HEARING
Anatomy of the Ear
Areas of the Ear   Outer Ear (Hearing)       Pinna(Auricle)       External Auditory Canal/Meatus            Ceruminous...
Areas of the Ear   Middle Ear (Hearing)       Auditory Ossicles            Malleus/Hammer            Incus/Anvil      ...
Areas of the Ear   Inner Ear       Hearing and Equilibrium            Oval Window            Round WIndow            ...
   Bony Labyrinth         Vestibule           • Equilibrium Receptors           • Utricle and Saccule         Semicircu...
Physiology of Hearing   The auricle directs sound waves into the    external auditory canal   When sound waves strike th...
   The movement of the oval window sets up flid    pressure waves in the perilymph of the cochlea.    As the oval window ...
   As the pressure waves deform the walls of the    scala vestibuli and scala tympani, they also push    the vestibular m...
Ear Disorders
Deafness   Conductive Hearing Loss     Occurs   when sound cannot reach the cochlea     Causes       Obstruction (Ceru...
   Symptoms     Tinnitus      -      clicking in the ears     Feeling of fullness in the ear     Sounds are faint or n...
   Treatment     Removal   of the offending obstruction     Surgery     Hearing  Aids     Draining of fluids that hav...
   Sensorineural Hearing Loss     Disturbance in the inner ear in the cochlea      or the acoustic nerve to the brain   ...
   Symptoms:     Unable  to hear high tones (high frequency      hearing loss)     Can not understand or hear speech   ...
   Treatment     Remove   ear wax or use of antibiotics to treat      an ear infection     Intratympanic steroids may b...
   Presbycusis     Causes       Atrophy of the sensory cells       Loss of neuron in the cochlea and CNS       Atroph...
   Meniere’s Disease     Disorderof the middle ear with an increase      amount of endolymph that enlarges the      memb...
   Symptoms       Hearing loss of several hours or more       Vertigo,       severe nausea,       vomiting       swe...
   Otitis Media     Infectionof the middle ear caused mainly by      bacteria and associated with infections of the     ...
   Symptoms     Pain     Malaise     Fever     Reddening     Outward   bulging of eardrum
   Treatment       Oral or ear drop antibiotics       Adenoidectomy       Surgical repair of ruptured eardrum   Otiti...
   Mixed Hearing Loss     Combination   of conductive and sensorineural      losses     Chronic ear infection that is a...
Treatments   Hearing Aid       an  electroacoustic device which typically        fits in or behind the wearers ear, and ...
The microphone - picksup the sound and sends itto the amplifier.The amplifier - makesthe sound louder.The receiver - sends...
Cochlear Implants   Surgically implanted electronic device   Provides a sense of sound to a person who    is profoundly ...
   can restore hearing in patients suffering    deafness due to loss of sensory hair cells in    their cochlea   electri...
 Sound no longer travels via the ear canal  and middle ear It will be picked up by a microphone and  sent through the de...
Hearrrrrrrr
Hearrrrrrrr
Hearrrrrrrr
Hearrrrrrrr
Hearrrrrrrr
Hearrrrrrrr
Hearrrrrrrr
Hearrrrrrrr
Hearrrrrrrr
Hearrrrrrrr
Hearrrrrrrr
Hearrrrrrrr
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Hearrrrrrrr

1,630 views

Published on

:P

Published in: Health & Medicine, Business
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,630
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
96
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Hearrrrrrrr

  1. 1. HEARING
  2. 2. Anatomy of the Ear
  3. 3. Areas of the Ear Outer Ear (Hearing)  Pinna(Auricle)  External Auditory Canal/Meatus  Ceruminous glands  Tympanic Membrane(Eardrum)
  4. 4. Areas of the Ear Middle Ear (Hearing)  Auditory Ossicles  Malleus/Hammer  Incus/Anvil  Stapes/Stirrup  Tiny Muscles  Tensor tympani  Stapedius  Eustachian tube
  5. 5. Areas of the Ear Inner Ear  Hearing and Equilibrium  Oval Window  Round WIndow  Bony Labyrinth with perilymph • Membranous Labyrinth with endolymph
  6. 6.  Bony Labyrinth  Vestibule • Equilibrium Receptors • Utricle and Saccule  Semicircular Canals • Equilibrium Receptors • Ampulla  Cochlea • Hearing receptors • Modiolus • Scala Vestibuli, Scala Tympani, Scala Media • Organ of Corti with Hair cells
  7. 7. Physiology of Hearing The auricle directs sound waves into the external auditory canal When sound waves strike the eardrum, the pressure of air cause the eardrum to vibrate Vibration of the eardrum cause the malleus, incus and stapes to vibrate. As the stapes move back and forth, it pushes the membrane of the oval window in and out.
  8. 8.  The movement of the oval window sets up flid pressure waves in the perilymph of the cochlea. As the oval window bulges inward, it pushes the perilymph of the scala vestibuli. Pressure waves are transmitted from the scala vestibuli to the scala tympani and eventually to the round window, causing it to bulge outward in the middle ear.
  9. 9.  As the pressure waves deform the walls of the scala vestibuli and scala tympani, they also push the vestibular membrane back and forth creating pressure waves in the endolymph inside the scala media. The pressure waves in the endolymph cause the basilar membrane to vibrate, which moves the hair cells of the spiral organ against the tectorial membrane. Bending of the stereocilia produces receptor potentials that ultimately lead to the generation of nerve impulses.
  10. 10. Ear Disorders
  11. 11. Deafness Conductive Hearing Loss  Occurs when sound cannot reach the cochlea  Causes  Obstruction (Cerumen Impaction)  Mass loading ( Middle ear effusion) • Ear canal is very sensitive • Removal with a loop or hook  Stiffness effect (Otosclerosis)  Discontinuity (Ossicular disruption) • Resorption of bone • Stapedectomy
  12. 12.  Symptoms  Tinnitus - clicking in the ears  Feeling of fullness in the ear  Sounds are faint or non existent  Needing everything to be repeated  Withdrawal from social activities  Depression and embarrassment
  13. 13.  Treatment  Removal of the offending obstruction  Surgery  Hearing Aids  Draining of fluids that have built up  Softening and removal of excessive ear wax  Antibiotics such as oral medication or ear drops
  14. 14.  Sensorineural Hearing Loss  Disturbance in the inner ear in the cochlea or the acoustic nerve to the brain  Causes  Long-term exposure to loud sounds  Ototoxic medications  Trauma  Aging
  15. 15.  Symptoms:  Unable to hear high tones (high frequency hearing loss)  Can not understand or hear speech  Loud TV volume  Always needing conversation repeated  Retreat from social activities and interaction with others  Depression
  16. 16.  Treatment  Remove ear wax or use of antibiotics to treat an ear infection  Intratympanic steroids may be effective  Hearing aids  Surgery:  Tympanoplasty for repair of a perforated eardrum  Myringotomy tubes surgically inserted to drain the ear of fluids caused by infections.  Cochlear implant
  17. 17.  Presbycusis  Causes  Atrophy of the sensory cells  Loss of neuron in the cochlea and CNS  Atrophy of the wall of cochlea  Mechanical change of the outer ear
  18. 18.  Meniere’s Disease  Disorderof the middle ear with an increase amount of endolymph that enlarges the membranous labyrinth  Treatment  Symptomatic relief
  19. 19.  Symptoms  Hearing loss of several hours or more  Vertigo,  severe nausea,  vomiting  sweating  Tinnitus  Feelings of fullness or pressure in the ear  Headache  Abdominal pain  Diarrhea
  20. 20.  Otitis Media  Infectionof the middle ear caused mainly by bacteria and associated with infections of the nose and throat.  Causes  Allergies  Persistent infections  Ear trauma  Swelling of the adenoids
  21. 21.  Symptoms  Pain  Malaise  Fever  Reddening  Outward bulging of eardrum
  22. 22.  Treatment  Oral or ear drop antibiotics  Adenoidectomy  Surgical repair of ruptured eardrum Otitis media complications may include:  Cyst of the middle ear (cholesteatoma)  Facial paralysis  Mastoiditis  Epidural abscess (inflammation surrounding the brain)  Partial or profound hearing loss
  23. 23.  Mixed Hearing Loss  Combination of conductive and sensorineural losses  Chronic ear infection that is a fairly common diagnosis could result in a defect ear drum and/or middle ear ossicle damages. Surgery is often attempted but not always successful. Functional Hearing Loss  Individual does not respond to voice and appears not to hear
  24. 24. Treatments Hearing Aid  an electroacoustic device which typically fits in or behind the wearers ear, and is designed to amplify and modulate sound for the wearer.  receives sound, amplifies it, and transmits this stronger sound down the ear canal into the ear.  sound is amplified to make the weak and distorted signals more audible.
  25. 25. The microphone - picksup the sound and sends itto the amplifier.The amplifier - makesthe sound louder.The receiver - sends theamplified sound into theear canal.The battery - suppliesthe power to the hearingaid.
  26. 26. Cochlear Implants Surgically implanted electronic device Provides a sense of sound to a person who is profoundly deaf or severely hard of hearing. Referred to as bionic ear
  27. 27.  can restore hearing in patients suffering deafness due to loss of sensory hair cells in their cochlea electrical hearing is much less rich than natural hearing, and offers only very limited appreciation of musical melody, or speech understanding in noisy environments.
  28. 28.  Sound no longer travels via the ear canal and middle ear It will be picked up by a microphone and sent through the devices speech processor to the implants electrodes inside the cochlea.

×