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Ghidul turistic si investitional al regiunii Mures (editia 1, lb. engleza)


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Prima editie a Ghidului turistic si investitional al regiunii Mures, editat de JCI Targu Mures, cu ocazia participarii ei la Conferinta Europeana JCI din Aarhus Danemarca, unde am oferit fiecarei delegatii JCI prezente cate un exemplar si am construit relatii de parteneriat in vederea incurajarii schimburilor economice cu regiunea noastra in paralel cu promovarea potentialului turistic al regiunii.

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Ghidul turistic si investitional al regiunii Mures (editia 1, lb. engleza)

  1. 1. 1ST EDITION, JUNE 2010 Coperta 1 MURES REGIONAL TOURISTIC AND INVESTITIONAL GUIDECoperta Exterioara Targu Mures Față Sighisoara Reghin Coperta 1 Sovata
  2. 2. Laszlo Pacso Page 3 Coperta 2 Marius Alexa Page 4 Mihaela Stroe Page 5 Tugrul Akay Page 7 Filipe Carrera Page 8 Mures County Page 9 Targu Mures Page 13 Sighisoara Page 22Coperta Interioară Reghin Page 29 Sovata Page 31 Saxon Fortified Churches of Transylvania Față Page 26 Business Traveling in Targu Mures Page 33 Romanian String Section Page 39 Transylvanian Wines Page 40 Health and Wellness trip in Mures Page 43 Mures Industrial Park Page 45 Taxation in Romania Page 52 Legal considerations for foreign investors in Romania Page 72 Financial reporting in Romania Page 77 Targu Mures Television Page 89 Targu Mures Radio Station Coperta Page 91
  3. 3. Laszlo Pacso JCI Târgu Mureş was born in order to stimulate the business environment from Târgu Mureş and to cre- ate meeting and networking platforms for business people in November 2009. Then, a group of young talented business people had a shy start in this story, by organizing the first BNE (Business Networking Event), which was an unexpected success. That was the first step. Encouraged by the obtained success, we continued the steps for creating the JCI Târgu Mureş organiza-tion and for affiliating to JCI Romania. The entire process did not last more than a month.We gathered around us, around the group with initiative, a core of special people, who have a lotof passion and enthusiasm. In this way, it was not hard for us to continue the story in the samerhythm. So, there followed another two BNE sessions – one in December 2009 and another inJanuary 2010.We have created a personal development program, which we called (in a suggestive way) „Serilede Dezvoltare” (The Development Nights).The name of this program represents the fact that it takes place in short training sessions, everyWednesday on 6:00 PM.Because we are an organization oriented towards projects, we organized two Project Managementtraining sessions too, and a Business Creativity session – in order to encourage the ideas flow intoour projects. The results did not wait to appear, and so the „Know-How-Fest” was born. It tookplace during seven sessions, which were a real success.It inspired us to want more, to create the first visible wave of change around us. We have dreamedand we have had the courage and the will to make our dream come true. This is how „Târgu MureşBusiness Days” was born; the biggest local Business Event organized ever in our small town. Theevent had turned our small organization into a local brand and a partner worth of trust for develop-ing and promoting our local community.We have demonstrated that the attitude is the main ingredient when you want to change some-thing, and with a lot of passion, you can accomplish beautiful things out of nothing. We have notstopped. We continued with a Conference series, on various themes like communication and lead-ership. We invested time, money, and energy. We made the book of Filipe Carrera „Networking”happen in Romania too.We became associates with the TV from Târgu Mureş. Every Thursday we have our own show „Busi-ness Ways”, on 8:30 PM. Now, we are working on editing a tourist and investor guide in Mureşregion. With that, we encourage the tourism and the economics exchange in our region. Moreover,we are certain that the story does not end here.We will continue to generate positive changes and to inspire the business environment with ourstory. The story of JCI team. Laszlo Pacso JCI Targu Mures President 2010 Page 3
  4. 4. About JCI Romania 2010 Mihaela Stroe Europe, as the whole world, is confronted today with Dear JCI friends, the important challenges of fast changing commu- nication models, new emerging markets, an unprec- edented immigration phenomenon, a need for dif- From my position as Vice-President for International ferent approaches in terms of conflicts and ensuring Relations and Deputy National President in JCI Ro- power balance, dealing with the consequences of mania, I salute warmly the idea of creating a tour- more than a century long capitalist model, reducing ist and investor guide for Mures County, one of the the gap between highly developed and very poor richest and beautiful counties from Romania. societies and, perhaps above all, climate change, which urges us all to develop new behavioral pat- The policy for international relations within JCI Ro-terns and have them adopted by the entire population. mania has as major objectives finding ways of coop-In order to keep up with the speedily changes in the global economy, new business models need eration between our local organizations and otherto be created and responsible individuals cannot but acknowledge that in order to preserve the ac- organizations from JCI network, as well as creat-complishments of the past century or more, we need to invent new principles for the very founda- ing opportunities for organizing events where col-tion of our actions, be they political, economic or civic ones. leagues from JCI to come to Romania and discoverJCI has an extremely valuable asset that recommends the organization as a potentially important our potential (both for business and for tourism).actor in the effort to tackle these challenges at a global level: the wide international network ofsuccessful and responsible individuals. JCI Tg. Mures, even though is one of the newestWhether we build upon this or not is entirely up to us all. local organizations, put a lot of passion and effortAlthough a young organization, JCI Romania is nevertheless constantly growing. Established in to promote the beauty of their county and also thelate 2003, it already covers all major Romanian cities, having local organizations in Bucharest, Iasi, business opportunities that could be offered in theirTimisoara, Cluj-Napoca, Tg. Mures, Suceava, Vaslui, Sibiu, Oradea, Lugoj and preparing new LOMs area. One of the facts to prove this accomplishment,in Botosani, Brasov and Piatra Neamt. besides this guide, is organizing a event called Business Days for promoting idea of entrepreneur- ship for more than 500 people, who discovered during both days which are the values and spiritIn the context of a growing economy, but bearing in mind that Romania is yet on its way to re- of JCI (presented by the VP Tugrul Akay), which are the best business opportunities from importantestablish a business culture based on democratic values, justice and real competition, JCI Roma- Romanian entrepreneurs, and which are the best skills needed as entrepreneurs for real success.nia chose a business oriented approach, aiming at bringing positive changes in the local businessenvironment, contributing to building trust among business communities at national, as well asinternational level, and to enhancing a new vision in terms of the role business-people should pay Therefore, take a close look to this guide, discover Mures county and its beauty, come to Romaniain the modern society. and let’s start to make business together. We are opened for twinning with other organizationsBy bringing to the JCI European Conference in Aarhus some “sample” of what the Romanian busi- (so far JCI Bucharest is in twinning program with JCI Eurasia from Turkey, JCI Iasi is enrolled in aness environment looks like today, and of what JCI Romania is doing in this context, we hope to multi-twinning program with JCI Brussels - Belgium, JCI Amsterdam - Netherlands, JCI Stuttgartcontribute to building the level of trust and confidence needed in JCI, so as to get the point where - Germany and JCI Tarragona – Spain), we re-launch from 2011 International Danube ConferenceJCI members throughout the world work towards specific common goals that reach further than with our colleagues from JCI Lugoj and we bid for EPM 2012 in Sibiu. Romania has a great poten-their local and national communities. tial, don’t miss it!We wish to give special thanks to JCI Tg. Mures for their very interesting projects implemented thelast months especially for the Romanian presence at the Trade Show in JCI EC Aarhus.Let us all enjoy a great successful European Conference together! Marius Alexa JCI Romania President 2010 Page Page
  5. 5. Nonverbal Magazine Tugrul Akay Besides my work for more than 4 years serving JCI values and spirit, let me tell you some information about me. My specialization is in nonverbal commu- nication, especially in impression management and detecting deception, where I will receive my PHD de- gree this autumn. Since 2002 I run my own compa- ny called Acta Nonverbal, which offers training and I participated in press conference and media interview, met with the president of Chamber of consultancy in nonverbal communication and profil- Commerce Targu Mureş, businessmen and Governor of the city. They are supporting JCI very much. ing for various business people and companies. The press conference was very well on-ganized and huge interest to JCI and also Chamber of Commerce reday to invite Businessmen form Turkey for investment. I see this invitation very good opportunity for Turkish Companies, Targu Mureş is a key to Europe. What sets me apart from others is that I am trained to use FBI techniques in business. Since 2003 I col- laborate with Joe Navarro (special FBI agent retired), JCI Targu Mureş Business Days was very well organized and 200 people were participated theyone of the first American behavior profilers and nowadays professor at FBI Academy, being the invited 30 spekaers and traininers and had a trade show event with speed networking. I madeonly Romanian trained by him and being licensed to represent him in Romania. With his support the opening speech about JCI and International Opportunies of our organization. I found from theI launched recently an online magazine called Nonverbal Magazine ( which is praticipants that a very huge interest to JCI and eager to learn what we can do for our community.dedicated to research and work for using nonverbal intelligence in business, careers and interper- The President of JCI Targu Mureş Lazslo Paczo is very eager and humble for JCI , good motivator hassonal relations. a very strong impact in the community and he says he wanted to something for his town and that is the reason he joined JCI, I think we need these examples in every community like our founder, Henry Giessenbier. As JCI we are always encouraging our leaders, to be a role model for pozitiveYou can find out more about my work, research and achievements reading my blog www.mihaelas- change for our community and JCI Targu Mureş is the role model of our or connecting with me on I would like to thank you again to Laszlo Paczo, the President of JCI Targu Mureş and all the mem- bers of JCI Targu Mureş for this wonderfull event and wish you success for doing a lot of pozitive things for their community. Mihaela Stroe Tugrul Akay JCI Romania Vice-President for International Relations 2010 JCI International Europe Vice-President 2010 Page Page
  6. 6. Filipe Carrera Mures County Mureş is a county (judeţ) of Romania, in the historical • Musical instruments (Reghin).My name is Filipe Carrera and I came across JCI Targu Mures in my work as international trainer region of Transylvania, with the administrative centreand book author. With JCI Targu Mures I publish the Romanian version of my book “Networking in Târgu Mureş. Mureş County and Sibiu County together produce– Your Professional Survival Guide” that is available in the Romanian market since April 2010. about 50% of the natural gas developed in Romania.That was only possible thanks to a great team effort that manage in record time to have the book Geography Salt is also extracted in the county.ready to be publish. The county has a total area of 6,714 km². DemographicsEverything was ready to do the official launch of the book in Targu Mures, but the Icelandic ash The northeastern side of the county consists of the In 2002, Mureş had a population of 580,851 and thecloud prevent me of traveling to Romania, but that was a great opportunity for JCI Targu Mures Călimani and Gurghiu Mountains and the sub-Car- population density was 86.5/km:demonstrate once more high entrepreneurial skills, because we did the launch in Targu Mures pathian hills, members of theas planed but using video-conferencing and it was great because we even manage to do some Inner Eastern Carpathians. The TOTAL ROMANIANS HUNGARIANS ROMA GERMANS OTHERSinteractive activities even been more than 3,000 Km apart. rest of the county is part of 580,851 309,375 228,275 40,425 2,045 731 the Transylvanian Plateau, with deep but wide valleys. 100% 53.26% 39.30% 6.96% 0.35% 0.12%Also JCI Targu Mures is using the web and social media to promote book, demonstrating to theworld that this is an organization with young and innovative members that use the new tools The main river crossing in the county is the Mureş River. In terms of religion:available to the marketers. The Târnava Mare River and the Târnava Mică River also cross the county. • Romanian Orthodox - 53.3%For me nothing of the above was a surprise, JCI Targu Mures has been conducting several project • Reformed Church - 27%with great success, namely the “Business Days” project that is being recognized as one of the Neighbours • Roman Catholic Church - 9.5%best projects in Europe of JCI (Junior Chamber International), so I believe the many great things • Other Christian denominations - 8.2%are expected from the team of JCI Targu Mures, lead by Lazlo Pacso. • Harghita County in the East. • Jewish, Muslim, Atheist, Non-religious, other or un- • Alba County and Cluj County in the West. declared - 1.9% • Bistriţa-Năsăud County and Suceava County in the North. Tourism • Sibiu County and Braşov County in the South. Some of the main tourist attractions in the county are: Economy • The medieval city of Sighişoara. The predominant industries in the county are: • The old city of Târgu Mureş. • Wood industry. • Sovata Resort. • Food industry. • Călimani Mountains - Gurghiu Mountains. • Textile industry. • The city of Reghin Filipe Carrera • Glass and ceramics industry. JCI Senator • Construction materials. Page Page
  7. 7. Politics COMMUNES COMMUNES COMMUNESThe Mureş County Council has 34 members. After the Bereni Miheşu de Câmpie Sărăţeni2008 local elections, the structure of Mureş CountyCouncil by political parties is the following: Bichiş Nadeş Saschiz Bogata Neaua Solovăstru Political Party Number of Seats Brâncoveneşti Ogra Stânceni Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania 13 Breaza Papiu Ilarian Suplac National Liberal Party (Romania) 8 Ceuaşu de Câmpie Pănet Suseni Liberal Democratic Party 7 Cheţani Păsăreni Şăulia Social Democratic Party 6 Chibed Petelea ªincai Chiheru de Jos Pogăceaua TăureniAdministrative divisions Coroisânmărtin Râciu Valea Largă Corunca Răstoliţa VânătoriMureş County has 4 municipalities, 7 towns and 91communes: Cozma Ruşii-Munţi Vărgata Crăciuneşti Sâncraiu de Mureş Vătava MUNICIPALITIES Cucerdea Sângeorgiu de Mureş Veţca Reghin Crăieşti Sânger Viişoara Sighişoara Cristeşti Sânpaul Voivodeni Târgu Mureş Cuci Sânpetru de Câmpie Zagăr Târnăveni Daneş Sântana de Mureş Zau de Câmpie Deda TOWNS Eremitu Iernut Ernei Luduş Fântânele Miercurea Nirajului Fărăgău Sângeorgiu de Pădure Găleşti Sărmaşu Găneşti Sovata Gheorghe Doja Ungheni Ghindari Glodeni COMMUNES Gorneşti Acăţari Grebenişu de Câmpie Adămuş Gurghiu Albeşti Hodac Aluniş Hodoşa Apold Ibăneşti Aţintiş Iclănzel Bahnea Ideciu de Jos The text in the previous article was tak- Band Livezeni en from the public encyclopedia Wiki- pedia. Adress: Batoş Lunca This update is accurate to the best of Băgaciu Lunca Bradului our knowledge at the time when this overview was prepared. It is, however, Băla Mădăraş meant as a general guide and comes Bălăuşeri Măgherani with the recommendation that profes- sional advice be sought before any Beica de Jos Mica action is taken Page 10 Page 11
  8. 8. Târgu Mures Targu Mures is the seat of Mures County in the north- clared the city a royal settlement. In 1492, wayvoda Ist- central part of Romania. Geographically, it is distant ván Báthory strengthened its monastery with fortifica- 346 km from Bucharest , 480 km from Belgrade, 515 tions, this was a pentagon-shaped outer castle tower.Hereby, the Institution of Mures County Prefect wishes to express full support and appreciation of km from Budapest and 598 km from Sofia. Located on In 1506, the troops of Pál Tomori were beaten by thethe Junior Chamber International Mures young entrepreneurs organization, concerning its activityin developing new economy models based on knowledge, this activity being deployed with success the Mureş River valley, the city is considered the infor- Szeklers rising against the payment of an extraordinaryand dedication in the sphere of services and information processing. mal capital of the historical province of Székely Land. Ox tax imposed on them on occasion of the birth of Louis II of Hungary. In 1557, the Reformed Church Col- The city spreads out from Fortress Church in the center lege (i.e. Presbyterians) was established as the oldestThrough this trustworthy partnership between Institution of Mures County Prefect and Junior of the town, built in the 14th century, to form an area Hungarian school of Transylvania. In 1571, the sessionChamber International Mures, we aim to contribute to the stimulation of the Mures County busi- of 49.3 square kilometres. As of January 1, 2009 the of Transylvanian parliament under prince John II Sigis-ness community and not only. For us, this partnership represents a very viable way to provide man- city had a population of 145,151 inhabitants, making mund Zápolya accepted the free preach of the word ofagers and entrepreneurs the opportunity to grow both in business and life, which will lead to the it the 16th largest city in Romania. God, including the Unitarian Church. In 1600-1601,development of business environment and the improvement of the quality of life . as a result of the siege of Giorgio Basta, the fortress Etymology turned to ruins. In 1602, the troops of Gergely Né- meth put on fire the remaining houses of the town, The current name Târgu Mureş, whose historical form therefore, in 1602 the reconstruction of the fortress was Oşorhei, is the equivalent of Marosvásárhely was started further the advice of mayor Tamás Bor- as Romanian ‘târg’ means ‘market’ and Hungarian sos, but it was actually built between 1614 and 1653. ‘vásárhely’ means ‘marketplace’. Alternate Romanian Mózes Székely the only prince of Szekler origin visited spellings of its name are Târgu-Mureş,Tîrgu Mureş and the city in 1603, when liberated Transylvania from for- Tîrgu-Mureş. eign domination. In 1616, it was granted the status of a free royal city under the name of Maros-Vásárhely by History prince (fejedelem) Gábor Bethlen. In 1658, Turkish and Tartarian troops invaded and burned it, 3000 people The city was first documented in 1332 in the papal were taken into captivity. In 1661, as no one show will- registry under the name Novum Forum Siculorum, and ingness to accept the duty of prince, under pressure as ‘Sekulvasarhel’ (Székelyvásárhely) in 1349. On the from pasha Ali, Mihály Apafi was elected prince here. place of its Castle Church, the Dominican’s church In 1662, resulting from the negligence of the Turkish stood until the Mongol invasion, when it was de- military residing here, the city was almost completely stroyed. In its place, the Franciscans built a new Gothic burnt down. In 1687, it was devastated by German church in 1260 , which was completed in 1446. Since imperial troops. Sincerly yours, 1439 the town was the scene of the session of parlia- Marius Pascan ment ( diet) 36 times.In 1405, the King of Hungary In 1704, the kuruc troops of Pál Kaszás occupied the Mures County Prefect Sigismund of Luxembourg granted the city the right to fortress, which was re-occupied by Lörinc Pekry from organize fairs. In 1470 King Matthias Corvinus granted the labanc in 1706. On 5 April 1707, Francis II Rákóczi the first judicial privilege to the city, and in 1482 de- was raised to the chair of princes. In 1707 it was struck Page 12 Page 13
  9. 9. by pest, more than 3500 people died, the black death Romanian population increased throughout the latter tion has started to work abroad temporarily. The local December with 16 days and the least in August, Sep-renewed in 1709, 1719 and in 1738-39. The city re- half of the 20th century. economy has started to get stronger after various tember and October with 8 rainy days. The averageceived a major boost to its social and economic life From 1940 to 1944, as a consequence of the Second investors settled in the area. The city has a substantial annual temperature for Târgu Mureş is of 8.6 °C (47when it became home to supreme court of justice of Vienna Award, the city was ceded back to Hungary. ethnic Hungarian minority, some of whom identify as °F). The record minimum temperature registered in thethe Principality of Transylvania in 1754. In 1802, the After Hungary was occupied by Germany in 1944, Székelys. Since 2003 some Székely organizations have city is of −32.8 °C (−27 °F) in the years 1942 and 1963.Teleki Library founded by count Sámuel Teleki was a Jewish ghetto was established in the city. Maros- been campaigning for the city to become the center The record maximum temperature is of 39 °C (102 °F),opened for the public with 40.000 volumes. vásárhely re-entered the Romanian administration at of an autonomous region again. Dorin Florea is the recorded in 1936. the end of the war in October 1944, however, on 12 first directly elected ethnic Romanian mayor of theAvram Iancu, the leader of the 1848 Romanian revolu- November 1944 general Vinogradov of the Soviet Red city, though the city council retains a majority of ethnic Demographics Army expulsed the returning Romanian authorities Hungarians.tion in Transylvania, was a young lawyer in the city of from Northern Transylvania with reference to the mas- According to the most recent 2002 census data, the cityTîrgu Mureş before engaging in the fight for the rights sacres committed by members of Iuliu Maniu’s so called Geography had a population of 149,577. Among them 69,825 areof Romanians living in Transylvania. On 4 November Maniu-guard, and the Romanian authorities were not Hungarians forming the largest urban Hungarian com-1848, the Szekler troops were beaten by the Austrian allowed to return until the government of Petru Groza The city is located at the centre of the historical region munity in Romania, surpassing that of Cluj-Napoca.imperial troops under its walls, and the city was also was formed on 6 March 1945. of Transylvania and covers an area of 49.3 square kilo- The 2002 census was the first to show the Hungarianscaptured. On January 13, 1949 the troop of major Tol- metres (19.0 sq mi). It lies at the junction of three geo- as a local minority. The city is officially bilingual andnay recaptured it. On 30 July 1849, Sándor Petofi and graphical regions of Transylvania (Transylvanian Plain, both Romanian and Hungarian languages are recog-Bem set out from here for the Battle of Segesvár. After World War II, the communist administration of Mureş Valley and Niraj Valley) at 330 meters above sea nised as official and used in public signage, education,In 1854, Szekler martyrs Károly Horváth, János Török Romania conducted a policy of massive industrializa- level. The city extends onto both banks of the Mureş justice and access to public administration, however,and Mihály Gálfi were executed on the Postarét for tion that completely re-shaped the community. Be- river, however, the downtown area and the greater in case of commercial signage and advertisements theplotting against the Austrian rule, since 1874 a monu- tween 1950-1968, it was the center of the Hungarian part of the districts are located on the left bank. The bilingual signage is usually used only by companies ifment marks the place. In 1861, Marosvásárhely became Autonomous Province, later named as Mures-Hun- Corneşti-plateau ( Hungarian: Somos-plateau) is the they are owned by Hungarians. Roma people makethe seat of Marosszék, in 1876 that of Maros-Torda garian Autonomous Region. On 7 September 1959, city’s highest point (465m above sea level, co-ordi- up 2.51% of the city’s population which is consider-County. In 1880 the statue of Bem was inaugurated in Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, Secretary-General of the nates: ably lower than their proportion of 6.96% in MureşRoses Square, in downtown area; in 1893 the statue Romanian Workers Party, and the Prime Minister Chivu 46.5531°N 24.5984°E). County.of Kossuth was as well. The statue of Rákóczi was also Stoica visited the city. It was then decided where toinaugurated in 1907. All three were demolished after build the fertilizer production plant, and the new resi- The city is surrounded by the following communes: Ethnic CommunitiesWorld War I between 1919 in 1923. After Transylvania dential quarters of the city. It was decided that the resi- Sângeorgiu de Mureş, Livezeni, Sântana de Mureş,became part of Romania, all three of them were de- dential quarters would not be built in the Maros valley, Sâncraiu de Mureş, (Corunca), Cristeşti, Ceuaşu de Ethnic structure evolution from 1850 till 2002:stroyed between 1919 and 1923. but on the surrounding hills. Câmpie. Two villages MureşeniThe provincial appearance of the city changed greatly in (Meggyesfalva) and Remetea YEAR Total Romanians Hungarians Germans Jews Roma Othersthe late 19th century and early 20th century. In 1913, In March 1990, shortly after the Romanian Revolution (Remeteszeg) are administered 1850 7,855 6.0% 82.6% 3.1% 2.6% 3.6% 2.1%the Hungarian Art-Nouveau style city hall complex and of 1989 overthrew the communist regime, the city was by the city.Cultural Palace was opened, as part of mayor Bernády the stage of violent confrontations between ethnic 1869 12,678 5.2% 88.9% 3.5% n.a. n.a. 2.4%György’s urban renewal. After World War I, together Hungarians and ethnic Romanians (See Ethnic clashes Distances between the city and 1900 20,229 11.6% 83.3% 3.6% n.a. n.a. 1.5%with the rest of Transylvania, Marosvásáshely became of Târgu Mureş). some of the major cities in Ro- 1910 25,517 6.7.% 89.3% 2.4% n.a. n.a. 1.6%part of Romania and was re-named Oşorheiu. From mania: As of 2000, a considerable percentage of its popula- • Bucharest: by rail 448 km, by 1930 40,058 26.7% 57.2% 1.7% 12.1% 1.1% 1.2%having been an 89% Hungarian-populated city (1910), road 346 km; 1966 86,464 28.3% 70.9% 0.6% n.a. n.a. 0.2% • Braşov by rail 282 km, by road 1977 127,783 34.8% 63.6% 0.6% 0.4% 0.5% 0.1% 171 km; • Cluj-Napoca 127 km by rail, 1992 164,445 46.1% 51.4% 0.3% 0.1% 2% 0.1% by road 105 km; 2002 149,577 50.4% 46.7% 0.2% n.a. 2.4% 0.01% • Sibiu by rail 189 km, by road 124 km; YEAR Total Romanians Hungarians Germans Jews Roma Others Climate 2002 149,577 75,317 69,825 275 n.a. 3,759 401 Târgu Mureş has a continental Personalities climate characterised by warm dry summers and rela- tively cold winters. Winter temperatures are often be- low 0 °C (32 °F). Throughout the year there are 38 days Many personalities have been born or lived in the city with snow, and more than 60 days when the snow and helped shaping it in different fields: covers the ground. In summer, the average tempera- ture is between 18 °C (64 °F) and 19 °C (66 °F) (the • Tamás Borsos (1566-after 1633) average for June, July and August), even though tem- • Péter Apor (1676–1752) peratures sometimes reach 36 °C (97 °F) during this • Gheorghe Şincai (1754–1816) period. On average, there are 143 days with precipi- • György Aranka (1737–1817) tation over the course of the year, most frequently in • Petru Maior (1756–1821) Page 14 Page 15
  10. 10. • Sámuel Teleki (1739–1832) in 1557. The religious reform required for churches to• Farkas Bolyai (1775–1856) have no paintings, statues or religious frescos.• Avram Iancu (1824–1872)• Alexandru Papiu Ilarian (1827–1877) The existence of the Franciscan order in Marosvásárhe-• János Bolyai (1802–1860) ly was directly affected by the religious reform which• György Bernády (1864–1938) was largely spread in Transylvania during the 16th cen-• József Dudás (1912–1957) tury. In 1557, the influence of the Reformed Church• János Kemény (writer) (1903–1971) over the Hungarians in the town was so strong that it• Károly Molter (writer) (1890–1981) eventually led to the confiscation of the properties of• András Sütő (writer) (1927–2006) Catholic monastic orders. Franciscan monks, who until that time had been attending the church in the fortress,The city was the home of composer György Orbán were forced to leave town. They returned after nearly(born 1947), SMURD doctor Raed Arafat (born 1964) two centuries when the political climate had becomeand football player László Bölöni (born 1952). favorable to Catholicism due to the instauration of the Habsburgs in Transylvania. They bought the land in theDistricts of the city center of the town where they built a new church and monastery by 1777. The tower, the only part that is still ROMANIAN HUNGARIAN standing, was added to the church’s facade in 1802 by Centru Belváros Dâmbul Pietros (1848) Kövesdomb (1848) Unirii Egyesülés (on the right of the Mureş River) ( Benefalva and Hídvég villages) Rovinari (Ady Endre) Ady Endre Aleea Carpaţi Kárpátok sétánya Budai Nagy Antal Budai Nagy Antal Gara Állomás Livezeni Jedd 1989 December 22 1989 December 22 (November 7) (November 7) Tudor Vladimirescu Sásvári-negyed Răsăritului Kikelet Mureseni Meggyesfalva Substejăriş Cserealja Cornişa Kornisa Valea Rece HidegvölgyPlaces of worship architect János Topler. In 1971 the municipality decid- Nepomuc, Holy Cross belong to the same Michael An- ed to demolish the monastery to create the necessary gelo Unterberger. The stained glass windows made byThe Reformed Fortress Church is the oldest church in space for the construction of the National Theater and the Türke Company of Grottau were installed in 1898.the town. According to historical evidence, less than the square in front of it. A new church was built for thea century had passed after the first appearance of the Franciscans on Libertăţii street. The Big Synagogue was built between 1899 and 1900Franciscan order in Transylvania, Hungarian Kingdom, At the beginning of the 18th century, one of the most at the initiative of the Jewish community “Status Quo”that the Franciscan friars arrived to Marosvásárhely. representative Baroque churches of Transylvania was and that was considered to be one of the most beauti-The building of the church took an entire century, from built in the town. St John the Baptist Church was erect- ful synagogues of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Thethe middle of the 14th century until the middle of the ed in the North-Eastern part of the city center and be- design of the building was drawn up by Gartner Jacob15th and it consisted of a monastery building, an older longs to the Roman Catholic parish. The inside of the from Vienna and the construction works were coordi-chapel, the church and the steeple. The church was fi- church is luxurious, with liturgical objects that are true nated by the Hungarian Pál Soós. The entire edifice isnalized between 1400 and 1450. The church may have works of art. The main altar, made in 1755 by Anton dominated by the central cupola. Each side of the cen-been originally decorated with frescos, as traces of mu- Schuchbauer and Johannes Nachtigal is of monumen- tral spire is decorated with a floral rosette similar to theral paintings were found inside. The almost complete tal dimensions and has a pseudo-architectural struc- ones on the facade. This type of window is also useddisappearance of these paintings is due to the fact that ture. The paintings of the altars in the lateral chapels: several times on the lateral facades. The vast interior isthe church became the property of protestant believers Saint Ladislaus I of Hungary, Saint Joseph, Saint John of richly decorated, both with shapes and color. The syna- Page 16 Page 17
  11. 11. gogue has 314 seats on the ground floor and 238 on a Franciscan monastery. Overall, the library constitutesthe top floor. The most recent large scale remodeling a collection of most traditional types of Transylvanianof the building took place in 2000 when the walls were book.reinforced and the interior decoration was re-done. The old City Hall was built between 1906-1907 after the construction plans of Komor Marcell and JakabThe existence of the Unitarian faith in the town is linked Dezső. The entrance area, including the corridor andto the name of Ferenc Dávid, founder of Unitarianism the staircase leading to the first floor, is the most rep-and the first Unitarian bishop. The political circum- resentative in this regard. The ribbed stellar vaults thatstances in Transylvania became favourable for Ferenc cover this area were inspired by Gothic architecture.Dávid’s activity as the Diet of Torda held between 1557 The use of such vaults can only be explained by pure-and 1568 granted freedom of faith to all religions in ly esthetic reasons, as there is no practical argumentTransylvania. The Unitarianism became religio-recepta for this choice at the beginning of the 20th century.together with all the other Protestant faiths. The king The vaults are supported by columns with compositeof the state himself, John II Sigismund Zápolya became caps, and the keystone is a large floral shape whichUnitarian. The Unitarian Church was built between includes the lighting appliance. The vaults are painted1929 and 1930 next to the old Unitarian prayer house with spiraling vegetal motifs. One of the most spec-dating from 1869. tacular elements of the front hall is the stone bench with its legs shaped as those of an animal and withTourist attractions wing-shaped handles. Its shell-shaped, golden back has a shield flanked by two volutes on its upper side.The first fortress in the town was erected in 1492 upon The monumental staircase leading to the first floor alsoorder of Transylvanian voivode Stephen Báthory, and boasts some impressive elements such as the upperwas accomplished somewhere between 1602 and side of the banister resembling a slithering animal or1652 under judge Tamás Borsos. Having a pentagon a wave. The exterior decoration is simpler and is basedplan, surrounded by a defense wall, the Citadel has on Hungarian - Székely folk motives made of polychro-seven forts, five of them bearing the names of the guild matic ceramics. The ground floor is marked by a solid,which – according to tradition – supported its mainte- embossed pedestal. The empty and full areas on thenance: the leather dressers’, the tailors’, the butchers’, façade are rather well balanced, even though the win-the ironmongers’, the coopers’. After the Citadel was dows with large openings tend to be predominant. Thetaken over by the Austrian troops, it became the head- three semicircular windows in the middle area of thequarters of the military garrison based in the town. In facade are those of the honor hall that has a doublethe mean time the Baroque style building was built (on elevation with respect to the other rooms. The glass scenes and busts of Hungarians. The most impressive Educationthe left hand side of the road in front of the entrance paintings which illustrated Gábor Bethlen, Francis II composition is the mosaic on the main facade, an al-gate) and in the second half of the 18th century the Rákóczi, Lajos Kossuth, Ferenc Deák and Franz Joseph I legorical scene inspired by the Hungarian folklore. The Târgu Mureş is an important centre for general andconstruction works of the ‘barkey’ were started, an ad- of Austria are missing from the halls. cardboards were made by Nagy Sándor, an important higher education. The most important high schools aredition finished in the 19th century. On the occasion of Hungarian artist, who founded with Körösföy Kriesch the ,,Colegiul Naţional Alexandru Papiu Ilarian,, andthe Targu Mures days – which have as central point The Cultural Palace is a remarkable construction in the Aladár the School of Gödöllő. The art is characterized the hungarian speaking ,,Bolyai Farkas High School,,.of performance the Citadel – a museum center was city center. It was built upon initiative of the mayor of by bi-dimensionality and vertical rhythmicalness. Most The latter is a continuator of the traditions of the Scho-opened in the gate fort (erected in 1613) presenting the town, György Bernády. Building works started in of the mosaics and stained glass windows were au- la Particula, established in Târgu Mureş in 1557, andthe history of the town and of the Citadel. the spring of 1911. They contributed to the establish- thored by Róth Miksa, particularly those on the side of the Reformed College banished from Sárospatak at ment of the Hungarian secessionist architecture school facing Square. the beginning of the 18th century . The establishmentThe Teleki-Bolyai Library is a historic public library and in Transylvania by their works in Deva and Oradea. The was one of the first schools of the Reformed Churchcurrent museum in the town. One of the richest Tran- plan is an irregular rectangle, with protuberances on The Cornesti high (Somostető) - an excellent landscape in Transylvania, was first working in the old buildingsylvanian collections of cultural artefacts, it was found- the sides and at the extremities. The building has five of Târgu Mureş can be seen from here of the Franciscan monastery in the fortress, and haded by the Hungarian Count Sámuel Teleki in 1802, at floors: a tall ground floor, a mezanine and three floors Baranyai Decsi, Czimor Janos, Tordai Adam, Laskoithe time when Transylvania was part of the Habsburg diferentiated by the use of various construction materi- Politics Csokas Peter as teachers, as well as others. After be-Monarchy, and has been open to the reading public als. The facades are characterized by bi-dimensionality ing sacked in 1601 and 1602, the Schola was moved The local Municipal Assembly has 23 members divided into another building, on the place of the present highever since. It was among the first institutions of its and by a liniar-rectangular style, with only a few curvi- into 5 political parties: school. For centuries it had accommodated the Re-kind inside the Habsburg-ruled Kingdom of Hungary. It linear elements: the six bow-windows covered by semi-houses over 200,000 volumes, of which many are rari- caps above the main portal and the circular balconies formed College and the present high school. The pres-ties, constituting a comprehensive scientific database. on the edges. The main entrance is in the middle of Political Party Number of Seats ent aspect was acquired at the end of the 19th andThe book collection is divided into several smaller librar- the facade on Enescu street and is made up of four Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania 10 the beginning of the 20th century. The main statue,ies, of which the two main donations are the original massive doors, protected by an architecural element facing Bolyai square was erected following the design Democratic Liberal Party 840,000-volume Teleki Library and the 80,000-volume made of glass and with an iron framing. This element, of architect Baumgarten Sandor in 1908-1909, in Hun-Bolyai Library; the rest, grouped as the Miscellaneous as well as the doors decorated with iron floral motifs National Liberal Party (Romania) 2 garian Secession style.Collection, is made up of several private libraries, vol- are typical for the 1900s style. The exterior is richly Social Democratic Party 2umes previously held by religious schools and those of decorated, with colored mosaic panels, with relieved Renowned universities like the University of Medicine Greater Romania Party 1 Page 18 Page 19
  12. 12. and Pharmacy, Petru Maior University and Sapientia start in the western part of the country near Iaşi, Mol- RADIOUniversity account for more than 10,000 students be- davia and will connect itself with A3. It is due to be Radio GaGatween them. The Sapientia – Hungarian University of completed in 2015. Twin towns — Sister citiesTransylvania is an institution of Hungarian higher edu- Radio 21cation in the historic region of Transylvania, Romania. The city is served by Târgu Mureş International Airport, Magic FM Târgu Mures has 9 twin towns and sister cities, as listedIts establishment was motivated by needs outgrowing which provides both domestic and international flights. below: Europa FMthe present choice of Hungarian university education in It was renovated in October 2005.Romania, especially that the percentage of Hungarianstudents in Romanian university life does not represent The city transport operators are S.C. Transport Local TV COUNTRY CITYthe percentage of Hungarian population in Romania, S.A., S.C. Siletina-Impex S.R.L. and S.C. TudorTransand university education in Hungarian does not cover S.R.L.. ªtii TV Germany Ilmenauthe range of necessary specializations. Other universi- Mureş/Maros TV Hungary Bajaties are the Theatre University, Dimitrie Cantemir Uni- Sports Erdélyi Magyar Televízió Hungary Kecskemétversity. The city is represented in many sports, including: foot- Televiziunea Română Târgu Mureş Hungary SzegedHealth Care ball, handball, basketball, volleyball and wushu. Realitatea TV Târgu Mureş Hungary Újbuda, Budapest Duna TV Marosvásárhely Hungary Zalaegerszeg Târgu Mureş is the home city of two football teams: FCM Târgu Mureş, which plays in Liga II, and Gaz Antena 1 Târgu Mureş Turkey Güzelçamlı Metan Târgu Mureş, who competes in Liga III. Prima TV Târgu Mureş United Kingdom Bournemouth ProTV Târgu Mureş United Kingdom East Renfrewshire Târgu Mureş is also known for its bowling team, Electromureş. The most important sport right now in the city is basketball, which is enjoying a huge audience with thousands of fans, with the team BC Mureş playing in the first division. They play their matches at the ,,Sala Sporturilor,,(Sports Arena in English).Târgu Mureş has a well-developed healthcare system.It consists of: Local media• 2 hospitals• A County hospital (the biggest in the county) with 11 WRITTEN MEDIAspecialized units Népújság• A Municipal hospital with 7 specialized units 24 de ore mureşene• 36 medical offices• 9 clinics Vásárhelyi Hírlap• Over 20 pharmacies Cuvântul liber• Ambulances and SMURD Zi de ziTransport Központ Ziarul de Mureş Infomaţia de Mureş Flash Piaţa Mureşeană The text in the previous article was tak- en from the public encyclopedia Wiki- pedia. Adress: This update is accurate to the best of RADIO our knowledge at the time when thisTransylvania Motorway (also known as A3), which is overview was prepared. It is, however, Radio Târgu Mureş /Marosvásárhelyi Rádió meant as a general guide and comesdue to be completed in 2013, will pass near Târgu One FM with the recommendation that profes-Mureş. Another future highway that will be connected sional advice be sought before anywith the city is the East-West Motorway (A4), that will Kiss FM action is taken Page 20 Page 21
  13. 13. city is the Clock Tower, a 64m high tower built in 1556. It is today a museum of history. Other interesting sights are: • Sighişoara Citadel - a 12th Century Saxon edifice, is the historic center of the city. Still occupied, the citadel is listed as a World Heritage Site. • Clock Tower - Built in 1360 and standing at 60 me- ters tall atop the citadel hill. Inside is a museum that finishes in a great view from the top. • Weapon Museum - next to Vlad’s birthplace. Very small, but it contains an interesting selection of medi- eval weapons (swords, arrows, etc.). • Covered Staircase - a very old stone staircase with a wooden roof along the whole span. This leads up to the Church on the Hill and the cemetery. Sighisoara • Church on the Hill - contains many frescoes and a crypt. Built on the location of the Roman fort. Close to the cemetery on the side of the hill, which contains features of a craftsmen’s town. However, there are many German tombstones.Sighisoara is a city and municipality on the Târnava as Prince of Transylvania and King of Hungary in 1631. • Bust of Vlad Tepes - Located around the corner from some houses which belonged to the former patriciate,Mare River in Mureş County, Romania. Located in the Sighişoara suffered military occupation, fires, and his birthplace, within sight of the Clock Tower. like the Venetian House and the House with Antlers.historic region Transylvania, Sighişoara has a popula- plagues during the 17th and 18th centuries. Important Personalitiestion of 32,287 (2002). source for the history of the 17th century Transylva- “The House with Antlers” has been brought into the nia, for the period of 1606-1666, the records of Georg Twin Towns - Sister Cities possession of the Messerschmitt Foundation with theHistory Kraus, the town’s notary. help of the Romanian Government and the town coun- COUNTRY CITY cil of Sighisoara in April 2000, defrauding the legiti-During the 12th century, German craftsmen and mer- The nearby plain of Albeşti was the site of the Battle of Germany Dinkelsbühl, Bavaria mate heirs, the descendents Leicht-Bacon (with Englishchants known as the Transylvanian Saxons were invited Segesvár, where the revolutionary Hungarian army led roots), who are mentioned in the cadaster of Sighiso- Hungary Kiskunfélegyháza, Bács-Kiskunto Transylvania by the King of Hungary to settle and de- by Józef Bem was defeated by the Russian army led by ara as owners before the communist dispossession of Switzerland Baden, Aargaufend the frontier of his realm. The chronicler Krauss lists Luders on 31 July 1849. A monument was constructed 1950.a Saxon settlement in the actual Sighiṣoara by 1191. By in 1852 to the Russian general Skariatin, who died in France Blois, Loir-et-Cher1280 it was known by the Latin name of Castrum Sex, the battle. The Hungarian poet Sándor Petőfi is gener- Italy Citta di Castello, Perugia In 2001-2003 the construction of a Dracula themeand by 1298 by the Saxon name of Schespurch resp. ally believed to have been killed in the battle, and a park in the ‘Breite’ nature preserve near Sighişoara wasSchaesbrich. By 1337 Sighişoara had become a royal monument was constructed in his honor at Albeşti in considered but ultimately rejected, due to the strongcenter for the kings, who awarded the settlement ur- 1897. After World War I Sighişoara passed with Tran- opposition of local civil society groups and national andban status in 1367 as the Civitas de Segusvar. sylvania from Austria-Hungary to the Kingdom of Ro- international media as well as politically influential per- mania. sons, as the theme park would have detracted from theThe city played an important strategic and commercial medieval style of the city and would have destroyed therole at the edges of Central Europe for several cen- Central Sighişoara has preserved in an exemplary way nature preserve.turies. Sighişoara became one of the most important the features of a small medieval fortified city, it hascities of Transylvania, with artisans from throughout been listed by the UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. Demographicsthe Holy Roman Empire visiting the settlement. The Each year, a Medieval Festival takes place in the oldGerman artisans and craftsmen dominated the urban citadel in July. Ethnic groups:economy, as well as building the fortifications protect-ing it. It is estimated that during the 16th and the 17th View from Villa FrankaSighişoara is considered to be ROMANIANS (76.06%)centuries Sighişoara had as many as 15 guilds and 20 the most beautiful and well preserved inhabited citadel HUNGARIANS (18.36%)handicraft branches. The Baroque sculptor Elias Nicolai in Europe,[citation needed] with an authentic medievallived in the city. The Wallachian prince Vlad Dracul (fa- architecture. In Eastern Europe, Sighişoara is one of the ROMA (3.51%)ther of Vlad the Impaler (Dracula), who lived in exile in few fortified towns which are still inhabited. The town GERMANS (1.92%)the town, let minted coins in the city (otherwise coin- is made up of two parts. The medieval stronghold was OTHERSage was the monopoly of the Hungarian kings in the built on top of a hill and is known as the “Citadel”Kingdom of Hungary) and issued the first document (Cetate).The lower town lies in the valley of Târnava Sightslisting the city’s Romanian name, Sighişoara. Mare river. Sighişoara is a popular tourist destination, due to itsThe city was the setting for George I Rákóczi’s election The houses inside Sighişoara Citadel show the main well-preserved walled old town. The landmark of the Page 22 Page 23
  14. 14. Sighisoara, „the medieval jewel of Romania” awaits its visitors to uncover the mystery closed in the old walls during the hundreds years of existence. Placed in the heart of the country, Sighisoara has a key role as a point of intersection of main roads, and an important railway junction. In the middle of Târnava Mare Valley stands the Castle Hill, which descends on the town and is sur- rounded by higher hills like a real belt. These hills with forests, coating each season in other colors from snow white to rust autumn leaves make Sighisoara charm, which invites the travelers to make a stop to enjoy the view, peace and beautiful places, and for those who love hiking, outdoor sports or hunting - Sighisoara and enclosures offer excellent conditions. Over time, more or less famous personalities have worn steps on the narrow streets. Of these, the most important course is the son of Mircea the Old, Country Romanian prince - nicknamed Vlad Dracula - Member of the Order of the Dragon, who lived between 1431-1436 in the citadel of Sighisoara. Sighisoara is associated abroad behalf of one who was son of Vlad Dracul, the famous Vlad the Impaler, known as Dracula. It is assumed that Vlad had been born in Sighisoara, the former body guard house, where he hosted his father during the exile, which is now called “Vlad Dracul”. Today, the old city - with lofty towers and walls grim but hospitable that rises vertically for centuries to come, keeping its old walls caring polychrome houses generously described in recent chroniclers of the history of old times is known as the only one inhabited medieval citadel in Europe. Part of UNESCO World Heritage, Medieval Citadel Sighisoara is a magnet for tourists from around the world who come to discover the beauty described in chronicles and recreated in modern times in the most unexpected ways ... Local hospitality is transposed in many hotels, hostels and restaurants that welcome their guests with services at the highest quality standards.The text in the previous article was tak- One of our community’s objectives is the economic development of the city and attracting foreignen from the public encyclopedia Wiki- investors. Sighisoara Municipality offers investors a range of facilities such as very high tourismpedia. Adress: potential, the old traditions in certain industries (textiles and ceramics), the existence of a well de-This update is accurate to the best of veloped manufacturing sector for clothing, the unemployment rate is relatively low, well-developedour knowledge at the time when this network of financial institutions and banking, technical and urban networks developed, good dy-overview was prepared. It is, however,meant as a general guide and comes namic economic indicators (turnover) for representative companies, support of local authorities.with the recommendation that profes-sional advice be sought before anyaction is taken Page 24 Page 25