Emergence of a land ethic


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Emergence of a land ethic

  1. 1. The emergence of a conservation ethic
  2. 2. Answers due before the start of class on Monday 2/4!
  3. 3. Politics contrast interview (Democrat vs. Republican)A little biographical info... Age? Gender? Political affiliation? relation to you?What comes to mind when you hear the word environmentalist?Do you consider yourself to be an environmentalist? Please briefly explain.Do you think current environmental regulations in the US are sufficient, insufficient, orexcessive? Please briefly explain.What do you think of the current administrations approach to environmental issues?Are you aware that some of the most significant environmental legislation in US history(e.g., Endangered Species Act, Clean Air Act, creation of the EPA as a federal agency)was passed during Republican administrations? Any thoughts?What are your main sources of information about environmental issues?What do you think are the most serious environmental issues today?Do you make a daily effort to conserve resources (e.g., water, electricity, fuel)? Explain.How regularly do you participate in outdoor recreation? Please briefly explain.
  4. 4. Age contrast interview (< 25 years vs > 65 years)A little biographical info... Age? Gender? Education? Relation to you?Do you consider yourself to be an environmentalist? Please briefly explain.What do you think are the most serious environmental issues today?Do you think progress has been made in addressing environmental issues during yourlifetime? Please briefly explain your answer.Do you think public attitudes about the environment have changed during your lifetime?Are you a member of any environmental organizations or subscribe to anyenvironment related magazines? If so, please identify.What are your main sources of information about environmental issues?Do you make a daily effort to conserve resources (e.g., water, electricity, fuel)? Pleasebriefly explain.How regularly do you participate in outdoor recreation? Please briefly explain.Do you have a favorite state park? national park? Please briefly explain.
  5. 5. WO assignment due before the start of class on Wednesday 2/6Carefully consider the interview responses that you collected andanswer the following 2 questions:Which question(s) resulted in the most different responses? Briefly discuss.Which question(s) resulted in the most similar responses? Briefly discuss.Take a look at some of the responses submitted by other students forthe same set of questions that you asked your interview candidateand answer the following question:Which question(s) do you think resulted in the most interesting responses?Briefly discuss.Take a look at some of the responses submitted by other students forthe other set of questions and answer the following question:Which question(s) do you think resulted in the most interesting responses?Briefly discuss.
  6. 6. 2 wrap up questions Was it a valuable experience interviewing 2 peopleand then looking at some of the responses that other students submitted? Briefly explain your answer. If I use this assignment again, do you recommendthat I drop, add or edit any of the questions? Briefly explain your answer.
  7. 7. Indigenous respect for the earth "Treat the earth well: it was not givento you by your parents, it was loanedto you by your children. We do notinherit the Earth from our Ancestors,we borrow it from our Children.“
  8. 8. Have you read any booksabout indigenous cultures?
  9. 9. Where isJoel hiding now?
  10. 10. Have you seen any movies about indigenous people?
  11. 11. Do you remember this scene?
  12. 12. Did the Mississippians take good care of their land?
  13. 13. Noble savage = romantic but often inaccurate view of indigenous people
  14. 14. Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) author, naturalist, philosopher Thoreau wrote extensively (over 20 published volumes) about diversetopics including personal experience,historical lore, natural history, and civil disobedience.Thoreau is best known for his bookWalden, a reflection on simple living on the banks of Walden pond. For 2 years, he lived in a small, self-built house on 14 acres of land owned by Ralph Waldo Emerson, a fellow philosopher.
  15. 15. Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862)author, naturalist, philosopher “I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately.. to see if I could not learn what it had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not lived… I wanted to live deep and suck out all the marrow of life…”
  16. 16. Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) author, naturalist, philosopher “As a single footstep will not “I went to the on the earth, so make a path woods because aI single thought deliberately.. wished to live will not make a pathway could not learn to see if I in the mind. To what it a deep teach, and not, make had to physical path, we walk again and again. To when I came to die, discover that I had not lived… I make a deep mental path, we must think over and over the wanted to live deep and suck kindall the marrow of life…” out of thoughts we wish to dominate our lives.”Thoreau’s writings have had far reachinginfluence. Political leaders and reformers like Mahatma Gandhi, President John F. Kennedy and civil rights activist Martin Luther King, Jr. spoke of being strongly affected by Thoreau’s writing.
  17. 17. John Muir (1838 -1913) author, preservationist,founder of the Sierra ClubMuir was an early advocateof wilderness preservationwhose letters, essays, and books describing hisadventures in nature have been read by millions. His activism helped topreserve the Yosemite Valley, Sequoia National Park and other wilderness areas. The Sierra Club, which hefounded, is now one of themost important conservation organizations in the United States.
  18. 18. John Muir (1838 -1913) author, preservationist,founder of the Sierra Club“Thousands of tired, nerve- shaken, over-civilized people are beginning to find out that going to the mountains is going home; that wildness is a necessity; and that mountain parks andreservations are useful not only as fountains of timberand irrigating rivers, but as fountains of life.”
  19. 19. John Muir and President Teddy Roosevelt at Yosemite in 1903 John Muir (1838 -1913) author, preservationist, founder of the Sierra Club “Thousands of tired, nerve- “When we contemplate shaken, over-civilized the whole globe as one people are beginning to find out that goingstriped great dewdrop, to the mountainsdotted with and is going home; continents and islands, that wildness is a flying through space with necessity; and that mountain parks and other stars all singing and reservations are usefulone, shining together as not only as whole universe the fountains of timber and irrigating rivers, but as appears as an infinite fountains of life.” storm of beauty.”
  20. 20. Have you ever looked at this magazine?
  21. 21. Gifford Pinchot (1865 -1946)1st chief of the US Forest Service Governor of PAPinchot’s father James, regretted the damage that his familys lumber company had done to America’s forests and sent his son to Europe to study forestry.Pinchot served as the first Chiefof the Forest Service from 1905until his firing in 1910. He servedas Governor of PA from 1923 to 1927 and again from 1931 to 1935. Pinchot is known for reformingthe management of forests in the United States.
  22. 22. Gifford Pinchot (1865 -1946)1st chief of the US Forest Service Governor of PA “ Conservation means the wise use of the earth and its resources for the lasting good of men” “The outgrowth of conservation, the inevitable result, is national efficiency.” “Conservation is the application of common sense to the common problems for the common good.”
  23. 23. Two opposing perspectives emerged within the early environmental movement in the US:the conservationists vs. the preservationists. The conservationists (e.g., Gifford Pinchot)focused on the proper use of nature, whereas the preservationists (e.g., John Muir) sought to protect nature from use. Put another way, conservationists sought to regulate human use while preservationists sought to preserve wilderness areas as undisturbed by human impact as possible.
  24. 24. Loss of old growth forest Each dot represents 25,000 acres http://mvh.sr.unh.edu/mvhinvestigations/old_growth_forests.htm
  25. 25. Yellowstone National Park, established by theU.S. Congress and signed into law by President Ulysses S. Grant on March 1, 1872 is widelyheld to be the world’s first national park.
  26. 26. Theodore Roosevelt had an impact on the national park system extending well beyond his presidency. As chief executive from 1901 to 1909, he signed legislationestablishing 5 national parks: Crater Lake in OR; Wind Cave in SD; Sully’s Hill in ND (later redesignated a game preserve); Mesa Verde in CO; and Platt in OK (now part of the Chickasaw National Recreation Area). Another Roosevelt enactment actually had a broader effect,the Antiquities Act of June 8, 1906. While not creating a single park itself, the Antiquities Act enabled Roosevelt and his successors to proclaim historic landmarks, historic orprehistoric structures, and other objects of historic or scientific interest in federal ownership as national monuments.
  27. 27. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilsonsigned a bill creating the National Park Service as a separate bureau of the Department of the Interior
  28. 28. Aldo Leopold (1886 – 1948) author, wildlife biologist, professor at UW and environmentalist -best known for his book A Sand County Almanac (1949), which has sold over two million copies. -influential in the development of modern environmental ethics and the science of wildlife management.http://www.pbs.org/harriman/images/film/filmhist_leopold_lg.jpg
  29. 29. “That land is a community is the basic concept of ecology, but thatland is to be loved and respected is an extension of ethics.That wildlife is merely something to shoot at or look at is thegrossest of fallacies. It often represents the difference betweenrich country and mere land.In dire necessity somebody might write another Iliad, or paint anAngelus, but fashion a goose?... If, then, we can live without goosemusic, we may as well do away with stars, or sunsets, or Iliads.But the point is that we would be fools to do away with any ofthem.A land ethic, then, reflects the existence of an ecologicalconscience, and this in turn reflects a conviction of individualresponsibility for the health of the land. Health is the capacity ofthe land for self-renewal. Conservation is our effort to understandand preserve this capacity.”
  30. 30. The ceiling of the Sistine Chapel waspainted by Michael Angelus aka Michelangelo
  31. 31. Reading questions – answers should be submitted on WO by Friday 2/81) The article describes how Aldo Leopolds childhood experiences influenced his interest in nature.Briefly explain how personal experiences have shaped your interest in soil and/or water resources.2) According to the article, Leopold believed that industrialization,urbanization and abundance of materialblessings obscured people’s understanding of their connection to the land. Do you share this view? If so,propose a strategy for reconnecting urban and otherwise disconnected people with soil and waterresources.3) Differentiate between the “community” and “commodity” concepts of land discussed in the article.4) Describing Aldo Leopold, Fred Kirschenmann, Director of the Leopold Center for SustainableAgriculture wrote: “he had that incredible gift of looking at things as a whole”. Briefly comment on how youthink advances in technology since Leopold’s time (for example satellites) have affected current thinkingabout soil and water resources.5) Briefly comment on how Iowa middle schooler Stephen Frese was able to develop such an impressiveunderstanding of Aldo Leopold’s life (you may want to skim the primary source information for the article).6) The article states that more than half of the nation’s virgin forests had been cut down when TheodoreRoosevelt became president in 1901. Curious about that statement, I tracked down a set of maps showingchanges in old growth forest area over time. It is estimated that the old growth forests remaining in the USin 1990 (~ 30 million acres) represented less than 4 % of the area covered by old growth forest in 1620.Based on the map at the following link, estimate the total # of acres of old growth forest in 1620, 1850 and1926. Show your calculations.http://www.lawrencehallofscience.org/gss/dew/mvhinvestigations/images/oldgrowthforests.png
  32. 32. By the 1920’s, severe land degradation by wind and water erosion was well documented in county soil surveys and USDA erosion inventories.Soil Survey of Louisa Cty, VA 1911 “90,000 acres of formerly cultivatedland so cut to pieces with gullies that it must be classified as non-arable rough gullied land”
  33. 33. Hugh Hammond Bennett HH Bennett was born near Wadesboro in Anson County, North Carolina and graduated from the University of North Carolina in 1903. Immediately upon graduation, he became a soil surveyor, and conducted soil studies, both in the United States and in other countries, that eventually convinced him that soil erosion was an extremely serious problem.Soil scientist and showman
  34. 34. From “Soil Erosion: A National Menace (1928)“What would be the feeling ofthis Nation should a foreign nation suddenly enter the United States and destroy 90,000 acres of land, aserosion has been allowed to do in a single county?”“To visualize the full enormity of land impairment anddevastation brought about by this ruthless agent is beyondthe possibility of the mind. Anera of land wreckage destined to weigh heavily upon thewelfare of the next generation is at hand.”
  35. 35. On September 13, 1933, the Soil Erosion Service wasformed in the Department of the Interior, with Bennett as chief. The service was transferred to the Department of Agriculture on March 23, 1935, and was shortly thereafter combined with other USDA units to form the Soil Conservation Service by the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act of 1935. Hugh Bennett continued as chief, a position he held until his retirement in 1951. On October 20, 1994, the agency was renamed the Natural Resources Conservation Service to reflect its broader mission.
  36. 36. Rachel Carson (1907-1964) marine biologist, author One of the most original and lastingly influential books of the 20th“Mans attitude toward century, a work that is often creditednature is today critically with launching the environmentalistimportant simply because movement.we have now acquired afateful power to alter anddestroy nature. But man isa part of nature, and his waragainst nature is inevitablya war against himself…[Weare] challenged as mankindhas never been challengedbefore to prove our maturityand our mastery, not ofnature, but of ourselves.”First published in 1962
  37. 37. Even before Silent Spring appearedin bookstores, there was strongopposition to it. Carson was violently assailed by threats of lawsuits and derision, including suggestions that she was a "hysterical woman" unqualified to write such a book. A huge counterattack was organized by Monsanto, American Cyanamid and other chemical companies. Biochemist and chemical industry spokesman Robert White-Stevens stated, "If man were to follow the teachings of Miss Carson, we would return to the Dark Ages, and the insects and diseases and vermin would once again inherit the earth.”
  38. 38. “No responsible person contends that insect- borne disease should be ignored. The question that has now urgently presented itself is whether it is either wise or responsible to attack the problem by methods that are rapidly making it worse. The world has heard much of the triumphant war against disease through the control of insect vectors of infection, but it has heard little of the other side of the story—the defeats, the short-lived triumphs that now strongly support the alarming view that the insect enemy has been made actually stronger by our efforts. Even worse, we may have destroyed our very means of fighting. ... What is the measure of this setback?The list of resistant species now includes practically all of the insect groups ofmedical importance. ... Malaria programs are threatened by resistance amongmosquitoes. ... Practical advice should be Spray as little as you possibly canrather than Spray to the limit of your capacity … “ Rachel Carson – excerpt from Silent Spring
  39. 39. Tragedy of the Commons (Hardin, 1968)
  40. 40. “Before I flew I was already aware of how small and vulnerableour planet is; but only when I saw it from space, in all its ineffable beauty and fragility, did I realize that human kinds most urgent task is to cherish and preserve it for future generations.” Sigmund Jähn, German astronaut
  41. 41. “The Earth was small, light blue, and so touchingly alone, our home that must be defended like a holy relic. The Earth wasabsolutely round. I believe I never knew what the word round meant until I saw Earth from space.” Aleksei Leonov, Russian astronaut
  42. 42. “A Chinese tale tells of some men sent to harm a young girl who, upon seeing her beauty, become her protectors rather than herviolators. Thats how I felt seeing the Earth for the first time. "I could not help but love and cherish her.” Taylor Wang, Chinese-American astronaut
  43. 43. Ask an older person about the first time they saw a view of the earth from outer space
  44. 44. 1970
  45. 45. Initiated by US Senator Gaylord Nelson from Wisconsin, the firstEarth Day celebration occurred on April 22, 1970. Over 20 millionpeople on 2000 college campuses participated. Earth Day is nowobserved each year on April 22 by more than 500 million people in 175 countries.
  46. 46. The US Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) was established in 1970 by President Nixon through an executive order which created a single, independent agency from a number of smaller arms of different federal agencies. More than Prior to the establishment of thehalf of the EPA’s staff are EPA, the federal government wasengineers, scientists, and not structured to comprehensivelyenvironmental protection regulate the pollutants which harm specialists; other human health and degrade theemployees include legal, environment. public affairs, financial, The EPA is led by its Administrator, and computer who is appointed by the president. specialists. Lisa P. Jackson is the current Administrator. The agency currently has an annual budget of ~ $7 billion and has ~18,000 full-time employees.
  47. 47. What does the US-EPA do? The agency conducts environmental assessment, research, and education. It has primary responsibility for setting andenforcing national standards under a variety of environmentallaws, in consultation with state, tribal, and local governments. It delegates some permitting, monitoring, and enforcement responsibility to U.S. states and Native American tribes. Enforcement powers include fines, sanctions, and other measures. The agency also works with industries and all levels ofgovernment in a wide variety of voluntary pollution prevention programs and energy conservation efforts.
  48. 48. As a follow-up to the environmental permit streamlining law signed and championed by Governor Pat Quinn in July 2011, the IEPA is pleased tolaunch a new environmental permitting portal. Development of this portal is a major step in the goal of making compliance with environmental regulations less burdensome and encourages economic and job growth without sacrificing our mission of protecting the states environment. John J. Kim Interim Director, IEPA
  49. 49. Farm leaders in Illinois have identified government regulations as thebiggest threat to farm profitability in the state in the next decade.In all, 399 farmers completed a survey gauging their outlook on theagriculture industry during Illinois Farm Bureaus annual meetingDec. 3-6 in Chicago. The survey was completed by voting delegatesand by other leaders at the county farm bureau level.In answer to the open-ended question about profitability in the nextten years, slightly more than four in ten respondents said regulationsare the biggest threat.
  50. 50. Thomas R. SadlerAssociate Professor430m Stipes Hall309/298-1734TR-Sadler@wiu.eduPh.D., University of Tennessee, 1998Dr. Sadler received his Ph.D. in 1998 from the University ofTennessee. He teaches microeconomics and applied-micro courses,focusing on the economics of energy and the environment. Dr. Sadler will be joining us to lead a discussion of the economic impact of environmental regulations
  51. 51. Today, the Cuyahoga is home to more than 60 species of fish, said Jim White, executive director of the Cuyahoga River Community Planning Organization, a nonprofit group that coordinates cleanup efforts. Beavers, blue herons and bald eagles nest along the river’s banks. “We’re very impressed with the progress made in the Cuyahoga,” said John Perrecone, a manager of Great Lakes programs for the E.P.A.
  52. 52. The short-lived fire in 1969 was out before the local press reached thescene to record images of its blaze.The Cuyahoga River also caught onfire in 1868, 1883, 1887, 1912, 1922, 1936, 1941, 1948 and 1952!!!Rivers in Maryland, New York andMichigan have also caught on fire.
  53. 53. Percent of citys population Population in City with sewage treatment in 1940 1940 Milwaukee 85 780,000 Cleveland 75 1,200,000 Columbus 75 320,000 Indianapolis 75 420,000 Chicago The only 70 4,400,000 Baltimore US cities 70 750,000Minneapolis-St. Paul with any 40 700,000 Washington, D.C. sewage 35 550,000 Buffalo 30 600,000 treatment Denver 30 280,000 in 1940 Toledo 30 300,000 New York 25 8,100,000 Philadelphia 15 2,000,000 San Francisco 10 780,000 Seattle 10 400,000 Los Angeles 5 1,300,000 Detroit 0 1,600,000 Boston 0 2,000,000 Pittsburgh 0 750,000 Cincinnati 0 500,000 Kansas City 0 450,000
  54. 54. Impacts of DDTBirdsDDT is most famous for its effect on birds. Research has shown that for some speciesof birds, DDT causes the thinning of eggshells.Species most strongly affected by DDT include: osprey, eagles, pelicans, falcons, hawksMammalsHistorically, DDT was used to control mice, rats, and bats. What is bioaccumulation?Bats are especially sensitive to DDT. Very low doses of DDT can affect them severely.A lot of current research deals with DDTs effects on larger mammals.Human BeingsIn the early to mid 1950s, DDT became one of the most widely used pesticides. Thiswas when we thought it was completely harmless to human beings. When used tocontrol lice, people appeared to be unaffected even though DDT was applied directly totheir bodies.
  55. 55. Organics like DDT and PCBs andinorganics like mercury bioaccumulate
  56. 56. 1987
  57. 57. The investigator is dressed Earth as a doctor for two reasons.systems First, current investigation of the “health” of Earth systemsanalysis is in many respects reminiscent of the early study of human health hundreds of years ago. Science historians looking back 100 years from now will certainly tell a tale of both delusions and triumphs. Second, an important driver of Earth systems analysis is the insight that the health of Earth systems may be disrupted significantly by human activities.
  58. 58. Society is currently struggling with how to rationallyrespond to the emerging science of complex systems. Public access to scientific information is greater than ever due to the internet and science is struggling todeal with this new transparency and associated public scrutiny.
  59. 59. Lilliputian approach Bird’s eye approach What is amacroscope ? Modeling approach- a tool or process that makesvery large or very complicatedthings understandable
  60. 60. Where microscopes and telescopes allow observation of things that ordinarily are too small tosee, macroscropes allow interpretation of things that are ordinarily too complex to understand. Macroscopes combat the over-specialization prevalent in modern science and the compartmentalization of scientific education. Theyfacilitate a new interdisciplinary approach to scientific research. Macroscopes reveal the interconnections and interactions that produce the emergent properties of systems (e.g., the strange nonlinear, chaotic effects that clearly impact weather, the economy, biological processes…).
  61. 61. Aeolus Landsat 1 - 7 Earth observation Spot 1 - 4Terra
  62. 62. Are these just pretty pictures?
  63. 63. Fires in the Amazon
  64. 64. Image from 2009 Image from 2000http://classnotes2.wikispaces.com/Brazil
  65. 65. http://classnotes2.wikispaces.com/Brazil
  66. 66. 2010
  67. 67. So what is the status of environmental movement in IL today?
  68. 68. > 100 environmental organizations in IL todayCenter for Neighborhood Technology McHenry County DefendersChampaign County Audubon Society Natural Land InstituteChicago Audubon Society Nature Conservancy of IllinoisChicagoland Bicycle Federation Northwest Illinois Audubon SocietyChicagoland Environmental Network Openlands ProjectChicago Recycling Coalition Peoria Audubon SocietyChicago Wilderness Peoria WildsCitizens for Conservation Pierce Downers Heritage Alliance (DuPage County)Conservation Foundation Prairie EnthusiastsCorlands Prairie Rivers NetworkDecatur Audubon Society Prairie Woods Audubon Society (Arlington Heights)Earthshare of Illinois Republicans for Environmental Protection - IllinoisEnvironmental Education Association of Illinois Save the Prairie SocietyEnvironmental Law & Policy Center Sierra ClubEnvironment Illinois Are you familiar with any of Sierra Club - AltonEvanston North Shore Bird Club Sierra Club - CarbondaleFox Valley Land Foundation these organizations? Sierra Club - ChicagoGrand Prairie Friends Sierra Club - DeKalbIllinois Audubon Society Sierra Club - GenevaIllinois Environmental Council Sierra Club - Glen EllynIllinois Native Plant Society Sierra Club - Kaskaskia GroupIllinois Raptor Center Sierra Club - MolineIllinois Student Environmental Network Sierra Club - NE IllinoisJo Daviess Conservation Foundation Sierra Club - NW Cook CountyJohn Wesley Powell Audubon Society (Bloomington) Sierra Club - PeoriaLake Bluff Open Lands Association Sierra Club - RockfordLand Conservancy of Lake County Sierra Club - SpringfieldLand Conservancy of McHenry County Sierra Club - UrbanaLake County Audubon Society SOLIDLiberty Prairie Conservancy Thorn Creek Audubon Society (Park Forest)
  69. 69. Today, the organization has grown to include 10 full-time employees and a fleet of 4 barges, a towboat, 6 workboats, 2 skid steers, 5 work trucks and a large boxtruck. With this equipment, the crew is able to travel and work in an average of 9 states a year along theMississippi, Illinois, Ohio, Missouri, and Potomac Rivers, as well as many of their tributaries. Since the project’s inception, Chad, his crew, and over 60,000 volunteers have collected over 6 million pounds of debris from our nation’s greatest rivers. Most recently, Chad expanded the mission of the organization to include Big RiverEducational Outreach, The MillionTrees Project, and the Adopt-a-River Mile programs.