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Screening for critical_congenital_heart_defects_with_pulse_oximetry_uk_perspective

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Pulse oximetry
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Screening for critical_congenital_heart_defects_with_pulse_oximetry_uk_perspective

  1. 1. Screening for Critical Congenital Heart Defects with pulse oximetry: UK perspective Andrew Ewer Professor of Neonatal Medicine University of Birmingham UK Neonatologist, Birmingham Women’s Hospital
  2. 2. Pulse oximetry screening Rationale Hypoxaemia (low saturations) present in the majority of critical CHD (CCHD) Frequently clinically undetectable Pulse oximetry may detect babies with CCHD early, before they collapse
  3. 3. Pulse oximetry screening • 8 studies - 35 960 patients • Small numbers of patients, low prevalence of CCHD, methodological variations • More high quality studies (in larger study populations) needed to precisely define test accuracy
  4. 4. Pulse oximetry studies 2009 - 2012
  5. 5. Pulse oximetry studies 2009 - 2012 • Granelli – Sweden, (BMJ 2009) [>24 hrs, Pre/post ductal] • Riede – Germany, (EJP 2010) ) [>24 hrs, Post ductal only] • Ewer – UK, (Lancet 2011) ) [<24 hrs, Pre/post ductal] • Turska−Kmieć – Poland, (Kardiologia Polska 2012) [<24 hrs, Post ductal only]
  6. 6. Detection of significant non-cardiac disease an important additional finding in all studies (28-70% of false positives)
  7. 7. Further work Pulse oximetry screening • Is acceptable to parents and staff • Anxiety not increased in false positives • Is cost-effective in an NHS setting
  8. 8. 13 studies 229 421 patients (c.f. 8 studies, 36 000 pts) Overall sensitivity 76.5% (95% CI 67.7% - 83.5%) Overall specificity 99.9% (99.7% -99.9%) False positive rate 0.14% (0.06 - 0.33) (FPR <24 hrs 0.5%. FPR >24 hrs 0.05%) (Did not include full Polish study) 2nd May 2012
  9. 9. …surely the question now is not ‘should pulse oximetry screening be introduced?’ but ‘why should such screening not be introduced more widely?’ Lancet 2012;279:2401.
  10. 10. April 2014 • 120 707 babies screened • Pre and post-ductal saturations • Sensitivity for CCHD – 83.6% • False positive rate 0.3%
  11. 11. ‘Further trials are unnecessary. Now is the time for professional bodies to review the evidence and consider a pulse oximetry screening protocol that best suits their requirements’ Ewer AK. Lancet 2014;384:725-6.
  12. 12. How should screening be done?
  13. 13. Screening protocols • Pre and post or post-ductal only? • Early or late screening? (<24 hrs or >24 hrs)
  14. 14. Pre and post-ductal vs Post-ductal • No difference in sensitivity in meta-analysis • Pre/post consistently identifies CCHD which would have been missed by post-ductal Granelli – 1 CCHD Ewer – 3 CCHDs Equivalent to 7 CCHDs per 100 000 births
  15. 15. Early or late screening (<24 or >24hrs) • Most babies have ‘normal’ sats within 12 hr • FP lower if PO screening >24 hr 0.05 vs 0.5%
  16. 16. CCHD presenting before screening • Later screening studies report 50% of CCHD babies presented before screening1,2 Up to 10% present with collapse in hospital 1 1. Granelli BMJ 2009 2. Riede EJP 2010
  17. 17. CCHD presenting before screening • New Jersey experience – 2011 -2012 72 694 babies screened – FP rate 0.04% but only 3 CCHDs identified1 • Not specified but likely many CCHDs presented before screening (70-140 CCHD expected) 1. Garg et al Pediatrics 2013
  18. 18. • BWH screening programme 2010-2013 (40 months)
  19. 19. • Total Livebirths: 25 859 • Most babies screened <12 hrs (mean age 7 hrs) • Test positive pulse oximetry: 208 0.8% of all livebirths - Just >1 admission a week Congenital heart defects identified: 17 – Critical CHD: 9 [+2FNs] – Serious CHD: 3 – Significant CHD: 5 55 pneumonia, 30 sepsis, 12 PPHN. Only 43 (21%) were healthy (True FPs) Singh, Rasiah, Ewer Arch Dis Child FN 2014;99:F297-F302.
  20. 20. Echocardiograms • Echos performed for test +ve pulse Ox: 61/208 (29%) • Abnormal Echos: 29/61 (48%)
  21. 21. Murmurs and echocardiography • 3 year data from Birmingham Women’s Hospital • 205 echos for babies with murmur • 123 (60%) no significant abnormality • 72 (35%) septal defects • 2 (1%) CCHD – 1 CCHD/100 scans • [PulseOx 9/61 (15%) CCHD] – 1 CCHD/6.5 scans Singh A et al. Acta Paed 2012;101:1651-2227.
  22. 22. False positives Need to consider trade off between false positive rate and timely diagnosis Also… Earlier diagnosis of respiratory/infective cases Increasing discharges within 24 hours False positives are babies with low oxygen levels No baby should have unexplained persistent hypoxaemia
  23. 23. UK pilot - Methods 15 acute Hospitals participated over 6 months 1st Jul 2015 – 31st Dec 2015 - rural MLU to tertiary centres (incl. homebirths)
  24. 24. 26 Newborn Pulse Oximetry Screening Pilot Stakeholders Meeting UK Newborn Pulse Oximetry Screening Pilot Pathway
  25. 25. US algorithm UK algorithm
  26. 26. UK pilot • 32 836 babies screened • 239 test positives (0.73%) • 14 CHD (8 CCHD) – [2 FNs] • 82 significant non-cardiac disease
  27. 27. PO screening vs. Hearing screening UK experience - screening well babies Hearing* PulseOx(BWH) PulseOx(UK) Referral rate 2.2% 0.8% 0.73% Target condition pick-up** 7 3.4 2.4 False positives† 213 80 70 **Per 10 000 tests (60 w/ sig. illness) (25 w/ sig. illness) *Wood, Sutton & Davis. Int J Audiol 2015;54:353–8
  28. 28. Summary • Pulse oximetry screening is feasible, acceptable, cost-effective and reduces the diagnostic gap for CCHD. • Most appropriate algorithm is likely to be refined with national input from national datasets and may be adjusted according to local circumstances
  29. 29. Reviews and commentaries • Ewer AK. How to develop a business case to establish a neonatal pulse oximetry screening programme for screening of congenital heart defects. Early Hum Dev. 2012;88:915-9. • Ewer AK. Review of pulse oximetry screening for critical congenital heart defects. Current Opinions in Cardiology 2013;28:92-6. • Ewer AK. Pulse oximetry screening for critical congenital heart defects. Should it be routine? Arch Dis Child Fetal and Neonatal Ed 2014;99:F93-F95. • Ewer AK. Pulse oximetry screening: do we have enough evidence now? Lancet 2014; 384: 725- 26. • Ewer AK. Evidence for CCHD screening and its practical application using pulse oximetry. Early Hum Dev 2014;90:suppl 2 S19-21. • Narayen IC, Blom NA, Ewer AK, Vento M, Manzoni P, te Pas AB. Aspects of pulse oximetry screening for critical congenital heart defects: when, how and why. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2016;101:F162-F167. • Ismail AQ, Cawsey M, Ewer AK. Newborn pulse oximetry screening in practice. Arch Dis Child Educ Prac Ed. 2016 Aug 16. doi:1136/archdischild -2016-311047. [Epub ahead of print]. • Ewer AK Pulse oximerty screening for critical congenital heart defects: medical aspects. Am J Perinatol 2016; • Ewer AK, Martin GR. Newborn pulse oximetry screening: which algorithm is best? Pediatrics 2016;138(5):e 20161206. a.k.ewer@bham.ac.uk
  30. 30. CONCLUSION Pulse oximetry is a safe, non-invasive, feasible, and reasonable accurate test, which has a sensitivity that is better than that of antenatal screening and clinical examination. •adds value to existing screening procedures and is likely to be useful for identification of cases of critical congenital heart defects that would otherwise go undetected. •The detection of other diseases such as significant congenital heart defects, and respiratory and infective illnesses is an additional advantage. •Potential benefits of the introduction of pre-discharge pulse oximetry screening as a routine procedure.
  31. 31. conclusion Various studies and review articles all over the globe have suggested the usefulness of pulse oximetry screening for detecting the congenital cardio vascular malformations in asymptomatic new-borns. However, very little research has been done in this particular field in our country. These studies adds to the evidence in support of starting the pulse oximetry as a routine neonatal screening programme to let many a children to live a long life with healthy hearts.

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