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How does the Myanmar legal framework support company-community relations?

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On 29 and 30 August PeaceNexus and MCRB convened a two day ‘collaborative design workshop’ at Inya Lake Hotel, Yangon to discuss the need for, and shape of, a possible initiative – or initiatives – to build capacity of civil society and business for dialogue and mediation of business-related conflicts.

MCRB presented on the existing Myanmar legal framework in support of company-community dialogue, and future opportunities including the potential for companies and communities to reach agreement on community development agreements/benefit sharing agreements which could cover a range of mutual interests and concerns.

Read more: http://www.myanmar-responsiblebusiness.org/news/peacenexus-collaborative-design-workshop.html

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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How does the Myanmar legal framework support company-community relations?

  1. 1. How does the Myanmar legal framework support company- community relations Vicky Bowman, Director Myanmar Centre for Responsible Business ျမန္မာ့စီးပြားေရးက႑ တာ၀န္ယူမႈရွိေရး အေထာက္အကူျပဳဌာန (MCRB) Yangon 30 August 2016 www.myanmar-responsiblebusiness.org အမွတ္ ၁၅၊ ရွမ္းရိပ္သာလမ္း (ဆာကူရာ ေဆးရံုအနီး) စမ္းေခ်ာင္းၿမိဳ႔နယ္၊ ရန္ကုန္ၿမိဳ႕ ဖုန္း / ဖက္(စ္) ၀၁ ၅၁၀၀၆၉
  2. 2. Professor John Ruggie, Special Representative to the United Nations Secretary General, 2005- 2011 • Policies မူ၀ါဒမ်ား • Regulation စည္းမ်ဥ္းမ်ား • Adjudication စီရင္ခ်က္ခ်ျခင္း State duty to protect ႏိုင္ငံေတာ္၏ ကာကြယ္ရန္တာ၀န္ • Act with due diligence to avoid infringement ထိခိုက္နစ္နာမႈမ်ား၊ အခြင့္အေရး ခ်ိဳးေဖာက္မႈ မ်ားကို ေရွာင္ၾကဥ္ရန္ ၾကိဳတင္စမ္းစစ္၊ ကာကြယ္တားစီးျခင္းမ်ားလုပ္ေဆာင္ရန္လို • Address impacts သက္ေရာက္ထိခိုက္မႈမ်ားကိုေျဖရွင္းရန္လုိအပ္မႈ Corporate responsibility to respect စီးပြားေရးလုပ္ငန္းၾကီးမ်ား၏ေလးစားလိုက္နာရန္တာ၀န္ • Effective access for victims ထိခိုက္နစ္နာခဲ့ရသူမ်ားအတြက္ ထိေရာက္ေသာကုစားမႈကို လက္လွမ္းမီမႈ • Judicial and non-judicial တရားဥပေဒ၊ တရားရံုးႏွင့္ဆိုင္ေသာ နစ္နာခ်က္မ်ား ကုစား မႈ/ တရားရံုးမ်ားႏွင့္မဆိုင္ဘဲျပင္ပ၌ နစ္နာခ်က္မ်ား ကုစားမႈ Access to remedy ျပန္လည္ေကာင္းမြန္ေအာင္ျပဳျပင္ျခင္း / ထိခိုက္ နစ္နာမႈမ်ားကို ကုစားျခင္းမ်ားကိုလက္လွမ္းမွီမႈ
  3. 3.  Consultation and disclosure in different phases Art 13: The Project Proponent shall: ◦ a) arrange for appropriate public consultation through all phases of the IEE and EIA process as required by Articles 34, 50, and 61, and ◦ b) disclose to the public in a timely manner all relevant Project- related information in accordance with this Procedure except that which may relate to National Security concerns as informed by the Ministry.  Challenges: ◦ New ◦ Poorly implemented – lack of government and company capacity; cost ◦ Not viewed by project proponents as a continuing process of engagement and relationship building ◦ Tickbox
  4. 4.  Article 5 ‘hta-nay tain-yin-tha [usual phrase for Indigenous People] should receive complete and precise information about extractive industry projects and other business activities in their areas before project implementation so that negotiations between the groups and the Government/companies can take place.’  “ဌာေနတိုင္းရင္းသား မ်ားသည္ ယင္းတို႔၏ ေဒသနယ္ေျမအတြင္း သဘာ၀ သယံဇာတမ်ား တူးေဖာ္ထုတ္လုပ္မႈႏွင့္ အျခားစီးပြားေရးလုပ္ငန္းမ်ား မစတင္မီ ၿပီးျပည့္စံုၿပီး တိက်ေသာ သတင္းအခ်က္အလက္မ်ား ရရွိရန္ လိုအပ္ေၾကာင္း၊ သို႔မွသာ အစိုးရ သို႔မဟုတ္ ကုမၸဏီမ်ားႏွင့္ ေဒသခံမ်ားအၾကား ေဆြးေႏြးမႈမ်ား ျပဳလုပ္ႏိုင္မည္ျဖစ္ေၾကာင္း ပါရွိပါသည္။ ဤအခ်က္၏ အေရးပါပံုကို ေအာက္တြင္ ဆက္လက္ေဆြးေႏြးသြားပါမည္။ Not yet tested…..
  5. 5. Chapter II objectives  (c) To promote people’s participation and collaboration particularly ethnic nationalities, women and smallholder farmers in decision making related to land and natural resource management;  (ဂ) ေျမႏွင္႔သဘာဝအရင္းအျမစ္မ်ား စီမံအုုပ္ခ်ဳပ္မႈဆိုုင္ရာ ဆံုုးျဖတ္ခ်က္မ်ားခ်မွတ္ ေဆာင္ရြက္ရာတြင္ ျပည္သူမ်ား အထူးသျဖင္႔ တိုုင္းရင္းသားလူမ်ိဳးမ်ား၊ အမ်ိဳးသမီးမ်ားႏွင္႔ လုုပ္ကြက္ငယ္ေတာင္သူလယ္သမားတိုု႔၏ ပူးေပါင္းပါဝင္ေဆာင္ရြက္မႈကိုု ပိုုမိုုျမွင္႔တင္ရန္။ Chapter III basic principle  (e) To promote inclusive public participation and consultation in decision making processes related to land use and land resource management;  ေျမအသံုုးခ်မႈႏွင္႔ ေျမအရင္းအျမစ္မ်ား စီမံခန္႔ခြဲျခင္းတိုု႔ႏွင္႔ စပ္လ်ဥ္း၍ ဆံုုးျဖတ္ခ်က္မ်ား ခ်မွတ္ေဆာင္ရြက္ရာတြင္ ျပည္သူမ်ားပိုုမိုု ပါဝင္ ဆံုုးျဖတ္ခြင္႔ျပဳရန္။
  6. 6. Part ( V ) Procedures related to Land Acquisition, Relocation, Compensation, Rehabilitation and Restitution ေျမသိမ္းဆည္းျခင္း၊ ျပန္လည္ေနရာခ်ထားျခင္း ၊ ေလ်ာ္ေၾကးေပးျခင္း၊ ျပန္လည္ထူေထာင္ျခင္း ႏွင္႔ ျပန္လည္အစားထိုုး ျဖည္႔ဆည္းေပးျခင္းဆိုုင္ရာ လုုပ္ထံုုးလုုပ္နည္းမ်ား  38. When managing the relocation, compensation, rehabilitation and restitution related activities that result from land acquisition and allocation, unfair land confiscation or displacement due to the civil war, clear international best practices and human rights standards shall be applied, and participation by township, ward or village tract level stakeholders, civil society, representatives of ethnic nationalities and experts shall be ensured.  ၃၈။ ။ေျမသိမ္းဆည္းျခင္းနွင့္ ေျမခြဲေဝေနရာခ်ထားျခင္းတိုု႔ေၾကာင္႔လည္းေကာင္း ေျမကိုု မတရားသိမ္းဆည္းခံရျခင္းသိုု႔မဟုုတ္ စစ္ေဘးစစ္ဒဏ္ခံရ၍ ေျမကိုုစြန္႔လြတ္ခဲ႔ရျခင္းေၾကာင္႔ လည္းေကာင္းေျဖရွင္းေဆာင္ရြက္ရန္လိုုအပ္သည္႔ ျပန္လည္ေနရာခ်ထားျခင္း ေလ်ာ္ေၾကး ေပးျခငး၊ ျပန္လည္ ထူေထာင္ျခင္းႏွင္႔ ျပန္လည္အစားထိုုး ျဖည္႔ဆည္းေပးျခင္းဆိုုင္ရာ ကိစၥ ရပ္မ်ားကိုု စီမံခန္႔ခြဲရာတြင္ ၿမိဳ႔နယ္၊ ရပ္ကြက္ သိုု႔မဟုုတ္ ေက်းရြာအုုပ္စုု အဆင္႔ရိွအက်ိုဳး သက္ဆိုုင္သူမ်ား၊ အရပ္ဘက္လူမႈအဖြဲ႔အစည္းမ်ား တိုုင္းရင္းသားလူမိ်ဳးစုု ကိုုယ္စားလွယ္မ်ားႏွင္႔ က်ြမ္းက်င္သူမ်ား ပါဝင္၍ အျပည္ျပည္ဆိုုင္ရာ ရွင္းလင္းသည္႔ အေကာင္းဆံုုးနည္း လမ္းမ်ားႏွင္႔ လူ႔အခြင္႔အေရးစံမ်ားကိုု က်င္႔သံုုးေဆာင္ရြက္ရမည္
  7. 7. Gender: Women’s Participation က်ား/မ ။ အမ်ိဳးသမီးပါဝင္မႈ Part (VIII) Land Use Rights of the Ethnic Nationalities အပိုုင္း၈။ ။တိုုင္းရင္းသားလူမ်ိဳးမ်ား၏ ေျမအသံုုးခ်မႈ အခြင္႔အေရးမ်ား  67. Ethnic leaders, elders and women shall be involved in decision making processes related to land tenure rights of individual stakeholders or groups practicing traditional cultivation methods on customary lands, monitoring, and dispute resolution mechanisms.  ေရွး႐ိုုးစဥ္လာေျမကိုု ႐ိုုးရာနည္းလမ္းမ်ားႏွင္႔ စိုုက္ပ်ိဳးေသား တစ္သီးပုုဂၢလ အကိ်ဳးသက္ဆိုုင္သူမ်ား သိုု႔မဟုုတ္ အဖြဲ႔အစည္းမ်ား၏ေျမလုုပ္ပိုုင္ခြင္႔ႏွင္႔ စပ္လ်ဥ္း၍ ဆံုုးျဖတ္ခ်က္ခ်မွတ္ျခင္း၊ ေစာင္႔ၾကည္႔ေလ႔လာျခင္းႏွင္႔ အျငင္းပြားမႈ အပၚဆံုုးျဖတသည္႔လုုပ္ငန္းစဥ္မ်ား၌ တိုုင္း႐င္းသားလူမ်ိဳးစုုေခါင္းေဆာင္မ်ား ၊ ရပ္မိရပ္ဖမ်ားႏွင့္ အမ်ိဳးသမီးမ်ား ပါဝင္ေစရမည္။ Part IX also provides equal rights of men and women in terms of land tenure and also in participating and representing the community regarding various land related issues. အပိုုင္း (၉ )တြင္ အမ်ိဳးသမီးမ်ားႏွင္႔ အမ်ိဳးသားမ်ား ေျမအသံုုးခ်မႈကိုု တန္းတူညီမွ်မႈရိွေစရန္ ျပ႒ာန္းထားျပီး။ အမ်ိဳးမ်ိဳးေသာ ေျမရာကိစၥရပ္မ်ားတြင္ ပါဝင္ေဆာင္ရြက္ခြင္႔ႏွင္႔ လူ႔အဖြဲ႔အစည္းကိုု ကိုုုယ္စားျပဳပိုုင္ခြင္႔အစရိွသည္႔ တန္းတူအခြင္႔အေရးရရိွရန္လည္း ပါဝင္ပါသည္။
  8. 8.  Chapter II Formation of the Workplace Coordinating Committee  အပုုိင္း ၂ အလုုပ္သမားေရးရာ လုုပ္ငန္းညိွႏိႈင္းေရးရာ ေကာ္မတီဖြဲ႔စည္းျခင္း 3. In any trade in which more than 30 workers are employed, the employer, with the view to negotiating and concluding collective agreement, shall: (a) if there is any labour organization, form the Workplace Coordinating Committee with the view to make a collective bargaining as follows: (i) two representatives of workers nominated by each of the labour organizations; (ii) an equivalent number of representatives of employer; ၃။ အလုုပ္သမား၃၀ဦးႏွင္႔အထက္ အလုုပ္လုုပ္ကိုုင္ေနေသာလုုပ္ငန္းတစ္ခုုခုုတြင္ စုုေပါင္းသေဘာတူညီခ်က္ကိုု ေဆြးေႏြးရရိွႏိုုင္ရန္ အလုုပ္ရွင္သည္ - (က) အလုုပ္သမားအဖြဲ႔အစည္းရိွလွ်င္ စုုေပါင္းေတာင္းဆိုုမႈျပဳလုုပ္ႏိုု္င္ေရးအတြက္အလုုပ္သမားေရးရာလုုပ္ငန္း ညွိႏိႈင္းေရးေကာ္မတီကိုု ေအာက္ပါအတိုုင္းဖြဲ႔ရမည္။ (၁)အလုုပ္သမားအဖြဲ႔အစည္း တစ္ခုုခ်င္းက အဆိုုျပဳသည့္ အလုုပ္သမားကိုုယ္စားလွယ္ ႏွစ္ဦးစီ (၂)အလုုပ္သမားကိုုယ္စားလွယ္ ဦးေရႏွင့္ အေရအတြက္တူညီသည့္ အလုုပ္ရွင္ကိုုယ္စားလွယ္မ်ား
  9. 9.  Chapter III Formation of the Conciliation Body  အခန္း ၃ အျငင္းပြားမႈ ညိွႏႈိင္းဖ်န္ေျဖေရးအဖြဲ႔ဖြဲ႔စည္းျခင္း 10.The Region or State Government shall form the Conciliation Body in the townships within the Region or State as follows: (a) a person assigned duty Chairperson by the relevant Region or State Government (b) three representatives elected by Member the employers or employer organizations (c) three representatives elected by Member workers or the labour organizations (d) a departmental representative of Member the relevant township level (e) two distinguished persons trusted Member and accepted by employer and the labour organizations (f) a person assigned duty by Secretary the Ministry ၁၀။ တိုုင္းေဒသၾကီး သိုု႔မဟုုတ္ ျပည္နယ္အစိုုးရအဖြဲ႔သည္ တိုုင္းေဒသႀကီး သိုု႔မဟုုတ္ ျပည္နယ္အစိုုးရအတြင္းရိွ ၿမိဳ႔နယ္မ်ားတြင္ အျငင္းပြားမႈညိွႏိႈင္းဖ်န္ေျဖေရး အဖြဲ႔ကိုု ေအာက္ပါအတိုုင္းဖြဲ႔ စည္းရမည္။(က)ဥကၠဌအျဖစ္ သက္ဆိုုင္ရာတုုိင္းေဒသၾကီး သိုု႔မဟုုတ္ ျပည္္နယ္အစိုုးရ အဖြဲ႕ကတာ၀န္ေပးအပ္သူတစ္ဦး (ခ)အဖြဲ႔ဝင္အျဖစ္ အလုုပ္ရွင္မ်ား သိုု႔မဟုုတ္ အလုုပ္ရွင္အဖြဲ႕ အစည္းမ်ားက ေရြးခ်ယ္ေပးေသာ ကိုုယ္စားလွယ္သံုုးဦး (ဂ) အဖြဲ႔ဝင္အျဖစ္ အလုုပ္သမားမ်ား သိုု႔မဟုုတ္ အလုုပ္သမားအဖြဲ႕အစည္းမ်ားက ေရြးခ်ယ္ေပးေသာ ကိုုယ္စားလွယ္သံုုးဦး (ဃ)အဖြဲ႔ဝင္အျဖစ္ သက္ဆိုုင္ရာၿမိဳ႕နယ္အဆင့္ အစုုိးရ ဌာနဆုုိင္ရာ ကိုုယ္စားလွယ္တစ္ဦး (င)အဖြဲ႔ဝင္အျဖစ္ အလုုပ္ရွင္ႏွင္႔အလုုပ္သမားအဖြဲ႔အစည္း မ်ားက ယံုုၾကည္လက္ခံသည့္ ဂုုဏ္သေရရိွပုုဂၢိဳလ္ႏွစ္ဥိး (စ)အတြင္းေရမွဴး အျဖစ္ ၀န္ႀကီးဌာနကတာ၀န္ေပးအပ္သူတစ္ဦး
  10. 10. The SEZ expects that companies doing business in the SEZ will 2. Engage with stakeholders: Companies should consult with all those affected by their activities, operations, and impacts, be they workers, consumers, or communities, as well as other stakeholders, so that companies have access to accurate and useful information about their actions and can create a two-way dialogue. ……. 5. Ensure effective grievance mechanisms: Those affected adversely by a company’s activities need access to effective remedies. This includes establishing grievance mechanism(s) that are accessible (including in the local language) to individuals, workers, consumers, and communities and the company’s participation in and cooperation with the grievance mechanism. Companies can refer to Guiding Principles 29 and 31 of the UN Guiding Principles for Business and Human Rights for further information. Grievance mechanisms should be legitimate, accessible, predictable, equitable, transparent, rights--‐compatible, and a source of continuous learning. They should be designed in collaboration with potential users of the grievance mechanism. 6. Be transparent… 7. Create Shared Value…. 8. Support the communities in which they operate…..
  11. 11.  Reflecting both Myanmar needs and regional discussions led by PACT/Mekong partnership for the Environment (intended to develop Regional Guidelines  Ideally should incorporate IFC Performance Standard 1 on Assessment and Management of Environmental and Social Risks and Impacts whose objectives are: ◦ To identify and evaluate environmental and social risks and impacts of the project ◦ To adopt a mitigation hierarchy to anticipate and avoid, or where avoidance is not possible, minimize, and, where residual impacts remain, compensate/offset for risks and impacts to workers, Affected Communities, and the environment. ◦ To promote improved environmental and social performance of clients through the effective use of management systems. ◦ To ensure that grievances from Affected Communities and external communications from other stakeholders are responded to and managed appropriately. ◦ To promote and provide means for adequate engagement with Affected Communities throughout the project cycle on issues that could potentially affect them and to ensure that relevant environmental and social information is disclosed and disseminated.
  12. 12. MCRB has recommended that MIC require all companies in receipt of an MIC Permit to:  a) Publish, within six months of the end of the company’s financial year, an annual sustainability report in Myanmar language, (and other languages where appropriate). This report should address how the company has invested responsibly in Myanmar. It should be published on the company website. The web link for the report should be notified to DICA.  b) Establish, within six months of receipt of the MIC Permit, an effective grievance mechanism designed in collaboration with affected stakeholders. This should be notified to DICA, and any relevant line ministry, together with the name and contact details of the responsible officer. This mechanism should be publicised on the company’s website as well as being accessible to those who the company may affect. A short report on the implementation of the grievance mechanism should be included in the annual sustainability report.
  13. 13.  Need full implementation of Thilawa Notification 4/2015  Is there scope for a form of ‘community development agreement (CDA)’/’benefits sharing agreement’ in all SEZs (Thilawa, Dawei, Kyaukphyu) or other major projects, setting a framework for project-community-government relations?  http://www.eisourcebook.org/cms/files/csrm_good_practice_ notes_on_cdas_document_final_260911.pdf
  14. 14. MCRB has proposed:  similar provisions on grievance mechanisms for the draft regulations under the Mining Law (currently in preparation) ◦ See http://www.myanmar-responsiblebusiness.org/news/consultation-rules-mining-law.html  That the regulations could include either encouragement or a requirement for mines to enter into Community Development Agreements
  15. 15. www.mcrb.org.mm myanmar.responsible.business
  16. 16. Please add our RSS feed to stay up-to-date on our activities http://www.myanmar-responsiblebusiness.org/rss.xml www.mcrb.org.mm myanmar.responsible.business

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