Artificial intelligence technologies have yet to deliver thecapacity for the textual understanding levels that humans are capable of.
websites, press releases, information memorandums, prospectuses
Manual vs automatic vs intelligent
3rd presentation of IC reporting
Method of Identifying IC-related information –content analysis (Guthrie & Petty, 2000) Manually VS Computer-based
Process of content analysis “manually”Develop the categories of ICCoding (put IC-related information into the classification based on the selected criterion )Analysis (the amount of items )
Limitation of Manual Type Manually Labor-intensive/the volume of text is limited Different coding methods applications Coding , Identification and Categorization are highly subjective (sensitivity, personal bias) Difficult to replicate studies Top-down
Computer-based Tool Electronic search (Bontis, 2002)Process: Electronic database (11000 Canadian Annual report) Terminology was compiled based on several intellectual capital books and articles Each of these terms was searched individually in the database.
Limitation of Electronic search (Bontis, 2002) Computer-based Difficult to recognize the synonyms and words with multiple meanings Context of the keywords is ignored Inadequate to investigate the IC disclose Top-down
Mappingbetween accepted IC terms (Guthrie and Petty2000) and the Factiva (Lee & Guthrie, 2010) intelligent taxonomy terms
Contribution VS Limitation Factiva (Lee & Guthrie, 2010) Contribution LimitationIdentify the IC-related information that The mapping is not accurate enoughare not mentioned in the academic (e.g Recruitment )articlesThe contents that are mined are not just The content that are mined are notlimited to the Annual Report transparent enough (e.g marketing )Neutral and negative news are also Some contents are difficult to be put intoidentified practiceBottom-up method is used
The development of the content analysis Manually Automatically Intelligent Annual Reports Sustainability reports (Cinquini,et.al, 2012)“Positive” “Positive” ”Neutral” ”Negative” (Lee & Guthrie, 2010)Top- down Bottom-up (Lee & Guthrie, 2010)
Content analysis advantages VS disadvantages advantages disadvantagesCapture the IC trends in reporting Few explanation of the nature of IC information allocated to IC categoriesCompare the different level of IC disclose Insufficient for discovering potential ICamong the different organizations elements that are not already declared/revealed in the literatureA technique for analyzing textual Insufficient for the purposes of identifyingrepositories underlying relationships of ICTo clear the process of how IC is The contents that are analyzed are quitecategorized by different researchers limitedBenchmarking
How to overcome the limitation of content analysisSemantic technologySemantic technology understands the real meaning of words based ontheories of human comprehensionGives Structure to Unstructured DataIntegrates Data from Multiple SourcesAble to Deeply Mine Data
How to use Semantic Technology to identify IC The first thing is to develop and refine the ontology
The “top-down” ontology isdeveloped based on theliterature review (Lammi,2012)Good enough?
The 1st barrier of developing ontology “What is IC?” Information about employees =?=human capital Information about organization=?=structural capital Information about customers and suppliers =?=relational capital
The 2nd barrier of developing ontology How to map the IC-related information with the classification of IC ? (see the excel)
The further research• How to develop the IC ontology that helps to identify IC-related information effectively?• Which intelligent approach can be used to fill the research gap?
Literature Review• An Yi, & Davey, H. (2010). Intellectual capital disclosure in Chinese (mainland ). Journal of intellectual capital 11(3), 326-347.• Bontis, N. (2002). Intellectual Capital Disclosure in Canadian Corporations. Journal of Human Resource Costing & Accounting.• Laurence Lock Lee, & Guthrie, J. (2010). Visualising and measuring intellectual capital in capital markets: a research method. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 11(1), 4-22.• Lino Cinquini, Emilio Passetti, Andrea Tenucci, & Frey, M. (2012). Anlyzing inellectual capital information in sustainability reports: some empirical evidence Journal of Intellectual Capital, 13(4).• Lammi, A. (2012). Intellectual Capital Strategy-Integrating Strategic Management and Intellectual Capital Ontology• J.Guthrie, R. P., K. Yongvanich, F.Ricceri. (2004). Using content analysis as a research method to inquire into intellectual capital reporting. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 5(2), 282-293.• Viven Beattie , & Thomson, S. J. (2006). Lifting the Lid on the use of Content analysis to investigate intellectual capital disclosure.• Mouritsen, J. (2009). Classification, measurement and the ontology of intellectual capital entities Journal of Human Resource Costing & Accounting, 13(2), 154-162.• Mouritsen, J. (2006). Problematising intellectual capital research: ostensive versus performative IC. Accounting, Auditing& Accountability Journal 19(6), 820-841.