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All About Ears


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All About Ears

  1. 1. Knowing about .. EARS © 2012 Charie Camilo. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. What are “ears”?• The ears are the anatomical organ that detects sound. It not only acts as a receiver for sound, but also plays a major role in the sense of balance and body position. The ear is part of the auditory system. © 2012 Charie Camilo. All rights reserved.
  3. 3. So, what are theparts of the ear ? © 2012 Charie Camilo. All rights reserved.
  4. 4. Parts of EarThe three major parts of the human ear are the outer ear, the middle ear andthe inner ear. The working of human ear is in such a way that the soundwaves travel from the outer ear to the middle ear, which are then transmittedto the inner ear in the form of compressional waves. In the inner ear, thecompressional waves are converted into electric impulses that areperceived by the brain. Charie Camilo. in brief about the different parts of the © 2012 Lets discuss All rightshuman ear and their role in hearing . reserved.
  5. 5. How does your ear work ? © 2012 Charie Camilo. All rights reserved.
  6. 6. 3 Major Sections of ear• There are three major sections of an ear: • Outer Ear • Middle Ear • Inner Ear © 2012 Charie Camilo. All rights reserved.
  7. 7. Outer Ear• Sounds from the outside world are picked up by the outer ear, which is made up of the pinna and the ear canal. As the sound waves enter the ear, the ear canal (1) serves to increase the loudness of those pitches that make it easier to understand speech. At the same time the ear canal protects another important part of the ear: the eardrum (2) - a flexible, circular membrane which vibrates when touched by sound waves. © 2012 Charie Camilo. All rights reserved.
  8. 8. Middle Ear• The sound vibrations continue their journey into the middle ear, which contains three tiny bones called the ossicles(3-5), which are also known as the hammer, anvil and stirrup. These bones form the bridge from the eardrum into the inner ear. They increase and amplify the sound vibrations even more, before safely transmitting them on to the inner ear via the oval window. © 2012 Charie Camilo. All rights reserved.
  9. 9. Inner Ear• The Inner Ear, or cochlea (8), resembles the circular shell of a snail, and houses a system of tubes which are filled with a watery fluid. As the sound waves pass through the oval window (6) the fluid begins to move, setting tiny hair cells in motion. In turn, these hairs transform the vibrations into electrical impulses that travel along the auditory nerve (9) to the brain itself. Exactly how the brain actually translates these nerve impulses remains a mystery. © 2012 Charie Camilo. All rights reserved.
  10. 10. © 2012 Charie Camilo. All Video: rights “How your ear work ?” reserved.
  11. 11. Some common..EAR CONDITIONS THAT YOUSHOULD KNOW © 2012 Charie Camilo. All rights reserved.
  12. 12. Ear Wax• Earwax is a bit of a problem for millions of British people. Everybody produces a bit of wax, but a lot of us have a genetically determined tendency to make lots of it. Result: you cant hear anything!• Fortunately, earwax is easily treated. The excellent drops which you can buy from any chemist (such as Waxsol, Cerumol or Otex) will soften and dissolve it. But if it has got very hard, then the only way to get rid of the wax is to get a doctor or nurse to syringe it for you.• Incidentally, please DONT try and dig the wax out with hairpins or other objects. Contrary to what many people think, it is not a good idea to stick things into the lughole. That is likely to damage the delicate tissues of the ear. © 2012 Charie Camilo. All rightsBACK reserved.
  13. 13. Earache• Fortunately, this gets less common as you grow older. It is usually caused by a germ - which gets into the interior of the ear after working its way up the tube which leads up from the throat to the cavity of the middle-ear region.• Initial treatment is with aspirin, Paracetamol or Nurofen, plus warmth to the ear. Many doctors give penicillin or other anti-biotics, but there is controversy about how soon they should be used. © 2012 Charie Camilo. All rights reserved.
  14. 14. Outer Ear Inflammation• Also known as otitis externa, this is pretty common in the retirement age group. It causes itching and soreness, and a discharge from the ear. Its commoner in people who have spent time in the tropics,. and it tends to be made worse by swimming - particularly in pools in warm climates, where there may be the odd bug in the water!• Otitis externa needs treatment by a GP or an ENT consultant. Usually the doctor will clean out the ear and prescribe special drops. Sometimes its necessary to put a wick into the interior of the ear to help it recover. Most important, however itchy the ear, dont poke any hairpins etc into it! © 2012 Charie Camilo. All rights reserved.
  15. 15. Sore Places in The Ear• Lumps and raw spots on the ear are common, particularly in the over-50s - especially in those who have been exposed to a lot of sun during their lives. If you get any unexplained lump or sore place on your ear and it doesnt clear up within a week, please do have it checked out by your doctor - because (to be frank) there is a risk that it could be a skin tumour. © 2012 Charie Camilo. All rights reserved.
  16. 16. Tinnitus• The word tinnitus just means noises in the ear. Its NOT a disease - just a symptom of something wrong. Incidentally, m any people think its called tinnitis - but it isnt; the spelling is tinnitus. You can see that the important thing with tinnitus is to find out whats causing it. © 2012 Charie Camilo. All rights reserved.
  17. 17. Possible causes include:• An insect in the ear - very RARE in the UK!• Aspirin and similiar drugs• Presbyacusis (see below) - this is the form of deafness often seen in the over-50s; it is often associated with tinnitus• Wax• Fluid in the middle part of the ear• Damage by noise• Damage from diving• Menieres disease• Labyrinthitis - a common inflammation of the inner part of the ear © 2012 Charie Camilo. All rights reserved.
  18. 18. Vertigo• The word vertigo means the kind of giddiness in which things actually seem to spin round you. It is often due to problems in the balance mechanisms of the inner part of the ear. Possible causes include labyrinthitis and Menieres disease.• There is also something called Benign Positional Vertigo, which often develops in the second half of life. What happens is that you move your head - and then you suddenly feel awfully giddy. The cause is believed to be tiny stones in the fluid of the inner part of your ear. Fortunately, ENT surgeons have developed a way of curing the condition by carrying out a manipulation called Particle Reposition Manoeuvre. © 2012 Charie Camilo. All rights reserved.
  19. 19. Meniere’s Disease• People with Menieres disease suffer recurrent attacks of deafness, tinnitus and vertigo. These attacks are very upsetting - but (thank heavens) patients feel OK in the intervals between bouts. The cause of Menieres seems to be a disturbance in the fluids which circulate in the inner part of the ear.• Initial treatment is with anti-vertigo drugs and (usually) salt restriction. If these measures fail, there are surgical operations which can be tried - but alas the results are variable.• BACK © 2012 Charie Camilo. All rights reserved.
  20. 20. Labyrinthitis• This is a common condition, in which a person suddenly becomes very giddy, and may feel sick as well. Sometimes they go a bit deaf for a while. This disorder (which is also knows as vestibulitis) is thought o be due to a virus. So not surprisingly, there are sometimes little outbreaks, in which several people develop the same symptoms.• Antibiotics will not help, but fortunately labyrinthitis usually gets better of its own accord, over a few weeks.• BACK © 2012 Charie Camilo. All rights reserved.
  21. 21. Catarrh• Catarrh in the back of the throat is notorious for causing all sorts of symptoms in the ears; deafness, popping, discomfort and sometimes slight giddiness.• The commonest cause is smoking. Catarrh cant be treated with ear drops - because they wouldnt get through the ear drum. So the most common way of treating it is with nose drops. © 2012 Charie Camilo. All rights reserved.
  22. 22. Deafness• Deafness in the second half of life is very common. Frequently, its due to one of the causes mentioned above - like catarrh or ear wax. Fortunately, these are easily cured.• The effect of this degeneration is that high-pitched sounds are lost, to begin with. One result of this is that you cant hear consonants clearly - just vowels. This is irritating! People who suffer from it are always saying: Dont mumble - speak up! © 2012 Charie Camilo. All rights reserved.
  23. 23. How to … TAKE CARE OF YOUR EARS © 2012 Charie Camilo. All rights reserved.
  24. 24. • Avoid blows to the outer ear. If you wrestle, box or participate in a contact sport such as rugby, wear headgear that includes protection for your ears. Repeated blows to the outer ear can result in a condition called cauliflower ear, in which the cartilage of the ear is damaged and the ear becomes deformed. © 2012 Charie Camilo. All rights reserved.
  25. 25. • Pierce carefully, particularly if piercing cartilage. An infected piercing can cause permanent damage to the outer ear, something that will ruin the look of any earring. © 2012 Charie Camilo. All rights reserved.
  26. 26. • Clean your ears with a washcloth-covered finger only. Never put anything inside your ear canal, including cotton swabs. Your ear canal is very narrow, and a swab or finger can damage it; they can also cause ear wax to get pushed against the ear drum, which can cause hearing problems. © 2012 Charie Camilo. All rights reserved.
  27. 27. • Leave ear wax alone. Wax is your ears way of trapping and eliminating anything foreign that gets into the ear canal. Most people dont need to clean wax out of their ears. If you find you have too much ear wax (its visible in the ear or its affecting your hearing), use a few drops of ear wax remover or hydrogen peroxide in the canal. After a few minutes, flush the ear with a rubber bulb and tepid water. © 2012 Charie Camilo. All rights reserved.
  28. 28. How to … PROTECT YOUR EARS © 2012 Charie Camilo. All rights reserved.
  29. 29. • Avoid noisy places. NASCAR racetracks, firing ranges, rock concerts and construction sites are just a few places that frequently have noise levels that can damage hearing. Any place where you have to shout to be heard should be avoided. If you choose to go anyway, wear earplugs. © 2012 Charie Camilo. All rights reserved.
  30. 30. • Turn the volume down. Be careful not to play personal stereos and televisions too loud, especially if using headphones or earbuds. © 2012 Charie Camilo. All rights reserved.
  31. 31. • See your doctor if you have an earache. Ear infections can damage the ear drum or the bones of the middle ear, causing hearing loss. Your doctor may prescribe medication or order a minor surgical procedure to help you if you suffer from frequent infections. © 2012 Charie Camilo. All rights reserved.
  32. 32. • Be careful with illness and medications. Respiratory illnesses should be treated to avoid their spread to the ears. Certain medications can damage hearing; take only whats prescribed for you and follow the directions carefully. Avoid others who are ill; some illnesses can only be treated with antibiotics that can damage hearing. © 2012 Charie Camilo. All rights reserved.
  33. 33. • Stop smoking. Smokers are more likely to lose their hearing than non-smokers. © 2012 Charie Camilo. All rights reserved.
  34. 34. • See your doctor if you suffer from sudden hearing loss or hear noises in your head (tinnitus). These can be symptoms of a serious illness which needs to be treated. © 2012 Charie Camilo. All rights reserved.
  35. 35. Sources••••• © 2012 Charie Camilo. All rights reserved.
  36. 36. All about “EARS”• Almodiel, Gilesa A.• Camilo, Charmaine S.• Dequilla, Yvonne Precious E. ACS-2A © 2012 Charie Camilo. All rights reserved.
  37. 37. END© 2012 Charie Camilo. All rights reserved.