DEPARTMENT OF PREVENTION OF FOOD ADULTERATION
A HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
Food is one of the essential of life. So it should be pure, nutritious and free from any type of adulteration for proper maintenance of human health. It is the duty of every
Government to make pure food available to the countrymen in sufficient quantities. In order to make available unadulterated food in the country, the Government makes various
food laws. Similarly, Government of India also made the laws to prevent adulteration in food articles in 1954 called "Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954". To given effect
to the provisions of the Act, Rules were made in 1955 and called "Prevention of Food Adulteration Rules, 1955". Though PFA Act and Rules are Central Legislature but the
responsibility of implementation has been entrusted to the State Governments and Union Territories. Each State Government and Union Territory has created its own organisation
for implementation of the Act and Rules framed thereunder.
Till 1976 in Delhi, the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act and Rules were implemented by Municipal Corporation of Delhi, NDMC and Delhi Cantt. Board in their
respective areas through Sanitary Inspectors notified as Food Inspectors. In 1976 major amendments were made in PFA Act and Rules, the implementation work of the Act and
Rules made thereunder were taken over by the Govt. of Delhi by the Directorate of Health Services. Later on separate Directorate of Prevention of Food Adulteration were created
and entrusted the responsibility of implementation of the provisions of PFA Act and Rules. The Directorate is headed by the Director, an IAS officer and notified to function as
Food Health Authority under the Act. He/She is assisted by joint Director and other technical staff under guidance of Secretary, Health and Family Welfare of Govt. of Delhi.
OFICERS OF DIRECTORATE OF PREVENTION OF FOOD ADULTERATION
S.No. Name of Officer Officer Ph. No. Res. Ph. No.
1. Sh. K.S. Wahi, Director 7194858 4648307
2. Jt. Director 7195860 --
3. Sh. K.G. Rao, LHA 7153847 3361897
4. Smt. Mohini Srivastava, Public Analyst 7153846 7445164
5. Sh. G.S. Mehra, DLA 7187464 --
6. Sr. Prosecutors:
i) Ms. Usha Mann 3381402 914-513234
ii) Sh. Raj Narain 7187464 5253882
iii) Sh. Anil Gupta 7187464 7026074
iv) Sh. B.S. Joon 7187464 6140557
7. Sh. Vijay Kumar, A.O. 7153923 --
8. Sh. Ashok Parashar, A.A. O. 7153923 5934257
9. Sh. S.K. Nagpal, ALHA -- 7866968
10. Dr. P.K. Vats, ALHA -- 7246021
11. Sh. K.K. Mittal, ALHA -- 5592602
12. Sh. Ravikant Satdeve 7153921 --
Food Inspectors - 37
Field Assistants - 24
SCOPE OF THE P.F.A. ACT
The PFA Act makes provisions for the prevention of adulteration in food, enacted by the Parliament and it extends to the whole of India. Based on the experience of the
Act from time to time, various provisions of Act have been amended in the year 1964, 1976 and 1986. These amendments have been aimed at providing stringent punishments to
the offenders and giving powers to the voluntary consumer organisations to actively associate themselves in the programme of implementation of food laws. Under the provisions
of PFA Act & Rules the terms like Adulterant, Adulterated Food, Food, Misbranded Food, Primary Food etc. have been defined as follows"
1. ADULTERANT: means any material which is or could be employed for the purposes of adulteration.
2. ADULTERATED FOOD: An article of food shall be deemed to be adulterated:
(a) if the article sold by a vendor is not of the nature, substance or quality demanded by the purchases and is to his prejudice, or is not of the nature, substance or quality
which it purports or is represented to be;
(b) if the article contains any other substance which effects, or if the article is so processed as to affect injuriously the nature, substance or quality thereof;
(c) if any inferior or cheaper substance has been substituted wholly or in part for the article; so as to affect, so as to affect injuriously the nature, substance or quality
(d) if any constituent of the article has been wholly or in part abstracted so as to affect injuriously the nature, substance or quality thereof;
(e) if the article has been prepared, packed or kept under insanitary condition whereby it has become contaminated or injurious to health;
(f) if the article consists wholly or in part of any filthy, putrid rotten, decomposed or diseased animal or vegetable substance or is insect infested or is otherwise unfit
for human consumption;
(g) if the article is obtained from the diseased animal;
(h) if the article contains any poisonous or other ingredient which renders it injurious to health.
(i) if the container of the article is composed, whether wholly or in part, of any poisonous or deleterious substance which renders its contents injurious to health;
(j) if any colouring matter other than that prescribed in respect thereof is present in the article, or if the amounts of the prescribed colouring matter which is present in
the article are not within the prescribed limits of variability;
(k) if the article contains any prohibited preservative or permitted preservative in excess of the prescribed limits;
(l) if the quality of purity of the article falls below the prescribed standard as laid down under Appendix B of PFA Rules, 1955 or its constituents are present in
quantities not within the prescribed limits of variability, which renders it injurious to health;
(m) if the quality or purity of the article falls below the prescribed standard or its constituents are present in quantities are within the prescribed limit of variability but
which does not render it injurious to health;
Provided that where the quality or purity of the article, being primary food, has fallen below the prescribed standards or its constituents are present in quantities not within
the prescribed limits of variability, in either case, solely due to natural cases and beyond the control of human agency, then such article shall not be deemedto be adulterated
within the meaning of this sub-clause.
Thus, food adulteration includes not only the intentional addition, substitution or abstraction of substances which adversely affects the nature, substances, quality of foods
but also their incidental contamination during storage, processing, transportation and distribution.
3. FOOD: means any article used as food or drink for human consumption other than drugs and water and includes:
(a) any article which ordinarily enters into, or is used in the composition or preparation of, human food,
(b) any flavouring matter or condiments, and
(c) any other article which the Central Government may, having regard to its use, nature, substance or quality, declare, by notification in the Official Gazette, as food
for the purposes of this Act.
4. MISBRANDED : an article of food shall be deemed to be misbranded:
(a) if it is an imitation of , or is a substitute for, or resembles in a manner likely to deceive, another article of food under the name of which it is sold, and is not plainly
and conspicuously labelled so as to indicate its true character;
(b) if it is falsely stated to be the product of any place of country;
(c) if it is sold by a name which belongs to another article of food;
(d) if it is so coloured, flavoured or coated. powdered or polished that the article is damaged is concealed or if the article is made to appear better or of greater value
than it really is;
(e) if false claims are made for it upon the lable or otherwise;
(f) if when sold in packages which have been sealed or prepared by or at the instance of the manufacturer or producer and which bear his name and address, the
contents of each package are not conspicuously and correctly stated on the outside thereof within the limits of variability prescribed under this Act;
(g) if the package containing it, or the label on the package bears any statement, design or device regarding the ingredients or the substances contained therein, which is
false or misleading in any material particular, or if the package is otherwise deceptive with respect to its contents;
(h) if the package containing it or the label on the package bears the name of a fictitious individual or company as the manufacturer or producer of the article;
(i) if it purports to be, or is represented as being, for special dietary uses, unless its label bears such information as may be prescribed concerning its vitamin, mineral,
or other dietary properties in order sufficiently to inform its purchases as to its value for such uses;
(j) if it contains any artificial flavouring, artificial colouring or chemical preservative, without a declaratory label stating that fact, or in contravention of the
requirements of this Act or Rules made thereunder;
(k) if it is not labelled in accordance with the requirements of this Act or Rules made thereunder;
5. PRIMARY FOOD: means any article of food, being a produce of agriculture or horticulture in its natural form.
PROHIBITION OF MANUFACTURE, SALE ETC. OF CERTAIN
ARTICLES OF FOOD
No person shall himself or by any person on his behalf manufacture for sale or store, sell or distribute:
(i) any adulterated food,
(ii) any misbranded food,
(iii) any article of food for the sale of which a licence if prescribed except in accordance with the conditions of the licence,
(iv) any article of food the sale of which is for the time being prohibited by the Food (Health) Authority in the interest of public health,
(v) any article of food in contravention of any other provision of this Act or of any rule made thereunder,
(vi) any adulterant.
PENALTIES UNDER LAW :
1. If any person:-
(a) Whether by himself or by any other person on his behalf, imports into India or manufacturers for sale, or stores, sell or distributes any article of food:-
(i) which is adulterated within the meaning of sub-clause (m) of clause (ia ) of Section 2 or misbranded within the meaning of clause (ix) of that section or the
sale of which is prohibited under any provision of this Act or any rule made thereunder or by an order of Food (Health) Authority;
(ii) other than an article of food referred to in sub-clause (I), in contravention of any of the provisions of this Act or of any rule made thereunder; or
(b) whether by himself or by any other person on his behalf, imports into India or manufacturers for sale, or stores, sells or distributes any adulterant which is not
injurious to heath; or
(c) prevents a food inspector from taking a sample as authorised by this Act; or
(d) prevents a food inspector from exercising any other power conferred on him by or under Act; or
(e) being a manufacturer of an article of food, has in his possession, or in any of the premises occupied by him, any adulterant which is not injurious to health; or
(f) uses any report of certificate of a test or analysis made by the Director of the Central Food Laboratory or by a Public Analyst or any extract thereof for the purpose
of advertising any article of food; or
(g) whether by himself or by any other person on his behalf, gives to the vendor a false warranty in writing in respect of any article of food sold by him,
he shall, in addition to be penalty to which he may be liable under the provisions of Section 6, be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than six
months but which may extend to three years, and with fine which shall not be less than one thousand rupees :
(i) if the offence is under sub-clause (i ) of clause (a) and is with respect to an article of food, being primary food, which is adulterated due to human agency or is with
respect to an article of food which is misbranding within the meaning of sub-clause(k) of clause (ix) of section 2; or
(ii) if the offence is under sub-clause (ii) of clause (a), but nor being an offence with respect to the contravention of any rule made under clause (a) of clause (g) of
sub-section (1-A) of section 23 or under clause (b) of sub-section (2) of Section 24,
the court may, for any adequate and special reasons to be mentioned in the judgement, impose a sentence of imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than three
months but which may extend to two years, and with fine which shall not be less than five hundred rupees;
Provided further that if the offence is under sub-clause (ii) of clause (a) is with respect to the contravention of any rule made under clause (a) or clause (g) of Sub-section(1-
A) of Section 23 or under clause (b) of Sub-section (2) of Section 24, the court may, for any adequate and special reasons to be mentioned in the judgement, impose a sentence of
imprisonment for a term which may extend to three months and with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees.
(1-A) If any person whether by himself or by any other person on his behalf, imports into India or manufactures for sale or stores, sells or distributes:-
(i) any article of food which is adulterated within the meaning of any of the sub-clauses (e) to (1) (both inclusive) of clause (ia) of Section 2; or
(ii) any adulterant which is injurious to health, he shall, in addition to the penalty to which he may be liable under the provisions of Section 6, be punishable with
imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than one year but which may extend to six years and with fine which shall not be less than two thousand rupees;
Provided that if such article of food or adulterant, when consumed by any person is likely to cause his death or is likely to cause such harm on his body as would amount to
grievous hurt within the meaning of Section 320 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than three
years but which may extend to term of life with fine which shall not be less than five thousand rupees.
(1-AA) If any person in whose safe custody any article of food has been kept under Sub-section(4) of Section 10, tampers or in any other manner interferes with such
articles, he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than six months but which may extend to two years and with fine which shall not be less one
(1-B) If any person in whose safe custody any article of food has been kept under Sub-section (4) of Section 10, sells or distributes such article which is found by the
magistrate before whom it is produced to be adulterated within the meaning of sub-clause (h) of clause (ia) of Section 2 and which, when consumed by any person is likely to cause
his death or is likely to cause such harm on his body as would amount to grievous hurt within the meaning of Section 320 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) then,
notwithstanding anything contained in Sub-section (1-AA), he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term shall bot be less than three years but which may extend to term of
life and with fine which shall not be less than five thousand rupees.
(1-C) if any person contravenes the provisions of Section 14 or Section 14-A, he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months and
with fine which shall not be less than five hundred rupees.
(1-D) if any person convicted of an offence under this Act commits a like offence afterwards, then without prejudice to the provisions of Sub-section 92), the court, before
which the second or subsequent conviction takes place, may order the cancellation of the licence if any granted to him under this Act, and thereupon such licence shall,
notwithstanding anything in this Act, or in the rules made thereunder stand cancelled.
(2) If any person convicted of an offence under this Act commits a like offence afterwards it shall be lawful for the court before which the second or subsequent
conviction takes place to offender's name and place or residence, the offence and the penalty imposed to be published at the offender's expense in such newspapers or in such
manner as the court may direct. The expenses of such publications shall be deemed to be part of the cost attending the conviction and shall be recoverable in the same manner as a
Thus, under the provision of PFA Act, the minimum punishment is 6 months imprisonment with a fine of Rs.1,000/- which may extend upto life imprisonment with
unspecified amount of fine depending upon the gravity of the offence.
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ACT
All the 27 SDMs of Govt. of Delhi have been empowered to function as Local (Health) Authority under the provisions of PFA Act and Rules. A team of 3 Food Inspectors
and a SDM in each district under the guidance of the respective Deputy Commissioner have been constituted. The Food Inspectors under the supervision of SDM go to the field
and collect samples at random and also on complaints from various food articles outlets. One sample consists of 3 counterparts and each counterpart is properly sealed, marked
and fastened as per law and bears the slip of the LHA/SDM bearing his signature and code number. One counterpart of the sample is sent for analysis to the Public Analyst by next
working day positively. The Public Analyst sends a report of analysis within 40 days from the receipt of the sample to the concerned Local Health Authority.
If the sample is found genuine and the Local (Health) Authority is satisfied with the report of Public Analyst, intimation is sent to the person from whom the sample was
lifted. When the Local (Health) Authority is of the opinion that the report sent by Public Analyst is erroneous, he may send counter part of the sample to other Public Analyst
within a period of 20 days from the date of receipt of the report from the first Public Analyst. In case the sample is found adulterated, the case if investigated by the Food Inspector
and prosecution is launched in the special designated court for the purpose and the intimation is sent for this action to the vendor who may approach the court within a period of 10
days for sending the other counterpart to the Central Food Laboratory, in case the vendor feels the report sent by the Public Analyst was erroneous. The further action is taken by
the court in this regard.
ACTIVITIES OF THE DEPARTMENT
Besides lifting of samples, carrying out of analysis of the Food samples in the food laboratory and prosecuting the offenders, the Deptt. is engaged in other activities also
viz. Demonstration cum education programmes, awareness creation programmes and participation in Health Melas etc. Emphasis is given in creation of awareness among school
children and the people residing in slums, J.J. Clusters and Semi-Urban areas. The people are educated on various provisions of the food laws, demonstration on simple tests of
detection of adulteration in food articles. The booklets containing all the information about food article, adulterants, various health problems caused due to adulterants, simple
methods for detection of common adulterants and the pre-cautions to be taken by the consumers while purchasing of the food articles Annexure-I, are distributed to the public free
of cost at various exhibitions, health melas and education programmes especially conducted by the Department.
With a view to take the administrating more responsive to the needs of the people of Delhi and to bring transparency to its functioning,
Government of Delhi has decentralized the administration. In consonance with this policy of Govt. of Delhi, the Department of PFA has already started to lift samples
District wise under the guidance of Sub-Divisional Magistrates of different Districts. The teams of Food Inspectors henceforth would lift the samples only in the presence of
SDMs who have been given powers of Local Health Authority under the PFA Act/rules.
Thus, the Food Inspectors cannot lift samples independently and shall lift the samples only in the presence of SDMs/LHAs. In case of any doubt, the
shopkeeper/vendor/manufacturer will be well within his/her right if he/she insists for the Identity Card of the SDMs/LHAs or Food Inspectors to ascertain their credentials.
The public is hereby informed to send their complaints, if any, in respect of any food item which is on sale in respective localities, to the Deputy Commissioners (Civil) or
sub Divisional Magistrates the area. Following are the telephone numbers and location of the 27 Sub Divisional Magistrates of Delhi:
THE SDM/LHA OF YOUR AREA:
DISTRICT NORTH DISTRICT WEST DISTT NEW DELHI
SDM (Sadar Bazar) SDM(Punjabi Bagh) SDM(Connaught Place)
Room No. 152, Tis Hazari Delhi State Coop Bldg Room no 18
Phone:- 3978984 Main Rohtak Road, Nangloi Piatala House
Phone: 5183588 Phone: 3386228
SDM (Civil Lines) SDM (Rajouri Garden) SDM(Sansad Marg)
Room No. 138, Tis Hazari Old Middle School, Ram Pura, 12/1 Jam Nagar House
Phone:- 3918044 Phone: 7190615 Shahjahan Road
Phone : 3386982
SDM (Kotwali) SDM (Patel Nagar) SDM (Chankya Puri)
Room No. 156, Tis Hazari Old Middle School, Ram Pura Room No 11
Phone:- 3911031 Phone: 7190613 Patiala House
DISTRICT NORTH-EAST DISTRICT CENTRAL DISTT SOUTH WEST
SDM (Seelampur) SDM( Darya Ganj) SDM (Najaf Garh)
Old Seelampur Court, G.T. Road Room no 145, Tis Hazari BDO Office
Shahdara Phone : 3914464 New Roshan pura Najafgarh
Phone:- 2824272 Phone: 5021834
SDM (Seema Puri) SDM(Karol Bagh) SDM (Vasant Vihar
Weaver's Complex Room no 137, Tis Hazari Old terminal tax building
Opp. Gagan Cinema Phone: 3913901 Kapashera
Phone:- 2122733 Phone: 5065622
SDM(Pahar Ganj) SDM (Delhi cantt)
Factory Complex Old Terminal Tax Building
Phone 3559400 Phone : 5069185
DISTRICT NORTH-WEST DISTRICT EAST DISTT SOUTH
SDM (Saraswati Vihar) SDM(Vivek Vihar) SDM (KalkaJI)
Kanjhawala, Phone: 5951140 L.M Bandh , Shastri Nagar 37 Tuglka bad Indl Area
Pushta , Geeta Colony Hauz Khas
Phone : 2013258 Phone: 6096500, 6071388
SDM (Narela) SDM (Preet Vihar) SDM (Defence Colony)
BDO Complex Ali pur L.M Bandh , Shastri Nagar Mehrulai Badar Pur Road
Phone: 7204214 Pushta , Geeta Colony Saket
Phone : 2230370 Phone: 6568772
SDM(Model Town) SDM(Gandhi Nagar) SDM (Hauz Khas)
Old Middle School Rampura L.M Bandh , Shastri Nagar Old Tehshil Mehruli Bldg
Phone: 7151900 Pushta , Geeta Colony Qutab Minar
Phone 2058348 Phone: 6964402
If your complaint is not solved by the SDM, talk to the Dy. Commissioner of your area:
Dy Commissioner (NORTH) Dy. Commissioner (WEST) Dy. Commissioner (NEW DELHI)
Room no 154, Tis Hazari Old Middle School 12/1 Jam Nagar House
Phone: 3943048 Rampura Shah Jahan Road,
Fax: 3963393 Phone: 7190629 Phone : 3389685,
Fax : 7190617 3389549
Dy. Commissioner (NORTH-EAST) Fax: 3389379
Weavers complex Dy. Commissioner (CENTRAL)
Opp Gagan cinema Room no 148 , Tis Hazari Dy. Commissioner (SOUTH WEST)
Phone: 2122732 Phone: 3962824 Old Terminal Tax Bldg.
Fax : 2129686 Fax : 3914300 Kapashera
Dy. Commissioner (NORTH-WEST) Dy. Commissioner (EAST) Fax : 5069113
Kanjhawala L.M. Bandh Shastri Nagar
Phone 5953785 Pushta, Geeta colony Dy. Commissioner (SOUTH)
Phone: 2421656 Mehrauli Badarpur Road
Fax : 2455519 Saket,
Divisional Health Authority (D.L.H.A):
A-20, Lawrence Road, Indl Area, Delhi-35
Divisional Local Health Authority (I) Divisional Local Health Authority (II) Divisional Local Health Authority (III)
(North, North-East, & North-west Districts (West, Central, East Districts) (New Delhi, South-West, South
Phone: 7153846 Phone: 7187464 Districts)
You can also approach:
FOOD HEALTH AUTHORITY CUM DIRECTOR (PFA)
Name of food Adulterant Disease/Health affects Simple method for detection of common Remarks
MILK & MILK
1) Milk Impure water May cause nausea, 1. The lactometer reading shall not ordinarily Lactometer is marked in degrees
Abdominal pains be less than 26. ranging from 0.40
Diarrhoea, gas 2. The presence of water can be detected by The test is not valid if skimmed
Formation putting a drop of milk on a polished slanting milk of other thickening material
Water Consumers will be surface, the drop of pure milk either stops or is added.
deprived from the flows slowly leaving a white trail behind it.
desired nutirional Whereas milk adulterated with water will
value foods. flow immediately without leaving a mark.
Starch Diarrhoea, gas Add a few drops of tincture of Iodine or Iodine
Formation solution. Formation of blue colour indicates the
presence of starch.
Removal of fat Consumers will be The Lactometer reading will go above 26 while
deprived from the the milk apparently remains thick.
Synthetic milk The milk can easily be tested by Urease strips
a) Test for protein (available in the Medical stores) because
synthetic milk be devoid of protein.
b) Test for Glucose/ It causes cancer, Milk does not contain glucose /invert sugar, if
inverted sugar impairment of body test for glucose with urease strip found positive. If it is made of synthetically by
part, cause behavior It means milk is adulterated. adding while colour water paint.
change i.e. irritating
Sugar syrup -- -- Oils, alkali, urea and detergent
etc. Glucose, inverted sugar
syrup is added in milk to increase
the consistency and test.
c. Urea Urea on boiling may Take 5 ml of milk in a test tube and add 2 drops Test for synthetic milk requires
convert into biuret of bromothymol blue solution development of specific reagents. In case of
which causes fall in blue colour after 10 minutes indicates the doubt, please contact PFA deptt.
blood pressure presence of urea in milk.
irritation in the urinary
d) Neutralizer Causes skin diseases Take 5 ml of milk in a test tube and 2 drops of
washing soda/baking & damages to bromocresol purple solution. Development of DO
soda alkaline respiratory tract. violet colour after 10 minutes indicates the
detergent Harmful to intestines presence of Neutralizer or alkaline detergent in
2.Khoa and its Starch Diarrhoea/Gas Boil a small quantity of sample with some
products formation water, cool and add a few drops of loding
solution. Formation of blue colour indicates the
presences of starch.
3. Chhana/ Starch DO Boil a small quantity of sample with some
Paneer water, cool and add a few drops of Iodine
solution. Formation of blue colour indicated
the presence of starch.
4.Ghee Vanaspati or Consumer will be Take about one tea spoon full of method sample The test in specifie for seasame oil which is
Margarine deprived from the of ghee with equal quantity of concentrated compulsory added to Vanaspati and Margarine
desired nutritional Hydrochloric acid in a stoppered test tube and Some coal tar colours also give a positive test.
value foods add to it a pinch of sugar. Shake well for one If the test is positive i.e. red colour develops
minute and let it stand for five mintues. only by adding strong Hydrochloric acid
Appearance of crimson colour (vilot pink) in (without adding crystals is of sugar) then the
lower (acid) layer shows presence of Vanaspati sample is adulterated with coaltar dye. If the
or Margarine. crimson or red colour develops after adding and
shaking with sugar, then alone Vansapati or
Margarine is present.
5) Mashed It may cause food The presence of mashed potatoes and sweet
potatotes, other poisoning because patotatoes in a sample of Ghee can easily be
starches starchy foods are more detected by adding a few drops of iodine, when
susceptiable for iodine, which is brownish in colour turns to
Micro-organisms blue then mashed potatoes/sweet potatoes/other
starches are presents.
6) Butter a) Vanaspati or Consumer will be Take about one tea spoon full of melted sample The test is specific for sesame oil which is
Margraine deprived from the of butter with equal quantity of concentrated compulsorily added to Vanaspati and Margarine
desired nutritional Hydrochloric acid in a stoppered test tube and some coal tar colours also give a positive i.e.
value. add to a pinch of sugar. Shake well for one red colour develops only by adding strong.
minute Appearance of crimson colour is lower Hydrochloric acid (without adding crystal of
(acid) layer shows presence of Vanaspati or sugar) then the sample is adulterated with
Margarine. coaltar dye. If the crimson or red colour
b) Mashed Potatoes May cause food The presence of mashed potatoes and sweet develops after adding and shaking with sugar ,
Sweet Potatoes and poisoning after some potatoes in a sample of butter can easily be then alone Vanaspati or Margarine is present.
other starches time because detected by adding a few drops of iodine.When
adulterated foods are iodine (which is brownish in colour) turns to
more suspectable to blue if mashed potatoes/sweet potatoes/other
Micro-organisms. starches are present.
a) Argemone oil Epidemic dropsy Take small quantity of oil in a test tube. Add Colourless (not yellowish) Nitric acid may be
OILS AND FATS (fluid accumulation in equal quantity of concentrated Nitric acid and used. Artificial colour if present will usually be
lower extermities) shake carefully. Red to reddish brown colour in a bright shade of colour, generally. Red or pink.
glaucoma, heart lower (acid) layer would indicate the presence The test may sometimes give misleading result.
trouble debilitating of Argemone oil. The test may not respond if the Argemone oil is
diseases like beri-beri present in small quantity.this test may not be
b) Mineral oil Lever trouble and Take 2 ml of the oil sample and add equal
possibility of cancer. quantity of N/2 alcoholic potash. Heat in
boiling water bath(dip in boiling water) for
about 15 minute or till it becomes clear and add
10 ml of hot water. Any turbidity shows
presence of mineral oil.
c) Castor oil Causes vomiting (i) Take about one ml of the oil. Add 10 ml of If castor oil is present in small quantity, this test
gastro enterities acidified petroleum ether and mix well. And a may not be positive.
(Diarrohea) few drops of ammonium molybdate regent.
Convulsions oedema Immediate appearance of white turbidity
indicates the presence of castor oil
1. Dissolve oil in petroleum either in a test
tube and cool the test tube in ice-salt mixture.
Turbidity within 5 minutes shows castor oil.
AGENT Chalk powder Stomatch disorder Dissolve 10 gm of sample in glass of water,
Sugar allow to settle , chalk will settle down at the
Pithi sugar I ) Washing soda Skin diseases & Add few drops of Hydrochloric acid,
damage to respiratory effervescence (give off bubbles) will indicate
tract the presence of washing soda.
ii) Chalk powder Stomach Dissolve 10 gm of sample in a glass of water,
disorder/cancer allow to settle. Chalk will settle down at the
iii) Yellow colour Cancer bottom. Take 5 ml in a test tube from the above
(unpermitted) solution and add few drops of cone HCl. A
pink colour in lower acid layers shows the
presence of unpermitted colour.
iv) Honey Sugar solution A cotton which dipped in pure honey when This test is only for added water.
lighter with a match stick burns and shows the
purity of honey. If adulterated, the presence of
water will not allow the honey to burn. It does,
it will produce a cracking sond.
a) Metanil Yellow Degeneration of testis Extract colour with luke water from food
(a non-permitted in males articles. Add few drops of concentrated
colour) Hydrochloric acid. If Magenta red colour
develops the presence of metanil yellow is
b) Saccharin Carcingenic may i) Taste a small quantity, Saccharin leaves
cause bladder cencer a lingering sweetness (on tounge for a
considerable time and
Sweetmeats, Ice Leaves bitter tastes at the end.
Cream and ii) Take two spoons of liquid sample or
Beverages about 5 to 10 gms of solid sample with
little quantity of water in a test tube, add
few drops of Hydrochloric acid and 10
ml of solvent ether, Shake well. Decant
the ether layer in a test tube or beaker
and wash the either layer with small
quantity of water evaporate the ether
spontaneously. Add one drop of water
(warm) to the residue and taste. Sweet
taste will indicate the presence of
i) Wheat, Rice, a) Dust, pebble, Stomach Disorder These may be examined visually to see foreign Damaged/ discoloured grains should be a slow
Maize, Jawar, stone straw, Lever damage and matter, damaged grains, discoloured grains , as possible since they may be affected by fungal
Bajra, Chana, weed seeds cancer insect rodent contamination etc. toxins Argemon seeds, Dhature seeds etc. in
Barley etc. damaged grain modernately excessive amount can result in risk
weevilled to health. Discard the damaged/undesirable
grains, insects grains before use.
rodent hair and
b) Ergot (a fungus -Do- a) Purple black longer sized grains in Bajra
containing show the presence of Ergots
poisonous b) Put some grains in a glass tumbler
substance) containing 20 percent salt solution.
Ergot floats over
c) Dhatura Lever damage and The surface while sound grains settles down
cancer Dhatura seeds are flat with edges with blackish
brown colour which can be seperated out by
d) Karnel Bunt Stomach, Disorder close examination.
The affected wheat karnel have a dull
apperance, blackish in colour and rotten fish
e) Argemone seed Epidemic dropsy, smell
glaucoma, Heart Assemble mustard seed which show a
trouble protrusion on close examination. The surface
of Argemone seed is grainy and rough while Argemone
that of mustard seed is smooth. When Mustard
seed is pressed in side, it is yellow where as
seed is white.
Sella Rice Metanil Yellow (a Degeneration test is in Rub a few grains in the plams of tow hands,
(Parboiled Rice) non-permitted males /cancer yellow colour get ruduced or disappear. Add a
coalter colour) few drops of concentrated Hydrochloric acid to
a few rice grains mixed with little water
presence of pink colour indicates presence of
Turmeric (colouring Anaemia paralysis etc. i) Take a small amount of sample in test See Appendix I
for golden (if turmeric contains tube, add some water and shake Dip
appearance) lead chromate) Boric acid paper (filter paper dipped in
Boric acid solution).
If it turns pink, turmeric is present.
ii)Take some rice and sprinkle on it a
small amount of soaked lime for some
3. Dal Whole and (a) Khersari Dal Lathyrism, Paralysis The rice grains will turn red if turmeric present.
split & Leprosy i) Khesari dal has edged typed appearance
showing a slant on one side and square The test is only for khesari dal (Metanil yellow
in appearance in contrast to other dals. if present will give a similar colour immediately
even without simmering).
ii) add 50 ml of dilute Hydrochloric acid to
the sample and keep in simmering for
about 15 minute. The pink colour
developed indicates the presence of
Khesari dal Visual exmination will
detect these adulterants.
4. Atta, Maida b) Clay, stone, Stomach disorder Raject if the number of insects is large or if the
suji (Rawa) gravels, webs Lever damage & odour is unpleasant and taste bitter or gritty.
insects, rodent cancer
hair & excreta
c) Metanil yellow Degeneration of test is Take 5 gms of the sample with 5 ml of water in
(a non in males and effect a test tube and add a few drops of concentrated
permitted lever Hydrochloric acid. A pink colour shows
coalter colour) presence of Metanil yellow.
a) Sand soil, insects Stomach disorder, These can be identified by visual examination.
webs, lumps, Lever damage &
rodent hair and cancer
excreta Affect intestines By moving a magnet through the sample, Iron
b) Iron filling filling can be separated.
5. Besan Khesari flour Lathyrism, Paralysis Add 50 ml of dilute Hydrochloric acid to The test is only for
Leprosy 10 gms of sample and keep on simmering for Khesari dal (Metanil yellow, if present will give
about 15 minutes. The pink colour, if a similar colour even without simmering insects
developed, indicates, the presence of khesari is large or if the odour is unpleasant and taste
Whole spicies Dirt, dust, straw Stomach Disorder These can be examined visually
insect, damaged Lever damage and
seeds, other seeds, Cancer
rodent hair and
Black pepper (a) Papaya seeds Papaya seeds can be seprated out from pepper
as they are shrunken, oval in shape and greenish
brown or brownish black in colour.
(b) Light black (1) Float the sample of black pepper in
alchohol (rectified spirit). The mature
black pepper berries sink while the
papaya seeds and light black pepper float.
(2) Press the berries with the help of fingers
light berries will break easily while black
pepper will not break.
(c) Coated with Cancer Black pepper coated with mineral oil gives
mineral oil kerosene like smell.
Cloves Volatile oil Deprived from the (3) Exhausted cloves can be identified by its
Extracted Nutritional value Small size and shrunken appearance. The
(exhausted cloves) foods characheristic pungent taste of genuine cloves is
less pronounced in exhausted cloves.
Take some water in beaker/glass and add
clvoes. Genuene cloves will settle down at
bottom while exhausted cloves will float, on
(c) Mustard Seed Argemone Seed Epidemic dropsy, Mustard seeds have a smooth surface the Use manginifying glass for identification.
glaucoma, heart argemone seed have grainy and rough surface
trouble and are black and hence can be separated out by
close examination. When Mustard seed is
pressed in side it is yellow while Argemone
seed is white.
(d) Turmeric Lead Chromate Anaemia, Abortion, Appears to be bright coloured and leaves colour
whole Paralysis, Brain immediately in water.
4. Powdered (a) Added Starch damage deprived from Boil the sample with some water in a test tube
spices the desired nutritional and cool. And a few drops of tincture of Iodine Iodine test for added starch is not applicable for
value foods. or Iodine solution. Indication of blue colour turmeric powder.
shows the presence of starch.
Powdered spices (b) Chalk Powder Stomach disorders/ Take one gram of powdered spices in a test tube
yellow soap Cancer. and add 5 ml. Carbontetra-chloride solvent
stone powder Shake well and left for some time. Impurities
will settle at the bottom, while the spice powder
will float on the surface.
(c) Common salt Deprived from the Taste for addition of common salt.
(a) Turmeric (a) Coloured Saw Stomach disorders, Take a tea spoon full of turmeric powder in a The test is only for Metanil yellow.
powder test tube. Add a few drops of concentrated
Degeneration of tests Hydrochloric acid. Instant appearance of pink
in male/cancer colour which disappeares on dilution with water
shows the presence of trumeric. If the colour
persists, metanil yellow (an artificial colour ) a
non permiktted coaltar is present.
Chalk Powder Stomach Take a small quantity of turmeric powder in a
disorder/Cancer test tube containing small quantity of water.
Add a few drops of concentrated Hydrochloric
acid, effervesence (give off bubbles) will
indicate the presnce of chalk of yellow soap
Chillies Powder (a) Brick, Powder, Stomach Take a tea spoon full of chillies powder in a
salt powder or irritation/Cancer glass of water. Coloured water extract will This test is only for earthy material
tale powder show the presence of artificial colour. Any
grittiness that may be felt on rubbing the
sediment at the bottom or glass confirm the
presence of brick powder/sand, soapy and
smooth touch of the white residue at the bottom
indicates the presence of soap stone.
(b) Water soluble Lever damage/ Cancer Water soluble artificial colour can be detected
Coaltar Colour by sprinkling a small quantity of chillies or
turmeric powder on the surface of water
contained in a glass tumbler. The water soluble
colour will immediately start discending in
(c ) oil soluble Lever damage/cancer Take 2 gm of the sample in a test tube, add few See also Appendix I . In place of solvent ether
coaltar ml of solvent ether and shake. Decant ether thinner can also be used.
layer into a test tube containing 2 ml of dilute
Hydrochloric acid (1 ml Hel plus 1 ml of water)
shake it, the lower acid layer will be coloured
distinct pink to red indicating presence of oil
(iii) Hing Soap stone or other Damaged to the Shake little portion of the sample with water In compounded Hing due to presence of starch,
earthy matter elementary canal and and allow to settle. Soap stone or other earthy a slight turbid solution, may be produced.
kidney stone. matter will settle down at the bottom. However this will settle down after keeping.
(iv) Saffron Coloured dried Cancer Genuine saffron will not break easily like
tendrils of maize cob artificial. Artificial saffron is prepared by
soaking maize cob in sugar and colouring it
with coal tar colour. The colour dissolves in
water if artificially coloured.
A bit of pure safforn when allowed to dissolved
in water will continue to give its safforn colour
so long as it lasts.
MISCELLENEO May cause goiter i) Test as per the kit supplied by the salt
US FOODS Deptt. Min. of industries or through
Iodized Salt Common salt State iodine Deficiency disorder (IDD)
Cell NCT, Delhi.
ii) Cut a piece of potato , add salt and wait
minute and add two drops of lemon
juice. If iodized salt blue colour will
develop. In case of common salt, there
will be no blue colour.
Common salt White powdered Damage to the Stir a spoonful of sample of salt in a glass of
stone elementary canals water. The presence of chalk will make solution
white and other insoluble immpurities will
Tea leaves (a) Exhuasted tea or Cancer and other
tur or gram dal diseases. Take a filter paper and spares a few tea leaves
husk with sprinked with water to wet the filter paper if
colour. coal tar colour is presented it would
immediately stain the filter paper wash the filter
paper under tap water and observe the staine
Spread a little slaked lime on white proclain
tile or glass plate, sprinkle a little tea dust on
the lime. Red, orange or other shades of colour
spreading on the lime will show the presence of
coal tar colour. In case of genuine tea, there will
be only a slight greenish yellow colour due to
chlorophyll, which will appear after some time.
(b) Iron fillings Damaged to the By moving a magnet through the sample, iron
elementary canals filling can be separated.
Coffee powder (c) chicory Deprived from the Gently sprinkle the coffee powder sample on
nutritional value the surface of water in a glass, the coffee floats
foods. over the water but chicory begins to sink down
within a few seconds. The falling chicory
powder particles leave behind them a trail of
colour , due to large amount of caramel.
Starch , toasted Do Take a small amount of coffee powder in a test
bread powder, tube with water and heat. Take another test tube
chokar etc and add two granules of potassium permegnate
add 2 drops of cone Hel mix both the solution
and add tincher iodine solution. If blue colour
comes, it means coffee powder is adulterated
alter natively make a decoction of the coffee,
decolourises it by adding acidified potassium
permegnate solution and then add a drop of
Blue colour shows adulteration with starchy
Do (i) Take the solution of sodium hydroxide in a
Tamarind seeds test tube and add coffee powder.
powder and date Development of red colour indicates
seeds powder presence of tamarind seeds.
(ii) Sprinkle the suspected coffee powder on
white filter/blotting paper and spray 1 percent
sodium carbonate solution on it. Tamarind and
date seed powder will, if persent, stain blotting
Supari Pan (j) Colour paper/ filter paper red. Lever damage & colour
Massala (ii) Saccharin dissolves in water Saccharin gives excessive
and Cancer care ingeniclingering sweet taste
and leaves bitter taste at the end.
May cause bladder
Catechu Powder Chalk Cancer Damaged Chalk gives effervescence (gives off bubbles) This test is only for chalk.
elementary canal With concentrated Hydrochiloric acid.
Silver leaves Aluminium leaves Being Reactive (i) Onignition, genuine silver leaves burn away
reduces the supply of completely, leaving glistering white
essential spherical ball of the same mass whereas
Micronutrients aluminium leaves are reduced to ashes of
dark grey blackish colour.
(ii) Take silver leaves in test tube, add diluted
Hydrochloric acid. Appearance of turbidity to
white precipitate indicated the presence of
silver leaves. Aluminium leaves do not give any
trubidity or precipitate.
(iii) Take a small portion of metal leaves and
add a few drops of concentrated Nitric acid.
Silver leaves will completely dissolve where as
aluminium leaves will remain undissolved.
Vinegar Mineral acid Toxic/damge Test with the Metanil yellow indicator paper in
elementary canal case the colour changes from yellow to pink See appendix I
mineral acid is present.
CAUTION: The acids prescribed in these test should be used with caution. Their external & internal use on the body is strictly prohibited. They should strictly be kept away from
children. In no case mentally retareded or emotional persons should be allowed to handle them.