InteractionBetweenSocial Media AndDemocracy<br />A case study on the societal factors influencingsuccess of Ushahidi in Af...
Beginnings in Kenya<br />Post-election violence 2007/2008<br />Crowdsources SMS, Email<br />Google Maps<br />Evolved into ...
Introduction<br />Mass media<br />Distinction information-producers and information-consumers<br />Producers control infor...
Problem Statement & Research Questions<br />Problem Statement:<br />“How do societal factors influence the interaction bet...
Socio-Technical System<br />Socio-technical levels (Whitworth, 2009)<br />
Web Of System Performance<br />Web Of System Performance (Whitworth, 2009)<br />
Democracy<br />“All democracies share certain important precepts – open debate, with sufferance of unpopular opinions, and...
Media System Dependencytheory<br />MSD theory (S. J. Ball-Rokeach & DeFleur, 1976)<br />
Methodology<br />Research design<br />Exploratory research<br />Qualitative method<br />Case study on the use of Ushahidi ...
Case: Ushahidi in Afghanistan<br />Presidential elections 2009<br />Alive in Afghanistan<br />Parliamentary elections 2010...
Alive in Afghanistan 2009<br />14<br />
Alive in Afghanistan<br />15<br />
Societal Factors<br />Education<br />Structural Location<br />Wealth<br />Age<br />Trust in Government<br />Level of Democ...
Design Decisions (Ushahidi)<br />SMS-reporting<br />Visualizing Reports On A Map<br />Free and Open Source Software<br />E...
DeploymentsDecisions<br />Partnerships<br />Marketing<br />Strategic Choices on Crowdsourcing<br />Strategic Choices on An...
Conclusion & Discussion<br />Social media interacts with democracy through:<br />Free press<br />Civil society<br />“…how ...
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Master thesis s679600

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Master thesis s679600

  1. 1. InteractionBetweenSocial Media AndDemocracy<br />A case study on the societal factors influencingsuccess of Ushahidi in Afghanistan<br />Master Thesis | Frans Staal | S679600<br />
  2. 2. Beginnings in Kenya<br />Post-election violence 2007/2008<br />Crowdsources SMS, Email<br />Google Maps<br />Evolved into free and open source platform<br />Input: SMS, MMS, Email, Web form, API, RSS,<br />Visualization: (anonymous)reports on a map, timeline and by category<br />Output: SMS-alerts, Email, RSS<br />
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  6. 6. Introduction<br />Mass media<br />Distinction information-producers and information-consumers<br />Producers control information<br />Consumers are depended on information<br />Social media<br />Leveling power between producers & consumers creating ‘prosumers’<br />Current paradigms<br />Social media is an important enabler of democracy<br />Social Media (like Ushahidi) fosters democracy through social activism & citizen journalism<br />Social media has little effect on democracy<br />Social media = no ‘magic bullet’ for democracy<br />Interaction between social media & democracy is complex<br />Social media may even hinder democracy<br />
  7. 7. Problem Statement & Research Questions<br />Problem Statement:<br />“How do societal factors influence the interaction between social media crowdsourcing tools, and the democratization process of societies and how can we design better social media crowdsourcing tools, and deploy these tools better, by taking into account societal factors?”<br />Research Questions<br />What is Ushahidi? <br />What are relevant theories and methods for designing IT systems which support societal interaction? <br />How can we explain the effect of media in society and on democracy? <br />How can we explain the effect of the Internet, and specifically social media, in society and on democracy? <br />How do societal factors, design and deployment decisions affect the interaction of social media, and specifically Ushahidi, with the democratization process? <br />
  8. 8. Socio-Technical System<br />Socio-technical levels (Whitworth, 2009)<br />
  9. 9. Web Of System Performance<br />Web Of System Performance (Whitworth, 2009)<br />
  10. 10. Democracy<br />“All democracies share certain important precepts – open debate, with sufferance of unpopular opinions, and decisions taken by honest voting and thereupon accepted.“ Dennis and Snyder (1997) <br />Tocqueville, Democracy in America (1835)<br />Free press is vital for a democracy. When civilians have decision-making rights on the governance of their society, they should be able to become acquainted with the different opinions in their society. The sovereignty of the civilians and freedom of the press are therefore both necessary in a democracy, universal suffrage and censorship are incompatible<br />Associationslead to a self-conscious and active political society and a vibrant civil society functioning independently from the state.<br />
  11. 11. Media System Dependencytheory<br />MSD theory (S. J. Ball-Rokeach & DeFleur, 1976)<br />
  12. 12. Methodology<br />Research design<br />Exploratory research<br />Qualitative method<br />Case study on the use of Ushahidi in Afghanistan<br />Data collection<br />In-depth interviews<br />Documents<br />Archival records<br />Data analysis<br />External validation<br />Reliability<br />
  13. 13. Case: Ushahidi in Afghanistan<br />Presidential elections 2009<br />Alive in Afghanistan<br />Parliamentary elections 2010<br />Alive in Afghanistan 2010<br />Afghan Election Mapper (Free and Fair Election Foundation of Afghanistan)<br />Observer Report Map (Democracy International, USAID)<br />
  14. 14. Alive in Afghanistan 2009<br />14<br />
  15. 15. Alive in Afghanistan<br />15<br />
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  18. 18. Societal Factors<br />Education<br />Structural Location<br />Wealth<br />Age<br />Trust in Government<br />Level of Democracy & Development<br />Gender<br />Communication Infrastructure<br />
  19. 19. Design Decisions (Ushahidi)<br />SMS-reporting<br />Visualizing Reports On A Map<br />Free and Open Source Software<br />Easy and Fast setup<br />(Voice Based Reporting)<br />
  20. 20. DeploymentsDecisions<br />Partnerships<br />Marketing<br />Strategic Choices on Crowdsourcing<br />Strategic Choices on Anonymity and Accountability<br />Strategic Choices on Community Building<br />Contingency Planning<br />Estimating Feasibility of Citizen-Reporting<br />
  21. 21. Conclusion & Discussion<br />Social media interacts with democracy through:<br />Free press<br />Civil society<br />“…how can we design better social media crowdsourcing tools, and deploy these tools better, by taking into account societal factors?”<br />Step 1: Use MSD theory to assess environment<br />Step 2: Use WOSP to design/select right software<br />Step 3: Base deployment choices on step 1 and 2.<br />Further research: <br />Generalization: Interaction societal factors, design and deployment<br />Deployment: Partnerships, marketing and funding of these projects.<br />

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