Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

A basic monastic hard cheese


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

A basic monastic hard cheese

  1. 1. A Basic Monastic Hard CheeseFig.1 Cheese; from the Theatrum Sanitatis, Library Casanatense, Rome1. (Although the illuminations in this paper are representative of domestic cheeseproduction they are none the less documentation of the process of making hard cheesesduring the middle ages.)1 Fig.137. Cheese; from the Theatrum Sanitatis, Library Casanatense, Rome, 1
  2. 2. Fig.2. Cheese manufacture, 1390-1400, Illustration from "Tacuinum Sanitatis",illuminated medical manual based on texts translated from Arabic into Latin, in thecollection of the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris.2Making a Hard Cheese in PeriodSome types of hard cheese were named for the area that they were being made is in, suchas Gouda (in Holland); or the religious orders that made their own cheese. An example ofthis was documented in 1543 in the ledgers of Saint-Aman Abby of Rouen where thecheese called Neufchatel3, was mentioned in the book “A Proper newe Booke ofCokerye.”4 Another example would be a variety of cheeses called Trappist after the orderof Trappist monks who made them. Perhaps one of the most famous cheeses was one2 Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, Norman Cheeses, A Proper Newe Booke of Cokerye, 16th Century, 1545, 2
  3. 3. made in Germany since 1371 by Benedictine monks called Munster. Munster takes itsname from the Latin word for monastery, monasterium.5“It has been estimated that there were as many as 1000 monastic houses (251 wereCistercian abbeys and 412 were Benedictine abbeys) alone in France during the middleages.”6 Each monastic house would serve both fresh & hard cheeses adapted from themilk available in the area where it was located. These cheeses would each have a uniqueflavor. The flavor of the milk used in making the cheese would be effected by the grassor plants the animals ate, the type and breed of animal being milked, the time of the yearthe milk was collected and even the time of day (how rich was the milk), what type ofmilks were being combined (some cheeses combine Cow & Goat/Sheep milk to makecheese), how & were the cheese was aged. In wine making the flavor the land gives towine is called terroir and the same is true for cheeses.Other cheeses of monastic origins are: 7 • Abondance Abbey (Savoy): Abondance has been made since the fourteenth century and is a semi-hard cheese. This type of cheese has a smooth surface rind, showing the marks of the cloth with an amber color. This cheese is made in the French Mountains like my cheese this is a raw cow’s milk cheese. This cheese again like mine has a firm texture, and a distinct and complex flavor. The color of both mine and this Abby cheese ranges from ivory to pale yellow. • Maroilles Abbey (Nord): Maroilles is a moist orange-red washed rind and has a strong smell from the length of ageing, close to a Limburger in nature. • Conques Abbey (Aveyron): Roquefort (a blue cheese semi-hard) aged in the caves to encourage the growth of the blue mold that give the cheese its flavor. • Benedictine Abbey of Munster (Haut-Rhin): Munster (a semi-hard cheese) which comes from the Latin word monasterium (monastery) was made as early as 1371. The cheeses crust (rind) is washed regularly. It is matured in damp cellars for five weeks for up to 2 to 3 months. During this period, the rind is periodically washed with brine (a concentrated salt solution). The added moisture helps the development of bacteria that gives this cheese its particular taste and color, this type of cheese was also smoked. • Cistercian Monastery of Epoisses (Côte dOr): Epoisses was recorded at the end of the sixteenth century. This is another soft to semi-hard cheese with a strong flavor and a wished rind. Washed rind cheeses are pressed cheeses. • Templar’s of Coulsdon (Seine-et-Marne): Coulommiers has a soft texture and is similar to Brie. • St Claude Abbey (Jura): Bleu de Gex has a flat wheel shape, the rind is dry, rough, and has a white-yellow color.5 Albin, Michel, Linventaire du patrimoine culinaire de France, Lorraine, 1998, article on Munster-geromeAOC cheese, pg. 198~201, At the Table of the Monks: Cheese, Of Course (Part V) Lee, Bruce, The Legacy of the Monks, 3
  4. 4. The hard cheese I have made is similar in style to Abondance Abbey Cheese and is 8My Monastic cheese inside after cutting (above right), (below) beautiful rind after 7 ½months of aging.representative of a simple hard monastic cheese that might have been produced in Francethrough the 16th centuries. Monastic houses adapted local resources to make theircommunities self sufficient. Therefore with this in mind I adapted the local resourcesfound here to create a simple type of hard cheese that might have been produced inperiod. My cheese reflects the flavors found in the pastures of Indiana and theenvironment of my home.Below you will read about the rule of Saint Benedict who lived in the 6th Century. Manymonastic orders followed these simple rules and beliefs. In particular since my persona isan 11th Century Cistercian Nun I wanted to try to recreate a cheese that my persona mighthave made.8 Gourmet Food, Abondance cheese, 4
  5. 5. Sabina Flanagan wrote “at the monastery of Cluny, according to an eleventh-centuryaccount, the regime for summer would consist of two meals per day. At the first therewould be a dish of dried beans, a course of cheese or eggs which was replaced by fish onThursday, Sunday, and feast days….”9 St. Hildegard of Bingen, wrote as well in Physicaspecifically that “If one wishes to eat cheese, it should be neither cooked nor fresh, butdried….”10 Here the description of DRIED Cheese and not soft or cooked is possiblyreferencing hard slicing cheese or a grading style of cheese. St. Hildegard had manyvisions that she had recorded in some of these visions she used common everyday thingsas metaphors to relate information to the reader. In one vision she records the following,“….I also saw the earth with people on it. The people were carrying milk in theirvessels, and they were making cheese from the milk. Some of the milk was thick,from which strong cheese was being made; some of the milk was thin, from whichmild cheese was being curdled; and some of the milk was spoiling, from which bittercheese was being produced.”11There are currently modern examples of Cistercian communities carrying on the cheesemaking traditions to support themselves now just as they would have in the Middle Ages.On April 29, 1987, Mount Saint Marys Abbey in Wrentham, Massachusetts was foundedby Cistercian nuns. “They purchased a cheese farm with all of its dated cheese-makingmachinery still intact on the property. Trappist emphasizes self-sufficiency and manuallabor. Therefore the idea of a small monastery producing and selling cheese to supportitself appealed greatly to the Sisters.”12Cistercian & Benedictine monastic houses had extensive networks of communication &trading. In German a hard cheese is called Hartkäse; a semi-hard cheese is calledSchnittkäse. Chesses ranging from soft fresh cheeses to hard cheese were common fair inGerman monasteries. Common types of cheese found were French Brie, Dutch Edam,German Limburger, and Italian Parmesan, almond milk was also turn into a cheese calledalmond cheese as a substitute for milk based cheeses during Lent.13 What I want to showhere is that there also existed an extensive trading net work between monasteries. TheCistercians were well known for their extensive net work of trading that extended fromWales to Germany. This would not only allow for other types of cheese to be part oftheir monastic diet it allowed the knowledge on how to make these cheese’s to beexchanged as well.9 Flanagan, Sabina, Hildegard of Bingen, 1098-1179: a visionary life, Routledge, New York, 1989, Chpt.“World & Cloister”, pg.33-3610 Throop, Priscills, Hildegard von Bingen’s - Physica, Healing Arts Press, 1998, pg.15, pg.1911 Classen, Constance, The Color of Angels: Cosmology, Gender, and the Aesthetic Imagination, Rutledge,1998, pg.1512 Our Lady of the Angels Monastery. 2002. 24 Mar. 2009 <http://olamonastery.org13 Adamson, Melitta Weiss, Food in Medieval Times, Greenwood Press, 2004, pg46 5
  6. 6. Fig 3: Dairymen and Cheese Sellers (Mid 13th C., San Marco, Venice)14There are 73 chapters in the “Rules of St. Benedict”15 I used the list below from “At theTable of the Monks”, because it was the most concise list for the purpose of informingyou how it applied to monastic houses, their everyday lives, and cheese making.“Cheeses of every type fit into the simple monastic life of the orders that followed therules set forth by St. Benedict. The rules that favored the production and preservation ofmaking cheese were these.”16 In order to be “real monks” (these rules were also adopted by orders that containedSisters, and Nuns), Benedictines must live from the work of their own hands. They must not eat meat: milk products and cheese must constitute the bases of theirfood, as powerful bearers of the values of simplicity and humility. Finally, their community must be self-sufficient (economically speaking).17 OtherOrders that also followed these rules were the “Cistercians an order founded in France(this is the Order that my persona portrays), the Trappist, Dominicans, and theFranciscans to name a few of the major ones.”1814 At the Table of the Monks: Cheese, Of Course (Part V) Rule of Saint Benedict, At the Table of the Monks: Cheese, Of Course (Part V), “Cheese Maker Monks”, “Cheese Maker Monks”, 6
  7. 7. The milk was collected twice a day (morning & evening) at the milking house to beprocessed (fig.4 & 5). In period they would have left the skimmed milk to warm overnight by the fire near the hearth. A milk starter often cream (see Ref.#1) from the nextmornings milking19 (a bacterial agent some times referred to as a live culture) was addedthat acted as an agent to help back down the proteins in the milk so that the milk solidsout separate out (the curds) . One other method in period for the source of a starter was tosave a small amount of milk from a previous batch of cheese before the rennet (or agentwas added to cause the curd to separate from the whey). Then something was added likethistle, safflower juice, or an acid (vinegar or verjuice), ale, or rennet20 to cause the milkto clabbered (the curd to separate from the whey).21The milk purchased for this project was Raw Whole Milk that I low temperaturepasteurized for modern safety reasons (The raw whole milk that I used was lowtemperature pasteurized by me, then processed into the cheese see details below). TheRaw milk came from free range Short Horn Milking Cows, and Belted Galloway whichwas breeds known in the middle ages.Medieval Method of making cheese:Reference 1: “My Lady of Middlesex makes excellent slipp-coat Cheese of good morning milk,putting Cream to it. A quart of Cream is the proportion she useth to as much milk,as both together make a large round Cheese of the bigness of an ordinary Tart-plate, orcheese-plate; as big as an ordinary soft cheese, that eh Market women sell for tenpence…”22Reference 2:(making a pressed cheese)(England, 17th century, “A True Gentlewomans Delight”, 1653)To make a slipcoat CheeseTake five quarts of new Milk from the Cow, and one quart of Water, and one spoonful ofRunnet, and stirre it together, and let it stand till it doth come, then lay your Cheese clothinto the Vate, and let the Whey soak out of it self; when you have taken it all up, lay acloth on the top of it, and one pound weight for one hour, then lay two pound for onehour more, then turn him when he hath stood two houres, lay three pound on him for anhour more, then take him out of the Vate, and let him lie two or three houres, and thensalt him on both sides, when he is salt enough, take a clean cloth and wipe him dry, then19 Power, Eileen, The Goodman of Paris, New York, 1992, pg.16920 Arne Emil Christensen is Professor, Dr. Phil. at the University Museum of National Antiquities in Oslo,author of this article (He specializes on shipbuilding history and craftsmanship in the Iron Age and theViking period), Power, Eileen, The Goodman of Paris, New York, 1992, pg.16922 The Project Gutenberg eBook “The Closet of Sir Kenelm Digby”,, “Tomake Silpp-coat cheese” 7
  8. 8. let him lie on a day or a night, then put Nettles under and upon him, and change themonce a day, if you find any Mouse turd wipe it off, the Cheese will come to his eating ineight or nine dayes.23Reference 3:“Take a gallon of milk from the cow, and seethe it, and when it doth seethe put thereuntoa quart or two of morning milk in fair cleansing pans in such place as no dust may falltherein. This is for you clotted cream. The next morning take a quart of morning milk,and seethe it, and put in a quart of cream thereunto, and when it doth seethe, take if offthe fire. Put it in a fair earthen pan, and let it stand until it be somewhat blood warm. Butfirst over night put a good quantity of ginger, rose water, and stir it together. Let it settleovernight. The next day put it into your said blood warm milk to make your cheesecome. Then put the curds in a fair cloth, with a little good rose water, fine powder ofginger, and a little sugar. So lash great soft rolls together with a thread and crush out thewhey with your clotted cream. Mix it with fine powder of ginger, and sugar and sosprinkle it with rose water, and put your cheese in a fair dish. And put these clots aroundabout it. Then take a pint of raw milk or cream and put it in a pot, and all to shake it untilit be gathered into a froth like snow. And ever as it cometh, take it off with a spoon andput into a colander. There put it upon your fresh cheese, and prick it with wafers, and soserve it.”24Reference 4:Columella on Cheese Making:(Both soft and pressed aged cheeses)(Although an early source from 70 A.D. Columella was a contemporary of Pliny & Cato,and at this point in time this was the most complete written source of instructions I havefound for making cheese both pressed & soft)"Cheese should be made of pure milk which is as fresh as possible....It should usually becurdled with rennet obtained from a lamb or kid, though it can also be coagulated withthe flower of the wild thistle or the seeds of the safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), andequally well with the liquid which flows from a Fig-tree..."."A pail when it has been filled with milk should always be kept at some degree of heat: itshould not however be brought into contact with the flames....but should be put to standnot far from the fire...""...when the liquid had thickened, it should immediately be transferred to wicker vesselsor baskets or moulds..."23 Gode Cookery, Matterer, James L. site owner, Dawson, Thomas, The Good Housewife’s Jewel, Southover Press, 1996, pg.17~18 8
  9. 9. Fig.4 Women had charge of the domestic animals including milking, butter making, and cheese making production. (Bodleian Library, MS. Bodley 764, fol. 44)25" soon as the cheese has become somewhat more solid, they place weights on the topof it, so that the whey may be pressed out;....then they are placed into a cool, shady place,that it my not go is often placed on very clean boards, it is sprinkled withpounded salt so that it may exude the acid liquid,...when it has hardened it is pressedagain...."."...the method of making what we call "hand pressed" cheese is the best-known of all:when the milk is slightly congealed in the pail and still warm it is broken up and hotwater is poured over it, and then it is either shaped by hand or else pressed into box-woodmoulds." (fig. 2)"Others allow thyme which has been crushed and strained through a sieve to coagulatewith the milk and curdle it in this way, similarly, you can give the cheese an flavor youlike by adding any seasoning which you choose....Cheese also which is hardened in brineand then colored with the smoke of apple tree wood or stubble has a not unpleasantflavor..."26Supplies:Modern stainless steel was used to keep the surfaces as clean as possible, formodern health reasons.25 Hanawalt, Barbara, A., The Ties That Bound – Peasant Families in Medieval England, Oxford Univ.Press, Chapter 8 “The Husbandman’s Year and Economic Ventures:, pg.14826 Columella II de re Rustica V-IX, Translated by E.S. Forster & E. Heffner, Book VII, pg.285~289 9
  10. 10. 2 gallons Whole Raw Milk1 pkg. Mesophilic Culture Direct Set1/2 tsp. Rennet¼ cup cool water1 Tbl. Sea Salt2 Stainless Steel Pots1 Slotted Stainless Steel Spoon1 yard of cheese cloth1 Colander1 Stainless Steel Ladle1 Thermometer1 Cheese Press1 Cheese Mold & Follower1 timer1 large plastic cake container (Tupperware style)2 Reed Mats to place the cheese onLard enough to coat the outside of the cheese roundTo Make A Basic Hard Monastic Cheese:(Method used in “Cheese making Made Easy” by Ricki & Robert Carroll)27The flavor of this cheese tends to be a little shaper & dryerThere is an Italian proverb that says “Cheese without a rind is like a maiden withoutshame” 28 that certainly speaks to the fact that hard cheeses were being made (a cheesehaving a rind is most often used in context of a hard aged cheese). There are also anumber of medieval recipes that call for sliced or graded cheese as part of the cookingpreparation please reference Item #1 “To make a Tarte of Chese”. The cheese I havemade is a pressed cheese having a rind, and sealed.Modern Method:2-gallon whole raw milk (Raw Milk or non-homogenized milk will give you a richer cheese) There is an additional step here for me since I used Raw Milk. I needed to heat the milk for 30 min. to a temperature of 145°, then place the pot immediately into a sink filled with cool water and ice if necessary to bring the temp of the milk down quickly, then after cooled place sterile clean container and proceed, with cheese making steps below.1 package of Mesophilic Culture DS (this is used for temperatures under 105º)1/2 tsp. of Rennet for 2 gallons of milk1/4 cup of cool water to dilute the rennet into1 Tbl. Coarse Sea Salt27 Carroll, Ricki & Robert, “Cheese Making Made Easy”, Storey Books, 1996, Chapter on “Hard Cheese”pages28 After Cheese Comes Nothing,, 9/20/2008 10
  11. 11. Step One:Place milk into large pan (fig. 6). Warm milk until it has risen to a temperature of milk to90° F. (Use the in-direct warming method using a large metal pan in a sink of warmwater, or inside of a second larger pot).Add the package of Mesophilic Starter DS and allow to sit for 45~60 minutes to ripen.Add Rennet (diluted to 1/4 cup of cool water) and stir for several minuets. Let milk sitcovered for 1 hour or until a curd has formed and a clean break can be preformed (thecurd should have what is called a clean break, which is if a clean knife is put into the curdthe curd should separate cleanly).Cut the curds into ½ inch cubes, and then let sit for 5 minutes. Bring the temperature ofthe curds and whey up to 100º F, raising the temperature no more than 2 degrees every 5minutes stirring gently for 1 hour to keep the curds from matting. Then allow sitting for5 minutes. Remove excess whey to the level of the curds which will have a shrunkenappearance.Pour the curds into a cheesecloth-lined colander (fig. 9) while still warm (fig.6, 8) andhang to drain for 60 minutes or until bag has stopped dripping.Place the warm curds & cheese cloth into the cheese mold place the follower (fig.2) Placethe cheese mold and follower into the cheese press and apply 15 pounds of pressure for15 minutes. After 15 minutes remove weight & follower and turn the round of cheese,replace the follower and return to cheese press for additional 15 minutes. Turn every 15minutes for the next 2 hours. After 2 hours increase weight to 30 pounds and turn every½ hour for the next hour. Then replace into press and leave in press for 12 hours or overnight.29Remove cheese round and place on reed mat. Turn once a day for the next 2~4 days untila nice rind has developed and the surface remains dry. After 2~4 days rub the outside ofthe cheese all rounds with sea salt. Place in your cheese cave (fig. 7) at 55ºF degreesturning once a day for the next 3 weeks then once a week there after. After 3 weeks sealthe out side of the cheese round, I choose to use lard but olive oil or wax was also used.Sealing the cheese will keep it form drying out and loosing too much moisture, and it alsokeeps out unwanted molds.This basic hard cheese will be ready to eat in 3 to 6 months, but the flavor will develop ifleft to age longer.Observations:29 Carroll, Ricki & Robert, Cheese making made Easy, United States: Capital City Press, 1996, page 36~37 11
  12. 12. Follower My mold, lined with cheese cloth and folded over the curdsDay 1: (October 10, 2010) I split the cooked curds into twobatches to make two smaller rounds for research purposes (see additional observations). Cheese placed into the cheese mold and then pressed. Basic round of hard cheese is made.Day 2-3: Cheese is air dried to start the formation of the rind (this is where I use the largeplastic Tupperware Cake cover to keep my cats away from the cheese while it is sittingon the counter). Air drying process rind formingBasic round of cheese after day two of the Air Drying Process, note that the darker area iswhere the rind is starting to form.Day 4 though the end of week 3: Cheese rind gets darker and firmer.End of Week Three: Cheese is sealed with lard and turned once a week. 12
  13. 13. Air drying complete Lard has been applied to seal the cheese.Round sealed with the Lard.January 2011: Additional Lard was added and minor mold removed.February 2011: Cheese turned no additional Lard was needed.March 2011: Cheesed turned no additional Lard was needed.April 16, 2011: Cheese cut and sampled Aged 6 months at Constellation Regional A&S.Tasting Note: The rind was well formed and not overly thick. I found the cheese to benot overly dry with a pleasant flavor. I think that in future I may need to see how tocontrol the ph a little better to me the cheese seems to have a tangy under flavor thoughnot unpleasant certainly is something for me to strive to lessen if possible. I think Iwould prefer not to use lard again but olive oil or bee’s wax to see how it affects theflavor of the cheese. I found that as the cheese warmed to room temperature the lard wasnot pleasant to handle or mess with. Although it did do its job on sealing a protecting thecheese, I am also certain that in period they would have likely wiped the excess off of theexterior of the cheese before serving.Additional Observations:“Take harde chese and cut it in slices…”30I wanted to see what the texture and taste of a Basic Hard Cheese would be if I did notseal it. So I made second round at the same time and this one I did not seal the outside ofthe cheese but I did rub the outside to prevent unwanted mold growth. I tried the cheeseonce a month for next 5 months.With out sealing the cheese developed a nice tart flavor, with a dry crumbly texture. Sosealing the out side of a hard cheese is necessary to prevent it from loosing too much ofthe remaining moisture content.30 A Boke of Gode Cooke, To make a Tarte of Chese, 13
  14. 14. Lovely white mold that helps develop the flavor of cheese.This is how the unsealed cheese looked after 5 months; it did develop a very nice whitemold which is one of the molds cheese makers want.Conclusion:This is a process I have been learning about for the last 4 years, I started MedievalCheese Forum a year ago ( so I could keep track ofmistakes and successes, share information I have learned about cheese making also.Some of the things I learned were if my house is too cold the curd will not set. I canwarm the milk and add more Rennet, and that if using a raw milk product that isproduced near the end of the cows or goat’s lactation cycle the milk does not containenough milk fat to set a curd (you get a weak or soft curd that does not hold up during thecheese making process for hard cheese). I have also learned that time is much morecritical for making hard cheeses, and the process of making hard cheeses is not nearly asforgiving as making soft cheeses.On adding rennet I learned early on that a little goes a long way and adding two much ofsomething in the case of making cheese can be a bad thing. Adding not enough rennetand your curd will not set, but I have found that you can add a little more if necessary.Adding to much rennet will give it a rubbery texture and a bitter under taste. This alsowill happen if your rennet is too old.This last statement is important because it explains a couple of written statements I foundin period sources that talked about the time of year and the quality of the cheese productsproduced. For example in the spring and early summer the milk is rich and contains alarge of amount of protein and milk fat due to new pastures and lactation for their young,so the cheese is going to be very rich in body and flavor. If the milk is in the fall then itis not as rich due to the decline of pasture feeding and that they are no longer lactating, sothe cheese produced in the fall will take more milk to produce a pound of cheese due to alower amount of protein and fat making the milk thinner (the cream that comes to the topis not as thick as in the spring/ summer milk). What the animals eat also effect the flavorof the cheese as well.Part of the preservation of hard cheese comes in how moisture can I get the curds to giveup without taking out too much and making a very dry cheese (i.e. how much whey can Iget out of the curd). This is done in several ways thru the process, by hanging, pressing,and salting. Cheeses pressed and aged in this manner can and do last years. 14
  15. 15. Another lesson that applies as much now as then is keeping things clean, “morning milkin fair cleansing pans in such place as no dust may fall therein”31. There are times whenno matter what you do the milk will not set a curd and all you can do is start over andfeed the previous batch to the pig.Enjoy sampling the cheese.Please reference Illumination in Fig. 2, look on the left hand side, and notice the woodenform that the bundle of cheese is being pressed in and the container below to catch thewhey. Above are two images taken from a modern video showing traditional cheesemaking. The form and methods have not changed since the 14th century.31 Dawson, Thomas, The Good Housewife’s Jewel, Southover Press, 1996, pg.17~1832 Gyimesközéplok Traditional cheese-making, Sajtkészítés 15
  16. 16. 33 fig. 5Item #1:To make a Tarte of Chese“Take harde chese and cut it in slyces / and pare it / than laye it in fayre water or inswete milke the space of thre houres / than take it vp and breake it in a morter tyll itbe small / than draw it vp thorow a strainer with the yelkes of vi egges and ceason itvp with suger and swete butter / and so bake it.”To make a Tart of Cheese.“Take hard cheese and cut it in slices / and pare it / then lay it in fair water or insweet milk the space of three hours / then take it up and break it in a mortar till itbe small / then draw it up through a strainer with the yolks of 6 eggs and season itup with sugar and sweet butter / and so bake it.”3433 Norman Cheeses, A Boke of Gode Cooke, To make a Tarte of Chese, 16
  17. 17. 35 fig. 6 Warming the milk Warming milk Slotted ladle & strainer35 From Tacuinum Sanitatis (ÖNB Codex Vindobonensis, series nova 2644), c. 1370-1400) 17
  18. 18. 36Fig.7: A cheese cave as one might have seen it in the middle ages36 Feibleman, Peter, The Cooking of Spain & Portugal, Time Life Books, 1969, pg. 130~131 18
  19. 19. 37 Fig. 8 Draining Whey38 Fig. 9 Roman Cheese Mold in form and function very similar to those found from 600– 1600A.D.All other photos unless otherwise noted were taken by me37 Take 1000 Eggs or More, pg. 45, from Schweizer Chronik, c. 154838 Roman Cheese Press, Greyware circular straight-sided bowl, used for training the Whey from cheese, c.450 A.D., 19