Pakistan Rural Household Survey Overview and Highlights by Hina Nazli - PSSP

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Presentations made at the PSSP First Annual Conference - December 13, 14, 2012 - Planning Commission, Islamabad, Pakistan

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Pakistan Rural Household Survey Overview and Highlights by Hina Nazli - PSSP

  1. 1. Pakistan Rural Household Survey Overview and Highlights by Hina Nazli, Syed Hamza Haider, Stephanie Hausladen, Asjad Tariq,Hassan Shafiq, Saqib Shahzad, Amina Mehmood, Asma Shahzad and Edward Whitney Productivity, Growth and Poverty Reduction in Rural Pakistan Pakistan Strategy Support Program (PSSP) December 13, 2012 Islamabad
  2. 2. Plan of Presentation• Rationale• Sample and survey instruments• Introduction of Survey – basic human capabilities – Economic factors (income, livelihoods, work, expenditures), – Human factors (education, health, living conditions), – Political factors (empowerment, rights, voice), – Socio-cultural factors (status, dignity), and – Protective factors (insecurity, risk, vulnerability)• Summary of findings• Way forward
  3. 3. Rationale for the Panel Survey – First of Four Annual Rounds between 2012 and 2015 Provide: • a credible baseline assessment of the rural economy of Pakistan • a scientific mechanism for the identification of challenges and opportunities for economic growth and poverty reduction • and an instrument for monitoring and evaluating outcomes from National Policies especially under the New Growth Framework
  4. 4. Survey Sample• 19 districts from three provinces (Punjab, Sindh, KPK) – 12 from Punjab – 5 from Sindh – 2 from KPK• 4 mouzas in each district (76 in total) – 1 enumeration block with a maximum of 200 households• 28 households in one enumeration block• 2,124 households visited – 34 refused• Survey covered 2090 households – 1310 in Punjab, – 556 in Sindh, and – 224 in KPK
  5. 5. Survey Information• 76 enumerators and 19 supervisors were selected to implement the survey• The survey was conducted between March 20th, 2012 and April 25th, 2012• The data entry program was written in CSPro, with internal consistency checks. The files were then converted to Stata and SPSS
  6. 6. Survey Instruments• Separate instruments to collect information at household and village levels• Household-level questionnaires – Male questionnaire – Female questionnaire – Young persons questionnaire (18-35 years)• Village-level questionnaires – Community questionnaire – School questionnaire – Price questionnaire
  7. 7. Modules in Household Level Questionnaires
  8. 8. Survey to Track Old Panel Households• Track households in four districts surveyed by the IFPRI panel during 1986-1991 – Attock, Faisalabad, Dir, and Badin• A two page questionnaire was designed to find out: – If old household is still in the village – Information on new members of the household – Information on the move-out (migration) members of the households – Reasons of moving-out• We will be linking to the original panel from 1986-1991 and tracking the split households as well• This will make one of the most unique data sets in the developing world
  9. 9. Population Pyramid Age 95 to 99 90 to 94 85 to 89 80 to 84 75 to 79 70 to 74 65 to 69 60 to 64 55 to 59 50 to 54 45 to 49 40 to 44 35 to 39 30 to 34 25 to 29 20 to 24 15 to 19 10 to 14 5 to 9 Under 5 Number of Individuals Male Female
  10. 10. Household Composition by Per Capita Expenditure Quintile 9 8.36 8 0.36 7.33 6.69 7 0.45 6.49# of People in Household 0.43 0.40 5.65 6 0.44 4.53 5 # Elderly 4.04 0.33 # Working Age 4 # Children 3 4.03 3.69 3.60 2 3.34 2.96 1 3.96 2.85 2.57 1.87 1.24 2.49 0 Quintile 1 Quintile 2 Quintile 3 Quintile 4 Quintile 5 Overall
  11. 11. Economic Factors(work, income, livelihoods)
  12. 12. Type of Households in Rural Pakistan 100 8 90 16 19 80Percentage of Households 13 29 29 70 14 10 Non Farm Enterprise 60 5 Non Agricultural Wage 11 8 50 22 28 Agricultural Wage 40 6 11 Tenant 30 29 Land Owner 20 10 37 21 50 34 0 Punjab Sindh KPK Overall
  13. 13. Proportion of Farmers by Size of Farms and Province 100 90 90 87 80Percentage of Households 70 70 60 50 40 30 20 20 12 10 7 7 3 1 0 2 1 0 Punjab Sindh KPK Marginal farmers Small farmers Medium farmers Large farmers
  14. 14. Nature of Non-Agricultural Wage WorkOverall Construction labor KPK Factory worker Government/parastatal Private enterprise Sindh Maid servant Teacher/professor OtherPunjab 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Percentage of Non-Agricultural Waged Workers
  15. 15. Non-Agricultural Occupations in Rural Pakistan by GenderConstruction labor Factory worker GovernmentPrivate enterprise FemaleTeacher/professor Male Maid servant Other 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Percentage of Non-Agricultural Waged Workers
  16. 16. Connectivity with markets:Distance to Work (non farm employment) > 15 km 28% up to 5 km 53% 5-15 km 19%
  17. 17. Nature of Non-Agricultural EnterpriseOverall 40.5 17.8 41.7 KPK 52.4 47.6 Trade Production Sindh 31.5 30.3 38.1 ServicesPunjab 44.8 11.8 43.4 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Percentage of Non-Agricultural Enterprises
  18. 18. Connectivity with markets:Location where non-agricultural products are sold City in different district 4% City in same district 22% Village in different district In own village 3% 60% Different village same district 11%
  19. 19. Labor Force Participation Rates 50 45 45 44 40 41Labor force participation rate (%) 40 38 35 35 31 31 30 26 Male 25 22 21 Female 20 Overall 15 10 5 3 0 Punjab Sindh KPK Overall
  20. 20. Women who do not Participate in Labor Force Spent More Hours Per Week on Household Chores than the Non-Participating Women household agricultural activities house maintenance Participating women shopping preparing dung cakes Non participatingstitching and craft work for her own house women washing and pressing clothes collecting firewood and fodder collecting water helping and caring children and elders cleaning own house washing and cleaning utensils cooking food for home 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 Hours
  21. 21. Sources of Income in Rural Pakistan Non- Remittances Other Agricultural 1% 4% Enterprise 7% Own Farm 28% Non- Agricultural Employment 24% Own Livestock 4% Agricultural Employment 32%
  22. 22. Source of Income by Per Capita Expenditure QuintilesQuintile 5Quintile 4 Own Farm Income Own Livestock Income Agricultural EmploymentQuintile 3 Non-Agricultural Employment Non-Agricultural EnterpriseQuintile 2 Remittances OtherQuintile 1 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Percentage of Income
  23. 23. Major Expenditure Heads Education Others 1% 7% Medical 5%Clothing and laundary 8% Housing, Fuel and lighting Food, beverage 16% and tobacco 63%
  24. 24. Percentage of Food Expenditure 10 15 20 25 30 0 5Wheat & wheat flourRice & rice flour Milk & milk products Pulses Meats Oils Sweeteners Food Items Fruits Vegetables SpicesTea and Coffee Quintile 5 Quintile 1 Miscellaneous Share of Food Expenditure on Major
  25. 25. Human Factors(education, health, living conditions)
  26. 26. Distribution of Individuals by the Levelof Literacy Across Gender and Province 60 51 Male% individuals older than 10 years 50 47 Females 39 Both 40 37 30 27 27 22 20 19 15 10 7 6 4 0 Illiterate Fully literate Literate with difficulty Partially literate
  27. 27. Completed Years of Education by Gender and Province 80 72 70% individuals currently not in school Male 60 Females 50 42 40 30 22 20 15 14 13 10 5 7 5 4 0 No schooling Primary Middle Matric Higher than matric
  28. 28. Gross Enrollment Rate at Primary Level 160 140 136 121 120 115Enrollment rate (%) 98 100 92 80 74 60 52 40 31 20 0 Punjab Sindh KPK Overall Boys Girls
  29. 29. Nearly 40% of Children Attending Primary School Are More Than 9 years old 13-14 years 7% 10-12 years 35% 5-9 years 58%
  30. 30. Gross Enrollment at Middle Level 80 75 70 59 60Enrollment rate (%) 51 50 48 42 40 33 30 28 20 10 7 0 Punjab Sindh KPK Overall Boys Girls
  31. 31. Reasons for Leaving School by Gender Others No resource/poverty No interest in studying Family pressure Uselessness of education Female Male School was far away To earn livelihoodGot available/desired level education 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 % individuals
  32. 32. % Villages 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 11 Basic Health Unit 9 Rural Health Center 29 Clinic/Dispensary 55Midwife service (private) 1 Hospital Lady health 46 visitor/supervisor Presence of a Health Facility 43 Hakeem/quack doctor Proportion of Villages Reporting the
  33. 33. Supply of Drinking Water to HouseholdOverall 2 57 24 7 10 Own Tubewell Hand pump KPK 2 33 8 22 36 Motor pump Sindh 3 77 5 7 8 Piped Water inside house OtherPunjab 2 52 32 5 8 0 20 40 60 80 100 Percentage of Households
  34. 34. Garbage Disposal FacilitiesOverall 3.28 30.75 3.68 62.04 Thrown into fixed place (regular garbage disposal) Thrown into fixed place (no KPK 2.51 62.65 0.33 34.51 regular garbage disposal) Burn garbage Sindh 1.40 26.39 4.12 68.08 Throw where convenientPunjab 4.07 28.55 3.92 63.10 Sell garbage 0 20 40 60 80 100 Percentage of Households
  35. 35. Daily Power Outages KPK 42 49 9 Sindh 10 72 16 3 0-6 Hours 7-12 HoursPunjab 10 27 39 24 13-18 Hours 18+ HoursOverall 9 38 35 18 0 20 40 60 80 100 Percentage of Households
  36. 36. Political Factors(empowerment, rights, voice)
  37. 37. Perceptions of Major Business Constraints Crime, theft and social disorder A dysfunctional legal systemPoor access to markets/market information Loan procedure too tedious Corruption Poor quality roads Lack of access to formal credit Inadequate access or poor quality of electricity 0 20 40 60 80 100 % focus groups
  38. 38. Major Source of Credit Commercial Banks Others 9% 2% Landlord 7% Govt Bank/ NGOs/ Microfinance Institutions 11% Aarthi/Beopari/Trade r 9% Relatives and Shopkeeper Friends 11% 51%
  39. 39. Availability of Public Services in Selected VillagesAvailability of any health awareness program in village Availability of any family planning awareness… Availability of any immunization program in village Availability of garbage collection system in village Availability of sewerage channel for waste water Availability of cellular phone service in village Availability to fixed-line phone service in village Availability to sui gas in village Availability to cylinder gas in village Village electrified 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 % villages
  40. 40. Villages Reporting the Presence of a Social Welfare Program 90 82 80 71 70 61 60 57% villages 50 40 27 29 30 20 14 14 14 12 12 10 6 0 BISP Watan Card NRSP Others Punjab Sindh KPK
  41. 41. Socio-Cultural Factors (status, dignity)
  42. 42. Score of “life right now” on a ten-step ladder 30.0 25.6 25.0 20.0 18.2% respondents 17.3 15.0 14.2 9.8 10.0 6.5 5.0 4.1 3.3 .6 .4 .0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Steps of ladder
  43. 43. Level of Trust 80 71 70 60 49 50% respondents 44 43 40 30 29 24 23 20 20 10 0 Neighbours Judiciary Health People Govt. official Police National Parliment institutions govt members
  44. 44. Status and Dignity Extremely Risk Averse 51% Openness to Change 39% Poverty Seen as Due to 58% External Factors Rivalry/ Envy 42% Trust 51% Religiosity 49% Self-esteem 52%Internal Locus of Control 40% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Percentage of Individuals
  45. 45. Protective Factors(insecurity, risk, vulnerability)
  46. 46. Food Security: Worry About Having Enough to Eat Sometimes Often 7% 4% Rarely 10% Did Not Worry About Not Having Enough to Eat 79%
  47. 47. Negative Economic Shocks Experienced by Households Medical expenses due to illness or injury Lost home/ repair cost due to flood Other costs of wedding Major loss of crops due to floodLoss or destruction of other consumption assets Cut-off or decrease of regular remittances Loss of livestock due to flood Loss of income due to illness or injury Cost of court case Other 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Percentage of Households
  48. 48. Most Common Coping Strategies for Negative Economic Shocks Other 6 Sale/mortgae of assets 4 Borrowing 5 Assistance from people/NGOs 6 Cut in non-essential expenses 9 Substitution for inferior food 9Extra hours work/more members at work 12 None 48 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Percentage of households
  49. 49. 23% households in 2010 and 18% in 2011 were affected by floods Flood Coping Strategies Used by HouseholdsSaved more money in case of natural disasters Built storage room for crops/seedsReduction in agricultural machinary investment Move toward more non-farm activities Seasonal migration Some family members migrated Helped community build barrages Rebuilt house away from watercourse Invested in a better house 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Percentage of Households
  50. 50. Summary of Findings• Size of rural non-farm sector is larger than farm sector• Wages and salaries are important sources of income especially for the individuals in lower expenditure quintile• Non farm enterprises are constrained by poor electricity and lack of credit• A large proportion of adult population is either illiterate or do not have formal education• Females are far behind males• Levels of internal locus of control, self-esteem, and trust are low
  51. 51. Way Forward• Detailed analysis of data is ongoing on many fronts – Markets – Linkages and connectivity – Clusters and urban agglomeration – Employment and income diversification – Migration – Decision making – Aspirations
  52. 52. Thank You so much

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