NYU Publishing Program: Overview of Technology in Publishing


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Overview presentation delivered to visiting Chinese publishing industry executives participating in NYU's publishing executive management program.

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NYU Publishing Program: Overview of Technology in Publishing

  1. 1. Overview of New Technologies in Publishing Michael Cairns Executive Management for the Chinese Publishing Industry
  2. 2. Technology in publishing, how it is implemented and how it is used is increasingly the differentiator - not the content! - between the publishers that will succeed and those that will fail.
  3. 3. Introduction and Agenda <ul><li>Introduction & background </li></ul><ul><li>Historical perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Technology in the back office </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting the product development value chain </li></ul><ul><li>Customer-centric technology </li></ul><ul><li>Democratization of the publishing process </li></ul><ul><li>Forecasting the future of publishing technology </li></ul>
  4. 4. Historical Perspective <ul><li>Over the past 500 years we have gone from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One Book => Bible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One Author => Monk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One Process => Years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But only in the past 10 years have we achieved: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any Book => Including ‘my book’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any Author => Including me (and my friends) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any process => Within minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functionality has expanded at the expense of cost: Far more for far less </li></ul><ul><li>Publishing operations are increasingly centered on technical solutions: enterprise resource planning, financial modeling, supply chain logistics </li></ul><ul><li>Publishing is less about print on paper and increasingly about technology </li></ul>
  5. 5. Technology in the back office <ul><li>Until mid 1980s may publishing companies relied on batch processing and card key processing </li></ul><ul><li>No technology integration of back office functions: Accounting a manual process until wide adoption of personal computers in mid 1980s </li></ul><ul><li>Book publishing followed newspaper publishing in automation: i.e.: desk-top publishing </li></ul><ul><li>In mid-1990’s larger publishing companies began implementing ERP (SAP, Oracle, BAAN) systems in accounting </li></ul><ul><li>In late 1990’s more publishing companies adopted data warehouse technology (Oracle, Sybase) </li></ul><ul><li>In early 2000’s publishing companies began adopting supply chain and process improvement technology </li></ul>
  6. 6. Technology in Back Office <ul><li>Significant benefits of scale for publishers that implemented these solutions early </li></ul><ul><li>Enabled gains in productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Raised reliance on in-house technical expertise: IT department became part of executive management </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded publisher’s control over processes: all page layout, data keying, etc. brought in-house at significant cost savings </li></ul><ul><li>Created ‘technical capacity’ and ‘capability’ that is now important for expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Greater appreciation for technology as a business driver </li></ul>
  7. 7. Supporting the Publishing Value Chain <ul><li>Desk-top production in early – mid 1980’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid increase in productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed to market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant reduction in expense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quark, Pagemaker, dBase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SGML: highly ‘expensive’ mark-up language </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Database publishing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation of structured databases that were searchable by customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CDROM launch in mid 1980s: Huge expansion in information products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online information products: MAID, Dialog, with structured query formats and regimented ‘professional’ only products </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Merchandising </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior to Amazon.com virtually no marketing and merchandising was ‘electronic’ </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Supporting the Publishing Value Chain - Trade <ul><li>Entire publishing process is now automated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authors submit files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Files are databased </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasingly content is tagged for merchandising </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Merchandising driving content management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amazon.com and on-line retailers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publisher’s developing own web presence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation of content warehouses: Harpercollins, Random House, Hachette, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition that ‘sampling’ via web browser should be similar to an in-store experience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of author specific sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interlinking is a powerful tool for author/publisher success </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. HarperCollins: Browse Inside
  10. 10. Authonomy.co.uk
  11. 11. Supporting the Publishing Value Chain - Education <ul><li>Similar process improvements to Trade </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains a print model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimentation is gaining ground </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation limits: Level of technical capacity at schools, costs of technology, capacity to evaluate technology based tools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CDROM publishing partially successful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stand alone products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplemental products </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Using technology to broaden product offering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment and remediation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student performance and monitoring, Class planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Education publishers become solution providers </li></ul>
  12. 12. Pearson: My Math Lab
  13. 13. Supporting the Publishing Value Chain – Professional <ul><li>Current large information publishers were founded on ‘old proprietary’ database businesses: MAID, Dialog, Infotrak </li></ul><ul><li>Some included hardware: Reuters, Thomson </li></ul><ul><li>Vast consolidation around segments: Medical, Financial, Legal, Tax </li></ul><ul><li>Professional publishing leads way in development of ‘unstructured databases’: migrating away from table driven (Oracle db) approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Increased importance of xml tagging: programmatic importation of data from multiple sources creates valuable whole </li></ul><ul><li>Information publishers are innovators in use of technology to power their businesses </li></ul>
  14. 14. Reed Elsevier: OncologyStat
  15. 15. Customer-centric Technology <ul><li>Development of ‘platforms’: from print journal to e-delivery of specific articles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Publishers are developing tools and applications to support use of content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content in context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content as part of the work-flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elsevier, Reed, West, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Books and e-Books </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early promise/hype never delivered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kindle isn’t an “e-book” reader it is an “e-platform” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sony e-Reader, Iliad, IPhone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible screens, Converged content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subscription models replace purchase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Library context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer: content on the move </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Database marketing: Profiling/behavioral </li></ul>
  16. 16. Democratization of Publishing Process <ul><li>Incredible explosion of content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anyone is a publisher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any type of content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Driven by access to professional tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From InDesign to Dreamweaver to Blogger: Barriers are eliminated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computing power cheap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network effects significant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-publishing process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>45,000 titles with Lulu: $99/per title for a printed book </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On-demand publishing programs: no title out of print </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Photobooks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blurb.com, Photobucket, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increasingly ‘mystique’ of publishing is eliminated: Consumers will source their own content, produce it and consume it without (direct) involvement of traditional publisher </li></ul><ul><li>What happens in nations where traditional publishing is less entrenched – India, China, Africa? </li></ul>
  17. 17. Lulu.com
  18. 18. New Entrants and Wild Cards <ul><li>Google and the Google Book Program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not fully resolved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits unknown but potentially significant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digitization generally </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To what end? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How much is too much? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who is in charge and are we making mistakes we will regret later? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Network Effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential vast productivity and effectiveness gain from network computing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboration and Crowdsourcing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared applications and application development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maintaining the value of content vs ‘good enough’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant challenge for all publishers: commoditization </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Librarything.com
  20. 20. Forecasting the Future of Technology in Publishing <ul><li>Publishing and technology will become synonymous (if it hasn’t already) </li></ul><ul><li>Many losers who are slow to migrate to web delivery, xml based and ‘open’ social network orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of solutions based publishing: content is secondary to the provision of a work-flow solution, an integrated application and/or an open ‘widget’ application enabling further leverage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amazon web services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Education publishers will follow information publishers in rapid adoption of solutions based applications </li></ul><ul><li>All publishers will be slow to adopt open social networks and new entrants will take market share </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Google isn’t finished </li></ul></ul>