests www.yahoo.com 4 user requests mail.yahoo.com
  • 32. HTTP Quick Review HTTP request header sent by the browser: GET / HTTP/1.1 Host: tech.yahoo.com User-Agent: Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 6.0; … Cookie: C=abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz; 1 user requests www.yahoo.com 5 user requests tech.yahoo.com
  • 33. Impact of Cookies on Response Time 80 ms delay dialup users +78 ms 156 ms 3000 bytes +63 ms 141 ms 2500 bytes +47 ms 125 ms 2000 bytes +31 ms 109 ms 1500 bytes +16 ms 94 ms 1000 bytes +1 ms 79 ms 500 bytes 0 ms 78 ms 0 bytes Delta Time Cookie Size keep sizes low
  • 35. Analysis of Cookie Sizes across the Web 500 bytes MySpace 331 bytes eBay 268 bytes MSN 218 bytes YouTube 184 bytes CNN 122 bytes Yahoo 72 bytes Google 60 bytes Amazon Total Cookie Size
  • 36.
  • 38. Parallel Downloads Two components in parallel per hostname HTTP/1.1 GIF GIF GIF GIF GIF GIF
  • 39. Parallel Downloads Two in parallel Four in parallel Eight in parallel
  • 40. Maximizing Parallel Downloads response time (seconds) aliases
  • 41. Maximizing Parallel Downloads response time (seconds) aliases
  • 42. Maximizing Parallel Downloads response time (seconds) aliases
  • 43. Maximizing Parallel Downloads response time (seconds) rule of thumb: use at least two but no more than four aliases
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  • 52. Combined Scripts, Combined Stylesheets 3 7 youtube.com 1.5 6.5 Average 1 4 yahoo.com 1 3 wikipedia.org 2 2 myspace.com 1 9 msn.com 1 1 froogle.google.com 2 7 ebay.com 2 11 cnn.com 1 18 aol.com 1 3 amazon.com Stylesheets Scripts
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  • 57. Gzip vs. Deflate Gzip compresses more Gzip supported in more browsers Deflate Gzip 67% 4.7K 73% 3.7K 14.1K Stylesheet 52% 0.5K 56% 0.4K 1.0K Stylesheet 58% 16.6K 64% 14.5K 39.7K Script 66% 1.1K 67% 1.1K 3.3K Script Savings Size Savings Size Size
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  • 72. TTL (Time To Live) TTL – how long record can be cached browser settings override TTL 5 minutes www.youtube.com 1 minute www.yahoo.com 1 hour www.wikipedia.org 1 hour www.myspace.com 5 minutes www.msn.com 5 minutes www.google.com 1 hour www.ebay.com 10 minutes www.cnn.com 1 minute www.aol.com 1 minute www.amazon.com
  • 73.
  • 74.
  • 75. Rule 10: Minify JavaScript minify inline scripts, too no yes no no yes yes yes no no no Minify External? no www.youtube.com yes www.yahoo.com no www.wikipedia.org no www.myspace.com yes www.msn.com yes froogle.google.com no www.ebay.com no www.cnn.com no www.aol.com no www.amazon.com Minify Inline?
  • 76. Minify vs. Obfuscate minify – it's safer http://crockford.com/javascript/jsmin http://dojotoolkit.org/docs/shrinksafe Dojo Savings JSMin Savings Original 21K (25%) 17K (21%) 85K Average 10K (29%) 8K (22%) 34K www.youtube.com 16K (38%) 14K (34%) 42K www.wikipedia.org 24K (28%) 23K (27%) 88K www.myspace.com 24K (25%) 19K (20%) 98K www.cnn.com 4K (10%) 4K (10%) 44K www.aol.com 48K (24%) 31K (15%) 204K www.amazon.com
  • 77.
  • 78. Redirects no yes – secondary page yes – secondary page yes – secondary page yes – initial page no yes – secondary page yes – initial page yes – secondary page no Redirects www.youtube.com www.yahoo.com www.wikipedia.org www.myspace.com www.msn.com froogle.google.com www.ebay.com www.cnn.com www.aol.com www.amazon.com
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