PSY 239 401 Chapter 19 SLIDES


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  • There is not really an answer to this question
    The approaches pose different questions: rather than different answers to the same questions, which is what would be needed to determine which approach is right
    Worthwhile questions:
    Does personality exist? (trait)
    How do neurostructure, biochemicals, genes, and evolutionary histories produce personality traits? (biological)
    What role does the unconscious play in motivating personality and behavior? (psychoanalytic)
    What role does conscious awareness play in motivating personality and behavior? (humanistic)
    How do we choose to see reality and how is this influenced by culture? (humanistic and cultural)
    How do rewards and punishments in the environment influence personality and behavior? (behaviorism and social learning)
    How are basic mental processes related to how we see ourselves? (cognitive)
    How is personality developed? (learning, social learning, cognitive)
  • Alternative viewpoints keep us open-minded: about the existence of other phenomenon not considered in our favorite approach
  • Activity 19-1. Favorite and least favorite theories/approaches
  • Avoid arrogance: or thinking that you know it all
  • Major themes that are likely to be remembered
    Cross-situational consistency and aggregation: people remain who they are across situations; consistency is limited because behavior does change across situations (although people who are high on a trait in one situation are also high on the trait in other situations) and personality cannot predict single acts very well (but aggregate behavior can be predicted well)
    The biological roots of personality: genetics, anatomical structures of the brain, neurotransmitters, and hormones have implications for personality; but there is still a lot to learn
    The unconscious mind: the importance of this is now mainstream
    Free will and responsibility: behavior is determined (by genetics or past experience) only up to a point, and then the person has to make a choice
    The nature of happiness: based on more than material possessions or from external circumstances; happiness does not come from being stress-free, but from seeking out and accomplishing reasonable and meaningful challenges
  • Behavioral change: Rewards and punishments affect the likelihood of certain behaviors, but people can also often choose which rewards and punishments they will be subject to by choosing to put themselves in certain situations (law school, the military).
    Culture and personality: importance of how people differ between and within cultures, but similarities (or basic psychological processes) are also important
    Construals: Our opinion of reality is what matters; people have different construals; we must understand how other people perceive the world to understand other people.
    The fine, uncertain, and important line between normal and abnormal: Labeling is important and necessary, but can also be dangerous because it’s easy to pathologize too many patterns of thought and behavior and to see people only as their label.
    Activity 19-2. Discussion about what we have learned
  • To learn about someone, watch and listen to what they do and say: because we cannot directly know their thoughts and feelings
  • Activity 19-3. Change in thinking or behavior discussion
    Klein et al. article in the reader: Self-knowledge of an amnesiac patient (Note – this is a good place to discuss this article if you did not discuss it in Ch. 17.)
  • Correct answer: d
  • Correct answer: c
  • Correct answer: a
  • PSY 239 401 Chapter 19 SLIDES

    1. 1. Chapter 19: Conclusion: Looking Back and Looking Ahead The Personality Puzzle Sixth Edition by David C. Funder Slides created by Tera D. Letzring Idaho State University © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 1
    2. 2. Objectives • Discuss the different approaches to personality that have been discussed, including why there are so many • Identify some general lessons about personality © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 2
    3. 3. The Different Approaches • Because we can’t account for everything about a whole person at the same time – Each approach focuses on a few key concerns and ignores everything else © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 3
    4. 4. The Different Approaches • Which one is right? – The approaches pose different questions. • A better criterion for evaluating a psychological approach is whether it offers a way to seek an answer to a question you feel is worthwhile. © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 4
    5. 5. The Different Approaches • No single approach accounts for everything. – This might be a good thing. – A single approach would be unwieldy, confusing, incoherent, and incomplete. – Alternative viewpoints keep us open-minded. © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 5
    6. 6. The Different Approaches • Choosing a basic approach – What do you want to understand? – Which approach is most interesting to you? – Best potential for doing interesting work © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 6
    7. 7. The Different Approaches • Reasons for maintaining an awareness of alternative approaches – Avoid arrogance – Understanding for evaluating alternative approaches – Deal with phenomenon that do not fit your preferred approach – Have a chance to change your mind – Be able to integrate a few approaches © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 7
    8. 8. What Have We Learned? • • • • • Cross-situational consistency and aggregation The biological roots of personality The unconscious mind Free will and responsibility The nature of happiness © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 8
    9. 9. What Have We Learned? • • • • Behavioral change Culture and personality Construals The fine, uncertain, and important line between normal and abnormal © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 9
    10. 10. The Quest for Understanding • To learn about someone, watch and listen to what they do and say • Determine correctness by trying to explain and predict behavior – “Personality psychology is, in the final analysis, a quest for mutual understanding” (p. 697). © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 10
    11. 11. Think About It • Is personality psychology really a science, and how can you tell? Is its scientific status important? • What are your favorite and least favorite approaches to personality? Why? • How is personality psychology relevant to understanding (a) your own daily life, (b) social problems, and (c) human nature? © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 11
    12. 12. Think About It • What do you now know about people that you didn’t know before? • What do you think you will remember from this course? © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 12
    13. 13. Clicker Question #1 Which approach(es) to personality is/are correct? a) social learning b) humanistic c) psychoanalytic and behavioral d) It is not possible to answer this question. © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 13
    14. 14. Clicker Question #2 The fact that no single approach can account for everything means that personality psychologists a)will never be able to understand behavior. b)need to continue to work to develop a unifying theory. c)are forced to be open-minded by acknowledging that there are alternative viewpoints. d)have not been successful scientists. © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 14
    15. 15. Clicker Question #3 In order to understand another person, you a)should collect as much of different kinds of information as possible. b)should collect as much of one kind of information as possible. c)have to ask the person to tell you about himself. d)have to observe the person’s behavior. © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 15