Tenseshift

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  • had been will be wants No change is necessary.
  • froze had lost knocked No change is necessary.
  • was pawing was shaking could not No change is necessary.
  • had been had wanted cannot No change is necessary.
  • were spending think would be No change is necessary.
  • had believed was riding had hit No change is necessary.
  • Tenseshift

    1. 1. chomp!chomp!This presentation isbrought to you byGrammar Bytes!,©2013 by Robin L.Simmons.This presentation isbrought to you byGrammar Bytes!,©2013 by Robin L.Simmons.
    2. 2. Tense ShiftTense ShiftTense ShiftTense ShiftDo I use thepresent tenseto maintainconsistency?Do I use thepresent tenseto maintainconsistency?Or do I needthe pasttense instead?Or do I needthe pasttense instead?
    3. 3. This presentationcovers recognizingappropriate verbtenses for a giventime frame orcontext.This presentationcovers recognizingappropriate verbtenses for a giventime frame orcontext.
    4. 4. A tense shift item on anA tense shift item on anobjective test might lookobjective test might looklike thislike this .. .. ..
    5. 5. Sample ItemSample ItemSample ItemSample ItemWhen King was a puppy, he chewed toysWhen King was a puppy, he chewed toysand furniture. Now that he is an adult, heand furniture. Now that he is an adult, hewanted to chew the mail carrier most of all.wanted to chew the mail carrier most of all.A.A.isisB.B.waswasC.C.wantswantsD.D.No change is necessary.No change is necessary.When KingWhen King waswas a puppy, he chewed toysa puppy, he chewed toysAAand furniture. Now that heand furniture. Now that he isis an adult, hean adult, heBBwantedwanted to chew the mail carrier most of all.to chew the mail carrier most of all.CCA.A.isisB.B.waswasC.C.wantswantsD.D.No change is necessary.No change is necessary.When KingWhen King waswas a puppy, he chewed toysa puppy, he chewed toysAAand furniture. Now that heand furniture. Now that he isis an adult, hean adult, heBBwantswants to chew the mail carrier most of all.to chew the mail carrier most of all.CCA.A.isisB.B.waswasC.C.wantswantsD.D.No change is necessary.No change is necessary.Is was, is, orwanted in thewrong tense?Is was, is, orwanted in thewrong tense?Wanted shouldbe presenttense, acorrection optionC makes.Wanted shouldbe presenttense, acorrection optionC makes.
    6. 6. UseUse present/present perfectpresent/present perfect tense totense toindicate current/regular action.indicate current/regular action.UseUse present/present perfectpresent/present perfect tense totense toindicate current/regular action.indicate current/regular action.JeffreyJeffrey goesgoes to the gym six days a week where heto the gym six days a week where hehas gainedhas gained not only muscle but also discipline.not only muscle but also discipline.Present tense:Present tense: verbverb ++ ss = singular;= singular; verbverb ++ ØØ ==plural.plural.Present perfect tense:Present perfect tense: hashas oror havehave ++ pastpastparticipleparticipleI have gainedattention fromwomen too!I have gainedattention fromwomen too!
    7. 7. JeffreyJeffrey had liftedhad lifted free weights for over an hourfree weights for over an hourbefore someonebefore someone mentionedmentioned the rip in histhe rip in hisshorts.shorts.UseUse past perfectpast perfect to indicate a pastto indicate a pastaction that occurred before anotheraction that occurred before anotherpastpast action.action.UseUse past perfectpast perfect to indicate a pastto indicate a pastaction that occurred before anotheraction that occurred before anotherpastpast action.action.It’s a goodthing I havecuteglutes.It’s a goodthing I havecuteglutes.Past tense:Past tense: regular =regular = verbverb ++ eded; irregular forms; irregular formsvary.vary.Past perfect tense:Past perfect tense: hadhad ++ past participlepast participle
    8. 8. JeffreyJeffrey was showingwas showing off when he tore a muscleoff when he tore a musclein his shoulder.in his shoulder.UseUse progressive tensesprogressive tenses to indicateto indicatean ongoing action that occurs asan ongoing action that occurs asanother action happens.another action happens.UseUse progressive tensesprogressive tenses to indicateto indicatean ongoing action that occurs asan ongoing action that occurs asanother action happens.another action happens.Progressive tenses:Progressive tenses: form ofform of bebe ++ verbverb ++ ingingOuch!Ouch!
    9. 9. When logic permits, you can mixWhen logic permits, you can mixpast/presentpast/present tenses withtenses with futurefuture..When logic permits, you can mixWhen logic permits, you can mixpast/presentpast/present tenses withtenses with futurefuture..Because heBecause he wentwent to the gym today, Jeffreyto the gym today, Jeffrey willwillrewardreward himself with a triple bacon cheeseburger forhimself with a triple bacon cheeseburger forlunch. After helunch. After he weighsweighs himself tomorrow, hehimself tomorrow, he willwillregretregret the poor food choice.the poor food choice.Because I atebadly, I will haveto do more crunchesat the gym.Because I atebadly, I will haveto do more crunchesat the gym.
    10. 10. Could/wouldCould/would = past tense of= past tense ofcan/willcan/will..Could/wouldCould/would = past tense of= past tense ofcan/willcan/will..Jeffrey thought he will have enough energy for hisJeffrey thought he will have enough energy for hisworkout, but skipping breakfast meant that he cannotworkout, but skipping breakfast meant that he cannotcomplete his training.complete his training.You wouldhave had thesameproblem!You wouldhave had thesameproblem!Jeffrey thought heJeffrey thought he wouldwould have enough energy for hishave enough energy for hisworkout, but skipping breakfast meant that heworkout, but skipping breakfast meant that he couldcould notnotcomplete his training.complete his training.
    11. 11. Quick TestQuick TestQuick TestQuick TestDirections:Directions: In the items that follow, chooseIn the items that follow, choosethe option that corrects an error in thethe option that corrects an error in theunderlined portion(s). If no error exists, chooseunderlined portion(s). If no error exists, choose“No change is necessary.”“No change is necessary.”You think you’retough? Showme your tensestrength.You think you’retough? Showme your tensestrength.
    12. 12. Item 1Item 1Item 1Item 1Aunt Lillian had frozen four quarts of herAunt Lillian had frozen four quarts of herhomegrown strawberries, but she lost them afterhomegrown strawberries, but she lost them afterthe hurricane was knocking out power for eightthe hurricane was knocking out power for eightdays.days.A.A.frozefrozeB.B.had losthad lostC.C.knockedknockedD.D.No change is necessary.No change is necessary.Aunt LillianAunt Lillian had frozenhad frozen four quarts of herfour quarts of herAAhomegrown strawberries, but shehomegrown strawberries, but she lostlost them afterthem afterBBthe hurricanethe hurricane was knockingwas knocking out power for eightout power for eightCCdays.days.A.A.frozefrozeB.B.had losthad lostC.C.knockedknockedD.D.No change is necessary.No change is necessary.Aunt LillianAunt Lillian had frozenhad frozen four quarts of herfour quarts of herAAhomegrown strawberries, but shehomegrown strawberries, but she lostlost them afterthem afterBBthe hurricanethe hurricane knockedknocked out power for eightout power for eightCCdays.days.A.A.frozefrozeB.B.had losthad lostC.C.knockedknockedD.D.No change is necessary.No change is necessary.
    13. 13. Item 2Item 2Item 2Item 2Because Sammy had been eating all of theBecause Sammy had been eating all of thechocolate mint ice cream before she got home,chocolate mint ice cream before she got home,Roxanne whacked him over the head.Roxanne whacked him over the head.A.A.ateateB.B.was eatingwas eatingC.C.had eatenhad eatenD.D.No change is necessary.No change is necessary.Because SammyBecause Sammy had been eatinghad been eating all of theall of thechocolate mint ice cream before she got home,chocolate mint ice cream before she got home,Roxanne whacked him over the head.Roxanne whacked him over the head.A.A.ateateB.B.was eatingwas eatingC.C.had eatenhad eatenD.D.No change is necessary.No change is necessary.Because SammyBecause Sammy had been eatinghad been eating all of theall of thechocolate mint ice cream before she got home,chocolate mint ice cream before she got home,Roxanne whacked him over the head.Roxanne whacked him over the head.A.A.ateateB.B.was eatingwas eatingC.C.had eatenhad eatenD.D.No change is necessary.No change is necessary.
    14. 14. Item 3Item 3Item 3Item 3Carlos pawed at his hair and shook his head, butCarlos pawed at his hair and shook his head, buthe cannot dislodge the giant spider tangled inhe cannot dislodge the giant spider tangled inhis curls.his curls.A.A.was pawingwas pawingB.B.was shakingwas shakingC.C.could notcould notD.D.No change is necessary.No change is necessary.CarlosCarlos pawedpawed at his hair andat his hair and shookshook his head, buthis head, butAA BBhehe cannotcannot dislodge the giant spider tangled indislodge the giant spider tangled inCChis curls.his curls.A.A.was pawingwas pawingB.B.was shakingwas shakingC.C.could notcould notD.D.No change is necessary.No change is necessary.CarlosCarlos pawedpawed at his hair andat his hair and shookshook his head, buthis head, butAA BBhehe could notcould not dislodge the giant spider tangled indislodge the giant spider tangled inCChis curls.his curls.A.A.was pawingwas pawingB.B.was shakingwas shakingC.C.could notcould notD.D.No change is necessary.No change is necessary.
    15. 15. Item 4Item 4Item 4Item 4Grandpa planted a backyard garden, hoping that itGrandpa planted a backyard garden, hoping that itwas helping with the high cost of food.was helping with the high cost of food.A.A.will helpwill helpB.B.would helpwould helpC.C.helpedhelpedD.D.No change is necessary.No change is necessary.Grandpa planted a backyard garden, hoping that itGrandpa planted a backyard garden, hoping that itwas helpingwas helping with the high cost of food.with the high cost of food.A.A.will helpwill helpB.B.would helpwould helpC.C.helpedhelpedD.D.No change is necessary.No change is necessary.Grandpa planted a backyard garden, hoping that itGrandpa planted a backyard garden, hoping that itwas helpingwas helping with the high cost of food.with the high cost of food.A.A.will helpwill helpB.B.would helpwould helpC.C.helpedhelpedD.D.No change is necessary.No change is necessary.
    16. 16. Item 5Item 5Item 5Item 5When Gretchen was a freshman, she wanted toWhen Gretchen was a freshman, she wanted tomajor in biology, but after her first rat dissection,major in biology, but after her first rat dissection,she couldn’t change her major fast enough.she couldn’t change her major fast enough.A.A.had beenhad beenB.B.was wantingwas wantingC.C.cannotcannotD.D.No change is necessary.No change is necessary.When GretchenWhen Gretchen waswas a freshman, shea freshman, she wantedwanted totoAA BBmajor in biology, but after her first rat dissection,major in biology, but after her first rat dissection,sheshe couldn’tcouldn’t change her major fast enough.change her major fast enough.CCA.A.had beenhad beenB.B.was wantingwas wantingC.C.cannotcannotD.D.No change is necessary.No change is necessary.When GretchenWhen Gretchen waswas a freshman, shea freshman, she wantedwanted totoAA BBmajor in biology, but after her first rat dissection,major in biology, but after her first rat dissection,sheshe couldn’tcouldn’t change her major fast enough.change her major fast enough.CCA.A.had beenhad beenB.B.was wantingwas wantingC.C.cannotcannotD.D.No change is necessary.No change is necessary.
    17. 17. Item 6Item 6Item 6Item 6Everyone is sleeping soundly when BrendanEveryone is sleeping soundly when Brendandropped the glass pitcher of lemonade on the stonedropped the glass pitcher of lemonade on the stonetiles of the kitchen floor.tiles of the kitchen floor.A.A.had been sleepinghad been sleepingB.B.sleptsleptC.C.would sleepwould sleepD.D.No change is necessary.No change is necessary.EveryoneEveryone is sleepingis sleeping soundly when Brendansoundly when Brendandropped the glass pitcher of lemonade on the stonedropped the glass pitcher of lemonade on the stonetiles of the kitchen floor.tiles of the kitchen floor.A.A.had been sleepinghad been sleepingB.B.sleptsleptC.C.would sleepwould sleepD.D.No change is necessary.No change is necessary.EveryoneEveryone is sleepingis sleeping soundly when Brendansoundly when Brendandropped the glass pitcher of lemonade on the stonedropped the glass pitcher of lemonade on the stonetiles of the kitchen floor.tiles of the kitchen floor.A.A.had been sleepinghad been sleepingB.B.sleptsleptC.C.would sleepwould sleepD.D.No change is necessary.No change is necessary.
    18. 18. Item 7Item 7Item 7Item 7Ancient Egyptians spent their entire lives preparingAncient Egyptians spent their entire lives preparingfor their death and burial. Today, however, peoplefor their death and burial. Today, however, peopleare thinking that such arrangements are morbidare thinking that such arrangements are morbidand impolite to discuss.and impolite to discuss.A.A.were spendingwere spendingB.B.thinkthinkC.C.would bewould beD.D.No change is necessary.No change is necessary.Ancient EgyptiansAncient Egyptians spentspent their entire lives preparingtheir entire lives preparingAAfor their death and burial. Today, however, peoplefor their death and burial. Today, however, peopleare thinkingare thinking that such arrangementsthat such arrangements areare morbidmorbidBB CCand impolite to discuss.and impolite to discuss.A.A.were spendingwere spendingB.B.thinkthinkC.C.would bewould beD.D.No change is necessary.No change is necessary.Ancient EgyptiansAncient Egyptians spentspent their entire lives preparingtheir entire lives preparingAAfor their death and burial. Today, however, peoplefor their death and burial. Today, however, peoplethinkthink that such arrangementsthat such arrangements areare morbidmorbidBB CCand impolite to discuss.and impolite to discuss.A.A.were spendingwere spendingB.B.thinkthinkC.C.would bewould beD.D.No change is necessary.No change is necessary.
    19. 19. Item 8Item 8Item 8Item 8When Felicia saw the turtle trying to cross the busyWhen Felicia saw the turtle trying to cross the busyroad, she leaped out of her car and had carriedroad, she leaped out of her car and had carriedthe reptile to safety at the other side.the reptile to safety at the other side.A.A.was carryingwas carryingB.B.carriedcarriedC.C.will carrywill carryD.D.No change is necessary.No change is necessary.When Felicia saw the turtle trying to cross the busyWhen Felicia saw the turtle trying to cross the busyroad, she leaped out of her car androad, she leaped out of her car and had carriedhad carriedthe reptile to safety at the other side.the reptile to safety at the other side.A.A.was carryingwas carryingB.B.carriedcarriedC.C.will carrywill carryD.D.No change is necessary.No change is necessary.When Felicia saw the turtle trying to cross the busyWhen Felicia saw the turtle trying to cross the busyroad, she leaped out of her car androad, she leaped out of her car and had carriedhad carriedthe reptile to safety at the other side.the reptile to safety at the other side.A.A.was carryingwas carryingB.B.carriedcarriedC.C.will carrywill carryD.D.No change is necessary.No change is necessary.
    20. 20. Item 9Item 9Item 9Item 9George Washington believed that he was invincibleGeorge Washington believed that he was invinciblein battle. He rode a conspicuous white horse thatin battle. He rode a conspicuous white horse thatmade him an easy target, yet no bullet had hit him,made him an easy target, yet no bullet had hit him,validating his conviction of invulnerability.validating his conviction of invulnerability.A.A.had believedhad believedB.B.was ridingwas ridingC.C.hithitD.D.No change is necessary.No change is necessary.George WashingtonGeorge Washington believedbelieved that he was invinciblethat he was invincibleAAin battle. Hein battle. He roderode a conspicuous white horse thata conspicuous white horse thatBBmade him an easy target, yet no bulletmade him an easy target, yet no bullet had hithad hit him,him,CCvalidating his conviction of invulnerability.validating his conviction of invulnerability.A.A.had believedhad believedB.B.was ridingwas ridingC.C.hithitD.D.No change is necessary.No change is necessary.George WashingtonGeorge Washington believedbelieved that he was invinciblethat he was invincibleAAin battle. Hein battle. He roderode a conspicuous white horse thata conspicuous white horse thatBBmade him an easy target, yet no bulletmade him an easy target, yet no bullet hithit him,him,CCvalidating his conviction of invulnerability.validating his conviction of invulnerability.A.A.had believedhad believedB.B.was ridingwas ridingC.C.hithitD.D.No change is necessary.No change is necessary.
    21. 21. Item 10Item 10Item 10Item 10We would have bite marks on our ankles andWe would have bite marks on our ankles andscratches on our thighs ever since adoptingscratches on our thighs ever since adoptingNelson, our feisty kitten.Nelson, our feisty kitten.A.A.hadhadB.B.havehaveC.C.will havewill haveD.D.No change is necessary.No change is necessary.WeWe would havewould have bite marks on our ankles andbite marks on our ankles andscratches on our thighs ever since adoptingscratches on our thighs ever since adoptingNelson, our feisty kitten.Nelson, our feisty kitten.A.A.hadhadB.B.havehaveC.C.will havewill haveD.D.No change is necessary.No change is necessary.WeWe would havewould have bite marks on our ankles andbite marks on our ankles andscratches on our thighs ever since adoptingscratches on our thighs ever since adoptingNelson, our feisty kitten.Nelson, our feisty kitten.A.A.hadhadB.B.havehaveC.C.will havewill haveD.D.No change is necessary.No change is necessary.
    22. 22. The End.The End.

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