MASTERING AND MANAGING                CONFLICT                    Jamaica Association of                  Administrative P...
What is conflict?Antagonism or opposition between or amongpersonsConflict is the result of incongruent orincompatible rela...
Nature of ConflictConflict is a condition of opposition wherein: There is a clash of self-interests One party’s action a...
The Elements of ConflictEvery conflict involves three basic elements:• The issue  The things that caused the conflict• The...
CONFLICT IN ORGANISATIONS An expression of dissatisfaction or   disagreement with • An Interaction • A Process • A Product...
Causes of Conflict•     Differing Perceptions                •     Differing Values•     Competing Goals                  ...
Myths About Conflict•   Conflict cannot be managed.•   All conflicts can be resolved.•   Conflict always results in a winn...
The two sides of conflictNegative:                              Positive:    •   Reduce productivity                   • O...
Intra                                       Personal                      Inter                                           ...
The management of conflict…IGNORING          AVOIDING                    COERCIONNEGOTIATION       MEDIATION              ...
Approaches to conflict ResolutionUnfreezing        1. Initial problem identification                  2. Obtaining data   ...
Negative Outcomes      • Some people feel defeated and demeaned      • The distance between people increases      • A clim...
Positive outcomes: •Improved ideas •A tendency to search for new approaches •A surfacing, then resolving of long-standing ...
Interpersonal conflict management        Respect        Withdrawal        Compromise        Mediation and arbitration ...
Structural conflict management• Procedural change: Systems/processes• Structural Organizational change:         Improved n...
Common outcomes                  Workplace Violence• Internal      – Between supervisor and supervisee      – Team members...
Main sources of workplace conflict                         Change   “The power of technology…to build…and destroy…is such…...
Definition of Change Change is the continuous adoption of corporate strategies and structures to changing external conditi...
What Causes Change? •    Technology •    Cultural ideologies •    Competition •    Government •    ClimateOctober 6, 2012 ...
Change AreasStrategy          A change in the direction of the                  organizationTechnology        Change to pr...
Nature of Change• Planned• Accidental OccurrenceOctober 6, 2012    By: Wayne St. A. Jones   21
Planned Change• Change activities that are intentional and goal  oriented                                     Planned Chan...
Levels of Change • Effectiveness- Doing the right thing • Efficiency- Doing the right things right • Improving- Doing thin...
Why change that which is not broken?•       Five main reasons:1. To improve the ‘fit’ between strategy and   organisationa...
Change What?  •    Structures including processes  •    Cultures  •    Processes  •    Personnel systems:         - Recrui...
Discussion? • “When organizations are caught flat-   footed, failing to anticipate or respond to   new needs, management i...
Resistance to Change       Resistance - any opposition to a shift in the                         status quo• Idea Champion...
Sources of Resistance to Change     Selective     Information     Processing                                    Habit     ...
Sources of Resistance to Change            Threat to            established                                Structural     ...
Tactics for Overcoming Resistance to Change   Approach                               When to UseCommunication      •Change...
Tactics Cont’d     Approach                           When to Use Top management   • Change involves multiple departments ...
Increasing Workforce Diversity     Those supervisors who approach the issues     with sensitivity and think of their emplo...
Diversity types in Jamaican                         Organisations      – Gender      – Social Status      – Education Leve...
Changing age structure in USA                  • Baby Boomers – born between 1946-                    1964 (78 million)   ...
Guidance for SupervisorsEmployers must make employment decisions on  the basis of individual behaviours and  characteristi...
DISCUSSION QUESTIONWhat are some of the challenges in managing a diverse workplace ?October 6, 2012         By: Wayne St. ...
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Mastering and Managing Conflict

  1. 1. MASTERING AND MANAGING CONFLICT Jamaica Association of Administrative Professionals Convention 2012October 6, 2012 By: Wayne St. A. Jones 1
  2. 2. What is conflict?Antagonism or opposition between or amongpersonsConflict is the result of incongruent orincompatible relationships between a dyad ormembers of a group.October 6, 2012 By: Wayne St. A. Jones 2
  3. 3. Nature of ConflictConflict is a condition of opposition wherein: There is a clash of self-interests One party’s action adversely affect another’s Two or more parties have an unresolved controversyOctober 6, 2012 By: Wayne St. A. Jones 3
  4. 4. The Elements of ConflictEvery conflict involves three basic elements:• The issue The things that caused the conflict• The relationship The association or connection between the disputants• The emotions How the disputants feel October 6, 2012 By: Wayne St. A. Jones 4
  5. 5. CONFLICT IN ORGANISATIONS An expression of dissatisfaction or disagreement with • An Interaction • A Process • A Product • A ServiceOctober 6, 2012 By: Wayne St. A. Jones 5
  6. 6. Causes of Conflict• Differing Perceptions • Differing Values• Competing Goals • Unmet needs• Conflicting Interests • Lack of Mutual Respect• Lack or Limited Resources • Sexual Harassment• Role conflict • Emotional Abuse• Inequitable treatment • Departmentalization and• Violation of territory specialization • The nature of work• Environmental change activities October 6, 2012 By: Wayne St. A. Jones 6
  7. 7. Myths About Conflict• Conflict cannot be managed.• All conflicts can be resolved.• Conflict always results in a winner or loser.• If avoided, dispute/conflict will eventually go away.• Conflict destroys relationships.• Conflict is dysfunctional in the workplace.• Conflict represents communication breakdown.• If we are careful, conflict can be avoided.October 6, 2012 By: Wayne St. A. Jones 7
  8. 8. The two sides of conflictNegative: Positive: • Reduce productivity • Organizational • Decrease morale innovation • Cause dissatisfaction • Creativity and • Increase tension and accommodation stress • Growth and developmentOctober 6, 2012 By: Wayne St. A. Jones 8
  9. 9. Intra Personal Inter Intra Organizational Group Levels of Conflict Inter Intra Personal Organizational Inter GroupOctober 6, 2012 By: Wayne St. A. Jones 9
  10. 10. The management of conflict…IGNORING AVOIDING COERCIONNEGOTIATION MEDIATION ARBITRATIONOctober 6, 2012 By: Wayne St. A. Jones 10
  11. 11. Approaches to conflict ResolutionUnfreezing 1. Initial problem identification 2. Obtaining data 3. Problem diagnosis• Movement 4. Action planning 5. Implementation 6. Follow-up and stabilization• Refreezing 7. Assessment of consequencesOctober 6, 2012 8. LearningA.from the process By: Wayne St. Jones 11
  12. 12. Negative Outcomes • Some people feel defeated and demeaned • The distance between people increases • A climate of mistrust and suspicion arises • The Individual or the group focus on their own narrow interests • Resistance, rather than teamwork develops • Turnover increases.October 6, 2012 By: Wayne St. A. Jones 12
  13. 13. Positive outcomes: •Improved ideas •A tendency to search for new approaches •A surfacing, then resolving of long-standing problems •Clarification of individual views •Increased interest and creativityOctober 6, 2012 By: Wayne St. A. Jones 13
  14. 14. Interpersonal conflict management Respect Withdrawal Compromise Mediation and arbitration Super-ordinate goals Problem solvingOctober 6, 2012 By: Wayne St. A. Jones 14
  15. 15. Structural conflict management• Procedural change: Systems/processes• Structural Organizational change: Improved net-working processes and procedures/ qualify terms of reference for all tasks and procedures• Physical layout: Design of the physical workplace October 6, 2012 By: Wayne St. A. Jones 15
  16. 16. Common outcomes Workplace Violence• Internal – Between supervisor and supervisee – Team members• External – Customers – Members of the Community – Wider publicOctober 6, 2012 By: Wayne St. A. Jones 16
  17. 17. Main sources of workplace conflict Change “The power of technology…to build…and destroy…is such… that it is likely…few of us have ever heard…the name of what will be the world’s largest company in 2020.” Juan EnriquezOctober 6, 2012 By: Wayne St. A. Jones 17
  18. 18. Definition of Change Change is the continuous adoption of corporate strategies and structures to changing external conditions. Today, change is not the exception but a steady ongoing process. In contrast ‘business as usual’ will become the exception from phases of turbulence. Change management comprises both, revolutionary one-off projects and evolutionary transformations.October 6, 2012 By: Wayne St. A. Jones 18
  19. 19. What Causes Change? • Technology • Cultural ideologies • Competition • Government • ClimateOctober 6, 2012 By: Wayne St. A. Jones 19
  20. 20. Change AreasStrategy A change in the direction of the organizationTechnology Change to production processes A change in the organization’s product or service inputProducts Any change in organizational design and managementStructureCulture/People Change in employees values, norms, attitudes, beliefs and behaviours.October 6, 2012 By: Wayne St. A. Jones 20
  21. 21. Nature of Change• Planned• Accidental OccurrenceOctober 6, 2012 By: Wayne St. A. Jones 21
  22. 22. Planned Change• Change activities that are intentional and goal oriented Planned Change Second-Order/ First Order/ Incremental TransformationalOctober 6, 2012 By: Wayne St. A. Jones 22
  23. 23. Levels of Change • Effectiveness- Doing the right thing • Efficiency- Doing the right things right • Improving- Doing things better • Cutting- Doing away with thing • Copying- Doing things others are doing • Different- Doing things no one else is doing • Impossible- Doing things that can’t be done Lee & Krayer (2003) October 6, 2012 By: Wayne St. A. Jones 23
  24. 24. Why change that which is not broken?• Five main reasons:1. To improve the ‘fit’ between strategy and organisational capability2. To install ‘best practice’ elements3. To exploit organisational core competencies4. To create an adaptive organisation5. To improve capacity for strategy-makingOctober 6, 2012 By: Wayne St. A. Jones 24
  25. 25. Change What? • Structures including processes • Cultures • Processes • Personnel systems: - Recruitment/selection - Performance management/appraisal - Assessment - Rewards - Training/developmentOctober 6, 2012 By: Wayne St. A. Jones 25
  26. 26. Discussion? • “When organizations are caught flat- footed, failing to anticipate or respond to new needs, management is at fault” Daft (2006) October 6, 2012 By: Wayne St. A. Jones 26
  27. 27. Resistance to Change Resistance - any opposition to a shift in the status quo• Idea Champions will not always get much enthusiasm about their ideas.• This is so especially if the employees were not a part of the change process.October 6, 2012 By: Wayne St. A. Jones 27
  28. 28. Sources of Resistance to Change Selective Information Processing Habit Individual resistance Security Fear of the unknown Economic factorsOctober 6, 2012 By: Wayne St. A. Jones 28
  29. 29. Sources of Resistance to Change Threat to established Structural resource inertia allocations OrganizationalThreat to resistanceestablished Limitedpower focus ofrelationships change Threat to expertise Group inertiaOctober 6, 2012 By: Wayne St. A. Jones 29
  30. 30. Tactics for Overcoming Resistance to Change Approach When to UseCommunication •Change is technicalEducation •Users need accurate information and analysis to understand changeParticipation • Users need to feel involved •Designed requires information from others •Users have power to resistNegotiation • Group has power over implementation •Group will lose out in changeCoercion •A crisis exists •Initiators clearly have power •Other implementation techniques have failedOctober 6, 2012 By: Wayne St. A. Jones 30
  31. 31. Tactics Cont’d Approach When to Use Top management • Change involves multiple departments or reallocation of support resources. •Users doubt legitimacy of change Facilitation + • Where people are resisting because of fear and anxiety Support Manipulation + • Where other tactics will not work or are too expensive Co-OptationOctober 6, 2012 By: Wayne St. A. Jones 31
  32. 32. Increasing Workforce Diversity Those supervisors who approach the issues with sensitivity and think of their employees as unique individuals, rather than uniform members of a class, will be better managers of diversity and will be more likely to be given some reprieve by their employees when they make a mistake.October 6, 2012 By: Wayne St. A. Jones 32
  33. 33. Diversity types in Jamaican Organisations – Gender – Social Status – Education Level – Age – Race – Nationality – ReligionOctober 6, 2012 By: Wayne St. A. Jones 33
  34. 34. Changing age structure in USA • Baby Boomers – born between 1946- 1964 (78 million) • Generation X – born between 1965 -1976 (45 million) • Generation Y – born between 1977-1994 (72 million)October 6, 2012 By: Wayne St. A. Jones 34
  35. 35. Guidance for SupervisorsEmployers must make employment decisions on the basis of individual behaviours and characteristics. Do not use any of these classifications, such as race, sex, and age, to make employment decisions related to hiring, compensating, promoting, assigning, terminating employees. Do not ascribe characteristics to individuals because of their membership in a class.October 6, 2012 By: Wayne St. A. Jones 35
  36. 36. DISCUSSION QUESTIONWhat are some of the challenges in managing a diverse workplace ?October 6, 2012 By: Wayne St. A. Jones 36

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