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  1. 1. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 25-32 © IAEME 25 SOCIO – ECONOMIC DIMENSIONS OF KUMBH MELA 2013 AND THE ORGANIZATIONAL ASPECT OF IT: A STUDY Sanatan Srivastava, Dr. Ajeet Kumar Rai* School of Management Studies, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad -211004 (U.P.), India *SSET, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad -211007 (U.P.), India ABSTRACT The main objective of the study was to study the social and economic dynamics of the Kumbh Mela 2013. The study covers all the economic dimensions and social aspects of different organizations in the Kumbh Mela. Thorough and diverse questionnaire was structured with questions being either multiple choice types or were based on Likert scale. The survey was carried out by directly interviewing the pilgrim in different sectors of the Mela, adapting to the convenience sampling method. Collected data was analyzed using different statistical techniques with the aid of SPSS software. The report gives the insight of the various social and economic aspects of the largest conglomeration of the human on the planet. Keywords: Economic Dimensions, Kumbh Mela, Social Aspects. 1. INTRODUCTION The Kumbh Mela takes place in an approximately 4x8km area on the flood plain of the Yamuna and Ganga river and on defense land behind the old Kila at Allahabad (popularly known as parade grounds). Maha Kumbh is supposed to be the biggest conglomeration of human beings on the Earth. As per the survey of Economic Times, estimated worth of the Kumbh Mela 2013, was 15000crore rupees, and expected number of visitors to be 10 crores. Mauni Amavasya traditionally attracted the largest crowds at the mela, held here every 12 years. The current Kumbh Mela was held on 14 January 2013 at Allahabad. The day marked the second and the biggest Shahi Snan (royal bath) of this event, with 13 akharas taking to the Sangam. 10 Feb 2013 was the biggest bathing day at the ongoing Maha Kumbh Mela and probably the largest human gathering on a single day. Over INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT (IJM) ISSN 0976-6502 (Print) ISSN 0976-6510 (Online) Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 25-32 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijm.asp Journal Impact Factor (2014): 7.2230 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJM © I A E M E
  2. 2. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 25-32 © IAEME 26 30 million devotees and ascetics took holy dip on the occasion of Mauni Amavasya. (Dhruv, 2013)[1] . The Mela was divided into 14 sectors. Most of the year, “Kumbh City” is not an inhabited part of Allahabad. There is no pre-existing water or electricity supply there, or any system to get rid of human waste. But by the time the festival started this year in January, Kumbh City was a functioning metropolis with a population larger than most permanent cities in the world and many small countries too. The government erects vast tent encampments, some 40,000 toilets, hospitals, markets, emergency services, food stands, supply shops, offices and hundreds of temples. The following are some of the facts related to Kumbh Mela 2013. • Kumbh 2001 was for 44 days while Kumbh 2013 was for 55 days. • Country’s population was 102.87 Crore in 2001, it was estimated to be 121.02 Crore in 2011 • The State population was 16.61 Crore in 2001 which has risen to 19.96 Crore in 2011. • Allahabad Nagar Nigam had 9.75 lakh population in 2001 which was 12.47 lakh in 2011 • Amongst the visitors, around 10 lakhs were foreign tourists. • The total budget for Maha Kumbh 2013 was Rs 1,200 crore, which was 200 crore more than that of the 2001 Maha Kumbh. • The Mela generated employment for over 6 lakh people. Rs 12,000 crore flew into the coffers of the UP government as revenue and taxes. • 18 pontoon bridges and 35,000 public toilets were built for pilgrims. • 156 km of new roads, made of chequered steel plates were laid on the river bank. • 571 km of water pipelines was laid, 800 km of electric wires and 48 power sub-stations had been set up in the Mela area. • 125 ration shops, 4 godowns opened in Mela area for pilgrims to buy grains, groceries and vegetables. • 2,500 religious and social organizations from across the world participated. • 30,000 policemen, 30 new police stations, and 72 companies of paramilitary forces were deployed to provide security during the Mela. • 120 CCTV cameras were installed in Mela area and Allahabad city. • 22 doctors and 120 ambulances on round-the-clock duty at the new 100- bed central hospital in Kumbh Mela area. • 50.83 sq km the total area where the Kumbh is held, almost double the size of the last one in 2001. • Rs 6,000 crore was the daily rent for the plush Swiss cottages set up by UP Tourism. • GPS-Enabled Systems to locate their spiritual and religious heads and the camps/ashrams were set up in the Mela area. • To estimate exact number of crowds the government had sought cooperation from ISRO and Remote Sensing Application Centre. They captured photographs of the entire Mela area every 24 hours. Source: (Arora, 2013) [2] 2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.1 SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT OF MAHA KUMBH ON LOCAL ECONOMY As per (Saraswat, 2013) [3] , Hinduism has established a Socio-Economic Ecosystem by celebrating various religious festivals for whole year. There was at least 10 times more revenue generation on capital investment (arrangements and temporary infrastructure), see data below:
  3. 3. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 25-32 © IAEME 27 • Pilgrims and tourist: 100 milions • Jobs (temporary) creation locally: 635,000 • Investment by government: $220 million USD Revenue generation: INR 12000 Crores (~ $ 2.2 billion) • Foreign tourist visited were around 1 million • Number of tourists also opting for Tour Packages for visiting other tourist destinations were 500,000 • Amount of expenditure per tourist was estimated to be $ 500 • Total Revenue from Tour Packages was approximately $ 250 million 2.2 BUSINESS WORTH OF KUMBH MELA 2013 (Verma, 2013)[4] , suggested that airlines, hotels, tour operators and Uttar Pradesh in general are likely to reap a windfall during the Maha Kumbh Mela in the state with the government likely to see its coffers swelling by Rs 12,000 crore, according to the reports of ASSOCHAM. The unorganized sector also stands to gain substantially from the Maha Kumbh, says the Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India Uttar Pradesh Tourism and the Railways shared a revenue bonanza of a whopping Rs 1,500 crore along with airports and private hospitals by offering attractive tours and medical tourism packages to the foreign and domestic visitors thronging the region. The overall business worth of the Kumbh Mela was analyzed to be Rs 15,000 crore. According to the sector-wise break-up devised by ASSOCHAM, the Kumbh employment generation figures are likely going to be as follow: Hotels 2.5 lakh jobs; Airlines and airports 1.5 lakh; Tour operators 45,000, Eco-tourism and medical tourism 50,000 and Skilled and unskilled workers for construction/ renovation 85,000. Also 55,000 new jobs in the unorganised sector comprising tour guides, taxi drivers, interpreters, volunteers, etc. and the employment generation potential of the festival stood at a massive 6.35 lakh jobs. 2.3 OPPORTUNITIES FOR CORPORATE MARKET IN KUMBH MELA 2013 (Pandit, 2013)[5] , analyzed that, for dozens of companies such as JCB, the world's largest religious celebration held every 12 years is sheer marketing nirvana. The Kumbh Mela has always been a big business opportunity, but this time companies are going the extra distance to promote their brands by using traditional entertainment and modern technology to connect with consumers. Mobile service provider Vodafone India, for instance, was reaching out to consumers by screening films and providing musical ear-muffs, wired with in-built speakers that play devotional songs. GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare had a basketball ring at its stall for people to shoot hoops and win free biscuits with their cups of Horlicks while cosmetics company Emami Ltd had set up massage kiosks for pilgrims to experience its Navratna Oil brand. Coca-Cola India had chosen to go high-tech and set up Wi-Fi services at 12 of its 16 stalls where people can download free Coke- Studio music and other brand content such as a new ad jingle . The strategy has paid off: it has logged more than 11,000 downloads a month since the nearly two-month fair began. According to Infinity Advertising Services, the official advertising firm for the 2013 Kumbh Mela, about 52 companies was at the fair. According to an Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India report (ASSOCHAM. 2013) [6] , it bumped up Uttar Pradesh's coffers by Rs 12,000 crore, apart from generating employment for airlines, airports, tour operators and a host of other sectors. As the Kumbh Mela goes up market, visitors do not have to grunge it out in makeshift tents anymore. For about Rs 11,000 a night, they can stay in luxury tents offering all the creature comforts they want from tiled bathrooms to buffet breakfasts.
  4. 4. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 25-32 © IAEME 28 3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE The main objective of the research is to analyze the social and economic aspect of the Kumbh Mela 2013, held at Allahabad, from the point of view of pilgrims as well as institution. And also, it is voluntary to measure the satisfaction level of the pilgrims towards the facilities and arrangements made by the government. 3.2 SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH The Kumbh Mela is considered as the biggest gathering of humans at a time on the planet. It was given an authorization of a district for 2 months period. The estimated worth of Maha Kumbh Mela 2013 was 1500 crore Rupees, creating around 6.5 lakhs jobs, and therefore justifying the scope of the study. Therefore, there was a vast scope to study the social and economic aspects of the demography, which was actually attracting the researchers from all over the world. 3.3 RESEARCH DESIGN This was an exploratory research where the survey method was used. Structured questionnaire was prepared having either multiple choice questions or the questions based on 5 point Likert scale. The convenience sampling method was used and a sample size of 200 respondents was selected. Finally, the data was recorded in SPPS and analysis was done with the help of SPPS software. The statistical tools like cross tabulation, graphs and T-Test were used for the purpose. Deductions were made and were recorded in the form of a report. 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS The following results were found after the analysis of collected data using SPSS. 4.1 NUMBERS OF FAMILIES STAYING IN A CAMP FIGURE 1: NUMBERS OF FAMILIES STAYING IN A CAMP
  5. 5. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 25-32 © IAEME 29 4.2 ADVANCE BOOKING FOR THE ACCOMMODATION IN THE CAMPS FIGURE 2: ADVANCE BOOKING FOR THE ACCOMMODATION IN THE CAMPS 4.3 COMPARISON BETWEEN THE NUMBER OF FAMILIES ACCOMMODATED AND ADVANCE BOOKING FIGURE 3: COMPARISONS BETWEEN THE NUMBER OF FAMILIES ACCOMMODATED AND ADVANCE BOOKING 4.4 FACILITIES PROVIDED BY THE INSTITUTIONS 4.4.1. Around 76% of the camps in the Maha Kumbh Mela 2013 were proving the food facilities to the pilgrims residing over there. 4.4.2 Around 68 percent of the organizations provided bed roll to the pilgrims residing in their camps. 4.4.3 Around 65% of the organizations provided the local transportation facilities to the pilgrims residing in their camps as Kalpvasi.
  6. 6. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 25-32 © IAEME 30 4.4.4 Only 34% of the institutions were providing religious discourse / exhibition facilities to the pilgrims residing in their camps. 4.4.5 Very handful of the camps were providing medicine facilities to the pilgrims, while we found only 1 organization that was providing telecommunication services to the pilgrims. 4.5 CHARGES FOR THE FACILITIES PROVIDED From the pie chart below, it can be seen that only 27 % of the organizations charges for the facilities provided to the pilgrims, while only around 17% partially charges for the services. The rest of the organizations provide the free services to the pilgrims residing in their camps. FIGURE 4: CHARGES FOR THE PROVIDED FACILITIES BY THE CAMPS 4.6 COMPARISON BETWEEN THE CHARGES AND TIMINGS OF PROVIDING THE FACILITIES FIGURE 5: COMPARISONS BETWEEN THE CHARGES AND TIMINGS OF PROVIDING THE FACILITIES From the figure we can deduce that the many of organization which are providing the facilities throughout the Mela are not charging for the facilities. The number of organization charging for the services provided throughout the Mela is quite less than those who are not charging.
  7. 7. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 25-32 © IAEME 31 4.7 VOLUNTEERS HELPING DURING THE KUMBH MELA From the chart below we can say that most of the organizations have either up to 10 volunteers working for them or above 30 volunteers helping them out. FIGURE 6: VOLUNTEERS HELPING THE ORGANIZATIONS DURING THE KUMBH MELA 5. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS After the analysis of the collected data, we can conclude the following: I. Most of the camps of organizations were very large in size accommodating more than 30 families. II. It was also found that most of the organizations go for advance bookings for accommodation. The organizations prefer advance booking to be generally done 15 days to one month before commencement of the Kumbh Mela. III. The analysis shows that the camps accommodating more than 25 families in the Kumbh Mela, generally opts for the advance booking of the facilities by the pilgrims. IV. It was found that most of the organizations provide the pilgrims with facilities such as food, bed roll and local transportation. Though the number of organizations proving religious discourse to the pilgrims was found to be very less as compared to other services. V. The other facilities provided to the pilgrims by the camps were medicine and telecommunication, though the number of camps providing the telecommunication services was very less. VI. It was also deduced that most of the organizations provide all the above mentioned services to the pilgrims throughout the period of Kumbh Mela. VII. It was found that around half of the organizations provided all the above mentioned services to the pilgrims for free of cost. VIII. And also it was found that most of the organizations which provided the services for the entire Mela either charged no fees or partial fees for the services. IX. The number of volunteers in most of the organizations was either in between 1 to 10 or above 30 in numbers. X. On the basis of the entire study and survey conducted, the following suggestions can be helpful for the future in order to provide more hassle free Kumbh Mela in future.
  8. 8. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 25-32 © IAEME 32 XI. The government needs to be more proactive and transparent in the process of allocation of lands. XII. The organizations need to adopt more measures for the safety of the pilgrims like deputation of guards as an additional facility. XIII. The drainage facilities needs to be improved by the organizations and waste of the camps should not be dumped just outside the camps. XIV. First aid and healthcare services should also be included in the facilities provided by the organizations to the pilgrims. XV. The gates of the organizations should be less expensive and lower in sizes. XVI. The organizations must depute more and more volunteers to help the pilgrims during the Snans and Parvs. XVII. The advance booking of the accommodations by the organizations must start only after the allocation of land on the Mela site by the officials. XVIII. The organizations must remove some of the luxury in the accommodation and reduce the prices so that it can become more affordable for the lower income group of pilgrims which constitutes a major portion. XIX. The organizations must charge on the basis of the number of facilities provided to the pilgrim, rather than the fixed charges or package. REFERENCES [1] Dhruv K, (2013). “Ephemeral Hospitals, Enduring Insights: Healthcare at the Kumbh”. [2] Arora N, (2013 February 19). “River of Faith 2013”, Times of India. [3] Saraswat D.C. (2013, Jan 12), “Kumbh Mela: 'Overall business could be worth between Rs 12,000 to Rs 15,000 crore”, The Economic Times. [4] Verma G. (2013, March 3), “How Corporate India is making the most of the Maha Kumbh”, Business Today. [5] Pandit V. (March 2013). “Business Style: Management, Maha Kumbh Style”, The Economic Times. [6] ASSOCHAM (2013), Annual Report 2013, New Delhi. [7] John V. Daniel and Dr. Baby M.D, “Socio-Economic Benefits of Pilgrim Tourism: A Case Study of Sabarimala Pilgrimage with Special Reference to Perunadu”, International Journal of Management (IJM), Volume 3, Issue 3, 2012, pp. 51 - 61, ISSN Print: 0976-6502, ISSN Online: 0976-6510.