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Beatrice F. Howitt - talk


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Talk about life and contributions of Beatrice F. Howitt. Included is her work with California native plants. Part of the 'Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden' lecture series.

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Beatrice F. Howitt - talk

  1. 1. © Project SOUND Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Gardening with California Native Plants in Western L.A. County Project SOUND – 2018 (our 14th year for the series)
  2. 2. © Project SOUND Beatrice F. Howitt and her life with wildflowers C.M. Vadheim, K. Dawdy (and T. Drake) CSUDH (emeritus), CSUDH & City of Torrance Madrona Marsh Preserve January 6 & 11, 2018
  3. 3. 2017 was a challenging year © Project SOUND 12407361.php Returning drought? Political uncertainties and divisions Social unrest ecords_20171024 gunman-at-mandalay-bay-casino-2017-10
  4. 4. We need to learn new strategies for coping © Project SOUND
  5. 5. 2018 Season – Gardens that sooth © Project SOUND Gardens that heal
  6. 6. During the 2018 season we’ll:  Discuss evidence linking good health and exposure to the out-of-doors  Learn about the elements of the out-of-door experience that most affect our health  Learn how to incorporate these elements into our gardens, to make them even better places to grow and de-stress © Project SOUND
  7. 7. Along the way, we’ll meet a few more persons influential to CA native plants © Project SOUND The first of these is Miss Beatrice Faye Howitt
  8. 8. Important CA plantspersons we have ‘met’ © Project SOUND Kate Sessions (1857-1940) Blanche Trask (1865-1916) Lester Rountree (1879 -1979) Theodore Payne (1872-1963) Alice Eastwood (1859-1951) Leroy Abrams (1874-1956) Katharine Brandegee (1844-1920) Beatrice F. Howitt (1891-1981)
  9. 9. Beatrice Fay Howitt: 1891-1981  Born Sept. 23, 1891 in San Francisco  Had an older sister and younger brother  Grew up in San Rafael, CA; no major family upheavals  Had a comfortable life as daughter of prominent members of the community  Belonged to Marin Golf 7 Country Club – in the San Francisco Blue Book & Club Registry (1919) © Project SOUND The front porch of the Dr. Henry Orton Howitt residence in San Rafael, California, June 1913
  10. 10. San Francisco Bay region and Monterey County  Plays an important early role for the family – and in Beatrice Howitt’s life in plants  San Rafael (early)  Incorporated 1874  County seat – Marin County  By 1910 had courthouse, Carnegie library,  Population in 1910 - 5,934  Muir Woods Nat. Mon. and Mt. Tamalpais were tourist attractions in the early 1900’s  Monterey County (later) © Project SOUND
  11. 11. Early exposure to (and love of) out-of-doors © Project SOUND Beatrice Howitt and Alice Oge swimming in the San Rafael Canal, San Rafael, CA, September 1913  Family and friends loved sports and getting out of doors  Hiked, swam, took rides out to the surrounding countryside and wildlands (which were close at hand and popular to visit)
  12. 12. Father was a prominent early San Rafael doctor  Harry Orton Howitt M.D.  Born Guelph Nova Scotia ; 2 brothers also became doctors  MD 1887 from Cooper Medical College, San Francisco (became Stanford Medical School)  Practiced medicine in San Rafael, beginning in 1893 and continued into the 1950’s  Died at age 90 after over 60 years as a practicing physician © Project SOUND
  13. 13. Father was in some ways typical for his time  In the early days, made house calls in a horse and buggy  In addition to private practice, served as county physician and county health officer for many years  Installed a few hospital beds in the family home in early days  A founder of the old Cottage Hospital in San Rafael and the doctor for the Mt. Tamalpais Military Academy. © Project SOUND Dr. Henry Orton Howitt beside his car in San Rafael, CA, Feb. 914 Cottage Hospital
  14. 14. SAN RAFAEL COTTAGE HOSPITAL IN ITS NEW QUARTERS [1907]  Now One of the Most Modern and up-to- Date Institutions in the Country  No expense or ability has been spared to make it an ideal place for the accommodation of its inmates.  There is a broad driveway leading into the grounds where ambulances and carriages can bring the ill or injured.  Two operating rooms that are models of all that operating rooms should be, are at disposal in cases requiring them. Adjoining them is a sterilizing room.  The whole building, speaks of cleanliness and modem sanitary conditions. © Project SOUND Marin County Tocsin, Volume 28, Number 49, 18 May 1907 The hospital is the headquarters for the Emergency Corps and the best trained nurses and attendants are always in charge
  15. 15. Medicine, hospitals and public health practices were changing in the early 1900’s  Better understanding of infectious diseases and contagion; more emphasis on sterile conditions  Increased use of laboratory and laboratory tests – in-hospital laboratories became more common © Project SOUND,_war d_(c._1915-1918)_Wellcome_L0024173.jpg
  16. 16. Early laboratory training on-the-job  As a young woman, Miss Howitt was a general assistant to her father, developing an interest in medical sciences  Led her to obtain a part-time job in the laboratory of Stanford Medical School.  During World War I, Miss Howitt virtually took over operation of the lab.  Pursued higher education in laboratory medicine at UC Berkeley © Project SOUND
  17. 17.  The University of California had its beginnings in the private College of California, which was incorporated in Oakland in 1855 (opened in 1860)  1868 marked the actual establishment of the University of California by the merger of the College of California with a proposed State Agricultural, Mining, and Mechanical Arts College © Project SOUND celebrates-our-founding-on-march-23
  18. 18. © Project SOUND Doe Memorial Library - 1928 Beatrice Howitt entered as a freshman in 1920
  19. 19. The early 1900’s –and WW I - had a profound impact on medicine – including public health © Project SOUND In 1912, Public Health and Marine Hospital Service changed its name to Public Health Service (PHS). Congress expanded their power to protect against human diseases such as tuberculosis, hookworm, malaria, and leprosy. They also began oversight of sanitation, water supplies, and sewage disposal in the United States.
  20. 20. Bacteriology and Immunology at Cal  A Department of Bacteriology and Pathology established in 1911 under the chairmanship of Dr. Frederick P. Gay.  Part of the medical school, the department ministered largely to the needs of medical students.  Under Dr. Karl F. Meyer (chairman 1924- 1946), and with the collaboration of Drs. Max S. Marshall, Ivan C. Hall, Anthony J. Salle, and Theodore D. Beckwith, the offerings in bacteriology were broadened and research programs were initiated in several areas of microbiology. © Project SOUND Presidents-and- Officers/FrederickPGay Frederick Parker Gay (1874 –1939) American bacteriologist who combated typhoid fever and leprosy and studied the mechanisms of immunity.
  21. 21. © Project SOUND The course offerings in 1921 were a little slim!
  22. 22. © Project SOUND Cal bacteriology faculty studied the major infectious disease issues of the day
  23. 23. © Project SOUND Female faculty were also actively involved in research and publishing  Faculty research included studies of new laboratory methods  Some early vaccine research was done at Cal when Howitt was a student
  24. 24. Berkeley science campus in mid-1920’s These building would have been very familiar to Beatrice Howitt © Project SOUND the Hearst Memorial Mining Building, circa 1925.
  25. 25. Howitt received a sound background in lab science at Cal in the 1920’s  B.A. in bacteriology in 1924  M.A. in proto-zoology the following year. © Project SOUND
  26. 26. Protozoology - 1925 © Project SOUND Note how practical the courses are.
  27. 27. Charles Atwood Kofoid (1865 – 1947)  Beatrice Howitt’s Master’s advisor; taught all protozoal and parasitology courses at the time Howitt was a student  Ph.D. Harvard; Chair Zoology at Berkeley (1910-1936)  Real interest was in marine protozoans; developed expertise as a parasitologist and became interested in public health during WWI (U.S. Army Sanitation Corps)  Established a parasitology laboratory at Berkeley that employed many young assistants © Project SOUND
  28. 28. University of California Botanical Garden Formally established (1890) by E. L. Greene (first chairman of the Department of Botany), to form a living collection of the native trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants of California, with the intent to gather in as rapidly as possible those of the neighboring states of the Pacific Coast. © Project SOUND Moved to Strawberry Hill, 1925
  29. 29. But mostly she worked on her research  Howitt, B. F. 1925.-The culture of Endamoeba gingivalis (Gros.). Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool., 28: 65-126, pls. 10-12.  1926a.-The effect of certain drugs and dyes upon the growth of Endamoeba gingivalis (Gros) in vitro. Univ. Calif. .Publ. Zool., 28: 173-182.  1926b.-Experiments with Endamoeba gingivalis (Gros) in mixed bacterial cultures; in filtered saliva; on a solid base; with peritoneal cells, and with digestive secretions. Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool., 28:183-202, pls. 16-17. © Project SOUND 1925;view=2up;seq=4
  30. 30. Graduate work leads to career  Miss Howitt’s graduate work in researching the amoeba of the mouth led her to work on mouth bacteria and viruses, primarily poliomyelitis and encephalomyelitis  Poliomyelitis and encephalomyelitis became her specialties.  In the 1920’s, there was much still unknown about the ‘filterable viruses’.  An important research facility was the Hooper Foundation, where Howitt went to work. © Project SOUND
  31. 31. Hooper Foundation for Medical Research  1913 - first U.S. medical research foundation incorporated into a university [University of California]  Key role in public health and infectious disease research/practice  California outbreaks of botulism, brucellosis, encephalitis, mussel poisoning, plague, psittacosis, relapsing fever, and other infections were studied in both the field and Foundation laboratories with remarkable success.  Studies on typhoid and parathyphoid carrier states, on the diagnosis of dysentery, and the bacteriology of Malta fever. Brucella was identified/named; Brucellosis was identified as an important infection of packing-house employees.  During World War I, anaerobes were classified and tetanus spore carriers were recognized.  Largely responsible for the investigation that led to the control of botulism in the commercial canning industry.  Second Director Karl Friedrich Meyer (B. Howitt’s professor from Cal) © Project SOUND
  32. 32.  Born in Switzerland  Inspired by the animal research of scientists such as Pasteur & Koch  Veterinary medicine training in Switzerland and Germany  Post-doctoral training at Veterinary Bacteriological Institute in South Africa to broaden his background in protozoology and epidemiology  Taught at U. of Pennsylvania, Cal Berkeley, UCSF  Director, Hooper Foundation, 1921-1959 © Project SOUND Karl Friedrich Meyer (1884-1974) /meyer.html
  33. 33. Meyer came to academia at an fascinating time in the study of infectious disease © Project SOUND  First article on filterable viruses (1914) marked the beginning of his research on the cause of equine encephalitis (not to be found until 1930 by Meyer and Howitt at the Hooper). [Howitt isolated from humans in 1938]  In 1915 (at Hooper) Meyer worked on the problem of typhoid fever. A spaghetti pie served at a church dinner had caused the poisoning of one hundred people. Meyer found that the woman who cooked the pie had given many people typhoid fever in the preceding six years. The experience convinced him of the importance of epidemiology in public health. It also interested him in a study of typhoid carriers. He demonstrated that the phenomenon of typhoid carriers could be recreated by infecting laboratory animals.
  34. 34. Meyer’s interests and personality dominated the Hooper Institute © Project SOUND  He contributed significantly to the understanding, treatment, and prevention of many infectious (and other) diseases.  His contributions and achievements were founded on his holistic, ecological approach.  His 1930s Public Health curriculum at the University of California played a large role in the creation of the UC Berkeley School of Public Health.
  35. 35. In some ways, K.F. Meyer was the ‘larger than life’ persona of the Hooper  A former student and friend once put it like this: “Meyer would have won a Nobel Prize if he hadn’t worked on so many areas of discovery that nobody could keep track of all that he was doing”.  Published > 800 articles  Responsible, among others, for improving laws regulating hygiene in the food industries and in public health.  He deserves credit for establishing training programs in Public Health in California (and the Western US).  He was famous for being an excellent and inspiring though very demanding teacher. His lectures, always most diligently prepared, were all brilliant, dynamic, captivating, and demanded a great deal from all students. His lectures were famous and attracted great numbers of students © Project SOUND
  36. 36. © Project SOUND Howitt played a vital role in the studies of viral infections of the nervous system
  37. 37. Howitt developed a vaccine for polio using convalescent serum © Project SOUND  Late 1800’s – first reported cases (Scandinavia)  Early 1900’s  First epidemics in U.S.  Shown to be a filterable virus  Late 1920’s – 1930’s  More serious U.S. outbreaks  Howitt & others worked on the polio virus, including the effect of antibodies in convalescent serum on polio transmission in the laboratory
  38. 38. Beatrice F. Howitt, M.A. © Project SOUND e+F+Howitt&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjztIukivvXAhUK3GMKHSkeDG44eB DoAQgoMAA#v=onepage&q=Beatrice%20F%20Howitt&f=false  Associate in Research Medicine, Hooper Institute UCSF Medical School – 1928 until early 1940’s  Did the lab work for many of the important studies of that era at the Hooper
  39. 39. Bigger than life personality  Meyer’s personality, his enormous knowledge combined with his energy and extraordinary drive were just what was needed to tackle the many pioneering tasks.  That being said:  He was demanding  He could be ruthless in his criticisms (sometimes in front of others)  He could be set in his ways  He like to be in charge: all research done at the Hooper was first reviewed by Meyer  He had an EGO  He liked subordinates (especially women) to ‘know their place’ © Project SOUND
  40. 40.  Meyer ‘reportedly wanted to replace Dr. Beatrice F. Howitt, a woman scientist deemed too “independent”, with a genial and competent male researcher competent with viruses of the central nervous system. The gender biases that pervaded the scientific community provided Hammon with a rare professional opportunity’ © Project SOUND By the end of the 1930’s, Meyer and Howitt were increasingly at odds Selling Science: Polio and the Promise of Gamma Globulin. By Stephen E. Mawdsley
  41. 41. The George Williams Hooper Research Foundation – early 1940’s  ‘Because she was a very independent lady. At times she was very, very difficult to work with, and she was always getting mad about something and slipping a resignation letter under his door. He decided this time to accept it.’ - Reeves © Project SOUND Howitt left the Hooper and worked in private industry for a few years
  42. 42. USPHS Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Montana  In 1944, the U.S. Public Heath Service sent her to Hamilton, Mont., to supervise production of vaccine for Rocky Mountain spotted fever.  Miss Howitt also developed an influenza gamma globulin vaccine for the Army during World War II © Project SOUND Packing typhus vaccine for shipment
  43. 43. After the War, helped create and run the Virus and Rickettsia Lab for the USPHS  After World War II, Miss Howitt spent six years at the Health Service laboratory in Montgomery, Ala., creating a virus laboratory there.  This lab was one of several satellite labs of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC)  Miss Howitt worked at the CDC lab until the early 1950’s © Project SOUND
  44. 44. Late 1940’s and early 1950’s: Breakthrough studies of Coxsackie viruses  Discovered by Dalldorf in 1947  Can cause acute transverse myelitis  Howitt contributions:  Lab testing methods  Description of basic epidemiology, immunology, clinical findings  Virus and Rickettsia Section and Laboratory Services, Montgomery, Ala./U. S. Public Health Service, Atlanta, Ga (CDC lab) © Project SOUND
  45. 45. Recovery of the Coxsackie Group of Viruses from Human Sources - Experimental Biology & Medicine - March 1, 1950  One hundred eight isolations of the Coxsackie group of viruses have been made from the secretions or tissues of 97 patients from 9 different states with multiple isolations from different kinds of specimens from 6 separate individuals. Virus was recovered a second time from 9 different specimens. The strains obtained may be divided into 4 distinct serological types. Two of them correspond to Types 1 and 2 of Dalldorf; the other 2, tentatively called Types 4 and 5, are antigenically different. The viruses have been recovered from human blood, Serum, brain, cord, mouth or nasopharyngeal washings, saliva, sputum, nasal swabs, mouth vesicles, urine and feces with a predominance of Types 4, 5 and 2, respectively. The highest percentage of isolations was from the blood, 22 out of 25 (88.0%) specimens being positive. The virus was found also in material from 10 fatal cases and could be recovered repeatedly from 5 of the same specimens. It was easily isolated from mouth washings during the first week of illness, and on 3 occasions was obtained again from the same patients during the third week after the onset. The largest number of isolations was from material obtained during August and September, with another large group collected in March. Neutralizing antibodies for Types 1 and 2 were found not only in the sera of patients but in those of a few normal individuals as well. The sera of 7 out of 8 individuals showed neutralizing an tibodies against their homologous viruses. Type 4 virus has been recovered 3 times from muscle filtrates of normal baby mice and there is evidence that the Coxsackie viruses may be disseminated in the laboratory, thus accounting for some of the isolations. © Project SOUND Virus and Rickettsia Section and Laboratory Services, Montgomery, Ala., U. S. Public Health Service, Atlanta, Ga.
  46. 46. In her early 60’s (the early 1950’s), Howitt gave up her life in virology and moved back to California © Project SOUND in-building-3 She devoted the rest of her life to California natural history, conservation and the flora of Monterey County
  47. 47. Why such a radical change? We won’t ever really know for sure  Perhaps she missed her longtime home  Perhaps she was tired of the fast pace of biomedical research  Perhaps she was fed up with the politics  Perhaps she needed to rest and heal after a lifetime of stress  Or perhaps she still had some items on her bucket list © Project SOUND
  48. 48. Del Monte Park  Unincorporated until 1972; annexed by Pacific Grove.  Eclectic mix: old cabins on large lots to newer homes from 1950’s & 60’s.  Close to ocean and the natural areas of the Monterey Peninsula © Project SOUND dmp-hillside-terrace_10914.jpg Monte-Beach/
  49. 49. Monterey County  First explored 1602 (Vizcaino)  Located on the Central Coast, ~ 45 miles from San Jose and 106 miles from San Francisco.  The Salinas Valley extends through the heart of the County, making Monterey the third largest agricultural county in CA.  3,280.6 square miles; 132.7 people per square mile © Project SOUND,_California Monterey.d6327606.Vacation-Attraction
  50. 50. Geographically diverse County © Project SOUND  Elevations: sea level to 5,865 ft. (1,788 m)  13% of County is water; 87% land  Relatively long coastline; plant communities influenced by ocean  Much of area included in the Santa Lucia and Gabilan mountain ranges  Large amount of biodiversity
  51. 51.  Marsh/wetlands  Coastal strand  N. coastal scrub  Coastal chaparral  Gowan cypress woodland  Coast liveoak woodland  Riparian woodland  Monterey pine forest  Grassland  Redwood forest  Monterey cypress forest © Project SOUND Plant communities: Monterey Co.
  52. 52. Lots and lots of green space  8 State Parks & Reserves •Elkhorn Slough National Estuarine Research Reserve •Fremont Peak State Park •Garrapata State Park •Julia Pfeiffer Burns State Park •Monterey State Historic Park •Moss Landing State Wildlife Area •Pfeiffer Big Sur State Park •Point Lobos State Natural Reserve  5 National Parks, Forests & Sanctuaries •Fort Ord National Monument •Los Padres National Forest (part) •Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary •Pinnacles National Park (part) •Salinas River National Wildlife Refuge © Project SOUND Land-use-plan-designations-re-fl-ect-public  8 County parks  Hastings Reservation (U.C.)
  53. 53. Hastings Reservation: a special sort of green space  Located in the Santa Lucia mountain range, Monterey County  A representative ecosystem of about 2,500 acres, established in 1937 to be managed with minimal disturbance for research and education.  Encourages a community of researchers to live lightly in the ecosystem they study.  Over 3,000 specimens of plants in the Hastings herbarium © Project SOUND
  54. 54. The Hastings Reserve is unique  Located in the Sierra de Salinas, on the most northerly end of the Santa Lucia Range that makes up the Big Sur wilderness.  Includes the confluence of three seasonal creeks that feed into Finch Creek, and then the Carmel River.  Immediately adjacent are a complex of vernal pools and springs  Most of Hastings has not been grazed for 70 years; the reserve is home to several rare, unplowed native perennial grasslands. All this lends high conservation interest and value to the reserve.  Within driving distance are redwood forests, coastal terrace grasslands, central valley foothills, stands of endemic pine and cypress, and diverse, endemic shrub communities. © Project SOUND sheet/hastings_natural_history_reservation.html
  55. 55. Hastings Natural History Reservation  After moving to Monterey Co., Miss Howitt obtained a part- time job at Hastings Natural History Reservation.  Spent six years at Hastings  It turns out that Miss Howitt’s timing and skill set was just right: love of place, passion for plants, good observation skills, immense patience © Project SOUND The Hastings Reserve was a great place to begin work on her next big project – a flora of Monterey County
  56. 56. Among the natives Miss Howitt loved were the geophytes (bulbs & corms) © Project SOUND
  57. 57. There are 19 Brodiaeas native to CA © Project SOUND Many have limited ranges, and some are very rare Brodiaea jolonensis
  58. 58. © Project SOUND *Golden brodiaea (Prettyface) – Triteleia ixioides Beatrice F. Howitt © California Academy of Sciences
  59. 59.  Southern Oregon south to c. California  Mountain ranges and foothills: Sierras Nevada, Klamath, N. Coast and Tehachapi Ranges, from 2000-9000 ft. elevation.  Dry conditions in various plant communities (forest margins to scrub) in gravely or sandy soils  . © Project SOUND *Golden brodiaea (Prettyface) – Triteleia ixioides Gladys Lucille Smith © California Academy of Sciences a_id=1&taxon_id=242102031 whites/pretty-face-triteleia-ixioides-4/
  60. 60. © Project SOUND Golden brodiaea – a simple perennial  Size:  1-2 ft tall  to 1 ft wide  Growth form:  Herbaceous perennial from a corm  Foliage usually dies back before flowering  Foliage:  Leaves (one or two) very slender, grass-like  Corms: are edible; use like a potato (starchy – taste like potato) Gerald and Buff Corsi © California Academy of Sciences
  61. 61. © Project SOUND Pretty face, indeed!  Blooms: in spring – Mar-June in wilds; more often Mar-Apr in western Los Angeles Co.  Flowers:  Lovely, golden yellow with rust accents  Flowers in loose bunches – like a bouquet  6 tepals (sepals & petals look the same)  Flowers up to 1 inch long  Attract insect pollinators, hummingbirds  Seeds: hard, dark seeds; easy to grow from seed ©2009 Thomas Stoughton
  62. 62. Easy to grow from corms  Be sure to order corms early (summer) as they sell out quickly  Corms will be send by grower in the fall (they harvest, then send them)  Plant at ~ 3 times their height deep (e.g. 4-5 inches) as soon as soil is soft enough to dig  Supplement fall/winter rains as needed © Project SOUND ©2009 by Ken Gilliland Corms grown from seed take 3-4 years to reach a size where plants will flower
  63. 63. © Project SOUND Plant Needs  Soils:  Texture: well-drained soils (sandy or rocky) best, but any will do  pH: any local  Light:  Part-shade best in most gardens (dappled sun or afternoon shade); full sun right at coast  Water:  Winter: moist soils; supplement as needed  Summer: none after leaves die back  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils; single dose ½ strength for container grown plants  Other: organic mulch OK Gerald and Buff Corsi © California Academy of Sciences
  64. 64. © Project SOUND Pretty in Garden  In shady beds, under trees; OK with occasional summer water  In mixed plantings with annual wildflowers and grasses  On summer-dry slopes  As an attractive pot plant
  65. 65. Triteleia ixioides ‘Starlight’ © Project SOUND ©2009 by Ken Gilliland Agave parryi, Triteleia ixioides 'Starlight', Eriogonum umbellatum, and Allium schubertii in May  Paler yellow flowers  Garden-tested; planted a lot -widely available  Takes occasional summer water and heavy soils nce/ko/Triteleia.xhtml?oid=91278
  66. 66. Triteleia ixioides ‘Tiger’  Bred from High Sierra ssp. (scabra)  Sometimes known as Triteleia unifolia  Pale yellow flowers; slightly broader tepals  Earlier blooming; produces lots of long-lasting flowers © Project SOUND bsFour
  67. 67. Planting native bulbs helps preserve our special California natural heritage © Project SOUND
  68. 68. Mariposas are some of our prettiest natives © Project SOUND
  69. 69. A number of Calachortus do well in mild, summer-dry climates like ours  Calochortus albus  C. catalinae  C. flexuosus  C. dunnii  C. splendens  C. venustus  C. concolor  C. kennedyi  C. clavatus  C. ambiguous  C. plummerae  And others © Project SOUND Calochortus catalinae
  70. 70. © Project SOUND Splendid mariposa lily – Calochortus splendens Beatrice F. Howitt © California Academy of Sciences
  71. 71.  Catalina Isl., Santa Monica Mountains, Puente Hills, San Gabriel Foothills  First collected in L.A. Co. 1895 (A. Davidson)  Collected by Leroy Abrams, Katherine Brandegee, Beatrice Howitt (1955; Hastings Reservoir, Monterey Co.)  Calochortus davidsonianus Abrams © Project SOUND Splendid mariposa lily – Calochortus splendens ©2006 Steven Thorsted ©2008 Gary A. Monroe
  72. 72. Was Leroy Abrams correct? Jury’s still out © Project SOUND Calachortus davidsonii Calochortus splendens
  73. 73. © Project SOUND Splendid mariposa: typical of dryland species  Size:  1-2 ft tall  To 1 ft wide  Growth form:  Herbaceous perennial from a bulb  Plant dies back to the bulb after flowering  Foliage:  Sparse foliage  Narrow leaves often wither before flowering ©2006 Steven Thorsted
  74. 74. Calochortus are true bulbs  Turban-shaped with many layers (like an onion); new layer added each year  Bulbs often small  C. splendens has a membranous coat  Plants (when available) most often sold as bulbs; seed- grown plants take 3-5 years to flower.  In wilds, plants only flower (and grow much) in favorable years © Project SOUND Calochortus bulbs are edible
  75. 75. © Project SOUND Lovely flowers  Blooms: mid- to late spring; April to June depending on weather, soil moisture.  Flowers:  Lovely shade of pink (pale to magenta) with accents of paler and darker pink  Flowers begin with petals tightly rolled; unroll over time  Flowers on slender stalks – wave in breeze  Many insect pollinators  Seeds: pale, flat seeds (can grow plants from seed) ©2006 Steven Thorsted
  76. 76. © Project SOUND Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: well-drained soils best  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun to light shade; usually out in the open in nature.  Water:  Winter: supplement in dry winters  Summer: withhold once leaves start to wither. Needs to be summer-dry  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: light leaf litter is best mulch ©2006 Steven Thorsted
  77. 77. © Project SOUND Use in dry places  Great for rock gardens or along pathways – or on dry slopes  Combines with other native bulbs and wildflowers  As an accent in summer-dry containers wildflower-guide-blue-purple
  78. 78. Native bulbs give us a sense of place & something to look forward to, year after year © Project SOUND Brodiaea elegans
  79. 79. Gardens that sooth – Gardens that heal 1. Include something that you can anticipate, year after year Watching seasonal perennials return every spring gives us a sense of wonder. It also roots us to the earth and to the seasons. Bulbs/corms provide some of the best – and easiest - seasonal ‘treats’. They give us hope for the future. © Project SOUND Lessons & guides
  80. 80. Founder, Monterey Bay Chapter, CNPS © Project SOUND CNPS asked Miss Howitt to form the chapter
  81. 81. Pacific Grove Museum of Natural History  Est. 1883  Long-established native plant garden; mostly refurbished and enhanced in 2000  Large collections for such a small community  Focus on local area:  Flora & fauna  Geology  Marine biology  Anthropology  History © Project SOUND
  82. 82. The museum and Monterey Bay Chapter, CNPS host an Annual Wildflower Show  The largest wildflower show in the Northern and Western Hemispheres. Immerse yourself in a sea of more than 600 species and varieties of Central Coast wildflowers and learn about the diverse native plant habitats of Monterey County during this long weekend of botanical fun. © Project SOUND
  83. 83. Miss Howitt started the Annual Wildflower Show  Vern Yadon recounted that first spring in 1961 when he worked with Beatrice Howitt, founder of the Monterey Bay Chapter CNPS, to gather specimens for the show. "She went out in one direction, I went out in another. We worked all day naming things we'd collected, putting the show together until midnight. We had 256 different plant species." © Project SOUND The show was so well- received that they decided to make it an annual event. april12-2017-program
  84. 84. What makes California wildflowers so alluring?  They are seasonal; coincide with spring  They are ephemeral  They may have unusual characteristics  They are sometimes rare  They come in the most fantastic colors! © Project SOUND What’s not to like?
  85. 85. Wildflowers of the Monterey Area California  Author: Beatrice F. Howitt  Published: 1965, Wheelwright Press  spiral-bound © Project SOUND
  86. 86. The genus Layia provides spring yellows throughout California  14 species in CA  All are annual wildflowers in Sunflower family  Most are from N. Coast or the Sierras; some are rare, local endemics  Many gardeners, throughout the world, use Tidytips to brighten their spring gardens © Project SOUND Layia platyglossa
  87. 87. © Project SOUND White tidytips – Layia glandulosa Beatrice F. Howitt © California Academy of Sciences
  88. 88.  Deserts, coasts and foothills of western N. America, from the Pacific coast in central and S. CA. to B.C. to s.w. ID, s. to NM, AZ & Baja  Locally: San Gabriels, Tehachapis  Collected by everyone: Leroy Abrams, the Brandegees, Alice Eastwood, Roxana Ferris, E.L. Greene, John Thomas Howell, Beatrice Howitt, W.L. Jepson, P.A. Munz, the Parishes, © Project SOUND White tidytips – Layia glandulosa
  89. 89. © Project SOUND White tidytips is similar to regular tidytips  Size:  1-2 ft tall  1 ft wide  Growth form:  Herbaceous annual wildflower  Dies after setting seeds  Foliage:  More sparse then regular Tidytips and mostly basal  Leaves oval to linear, hairy and sticky-glandular.  May be scented ©1988 Gary A. Monroe
  90. 90. © Project SOUND White flowers: nice  Blooms: in spring (Mar-May in wilds; often Mar-Apr in local gardens)  Flowers:  Several to 10+ per plant  In heads typical of Sunflowers  Ray flowers usually completely white (sometimes pale yellow)  Disk flowers golden yellow  Very pretty – and attract lots of bee pollinators  Seeds:  Typical small sunflower type with bristles Charles Webber © California Academy of Sciences ©2006 Chris Wagner, SBNF
  91. 91. © Project SOUND Easy to please  Soils:  Texture: any local  pH: any local  Light: full sun  Water:  Winter: needs good rains or irrigation from Dec. on.  Summer: withhold after flowering to insure good seed production  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: no mulch or gravel or thin leaf litter – no heavy mulch (seeds need light to germinate). ©2013 Jean Pawek
  92. 92. © Project SOUND White’s so useful  Include in a prairie planting with other wildflowers & grasses  Mass for a brilliant accent; use with brightly colored spring wildflowers  As an attractive pot plant; use with colorful contrasting color ©2003 Charles E. Jones ©2013 Jean Pawek
  93. 93. Annual wildflowers are good for the soul © Project SOUND
  94. 94. Gardens that sooth – Gardens that heal 2. Use annual wildflowers to provide the colors you love in spring and summer Color has profound effects on all of us (more on that in the future). Use spots of color to brighten your days, provide food for birds, pollinators (even your family) and teach others about our natural heritage. © Project SOUND Lessons & guides
  95. 95. The Gilias provide some of our best blues © Project SOUND Gilia capitata
  96. 96. © Project SOUND California (Showy) gilia – Gilia achilleifolia ©2016 Steven Thorsted
  97. 97. © Project SOUND California (Showy) gilia – Gilia achilleifolia  Coast Ranges from San Diego Co. to Marin & Contra Costa Cos.  El Segundo dunes, San Gabriel foothills  First collected by David Douglas - 1833  Collected by Leroy Abrams, the Brandegees, Alice Eastwood, Roxana Ferris, Beatrice F. Howitt (Monterey Co,)
  98. 98. © Project SOUND Foliage similar to Globe gilia, but more open  Size:  1-2 ft tall  1-2 ft wide  Growth form:  Annual wildflower  Slender, erect habit  Plant dies after producing seeds  Foliage:  Leaves highly dissected, giving a lacy appearance  A bit more open than Globe gilia, but otherwise similar
  99. 99. © Project SOUND Old-fashioned Flowers  Blooms: later spring, usually May or June in our area, may be earlier  Flowers:  Color: blue-violet to lilac  Small, funnel-shaped flowers with 5 petals  Blue pollen  Attracts butterflies and other pollinators  Showy plant – used throughout U.S.  Seeds:  Small, pale  Loved by birds; save some ©2017 John Doyen
  100. 100. © Project SOUND Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: most local soils  pH: any local  Light: full sun to some shade; OK in light shade under trees.  Water:  Winter: supplement if needed in a dry year. Don’t let small plants dry out.  Summer: taper off when begins to flower  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils; ½ strength dose for pot-grown.  Other: no or inorganic mulch best; light leaf mulch OK ©2016 Steven Thorsted
  101. 101. © Project SOUND Touch of blue/violet  Pretty along pathways or mid-bed.  Contrast with yellow or white flowers; mass for drama  Pollinator garden standby  As an attractive pot plant
  102. 102. Massing contrasting flower colors creates a show worth waiting for © Project SOUND
  103. 103. The Vascular Plants of Monterey County, California © Project SOUND  Vascular Plants of Monterey County California with Supplement Paperback – 1964  Paperback: 184 pages  Publisher: University of San Francisco (1964)  Supplement  Authors, Beatrice F. Howitt, John Thomas Howell.  Publisher, Pacific Grove Museum of Natural History Association, 1973.  Length, 60 pages.
  104. 104. © Project SOUND Douglas’ spineflower – Chorizanthe douglasii Beatrice F. Howitt © California Academy of Sciences
  105. 105. © Project SOUND Douglas’ spineflower – Chorizanthe douglasii ©2014 Jean Pawek ©2004 Brent Miller  Endemic to the Santa Lucia Mountains and to the San Gabilan and La Panza ranges of west-central California. Infrequent, but can be locally common.  A single collection made in the Santa Cruz Mountains (Rowntree s.n., 16 Jun 1929, CAS) may have been made in Santa Cruz County  Chorizanthe nortonii Greene
  106. 106. Does planting ‘out of range’ annuals hurt biodiversity?  Do you live near natural preserves? May want to include only those annual native to area (from local- source seeds)  Do you want to plant a species that hybridizes with local species? May not want to plant it © Project SOUND That all depends
  107. 107. © Project SOUND Turkish rugging – Chorizanthe stacticoides ©2009 Thomas Stoughton
  108. 108.  Foothills/mountains of the Coast Ranges from Monterey County southward into San Bernardino, Riverside, and Orange counties.  Another series of populations on Santa Catalina Island and along the coast (L.A. Co.) and immediately adjacent foothills in Orange and San Diego counties  In LA. County: Catalina Isl.; Malibu Lake; ‘Inglewood Hills’; Santa Monica, San Gabriel, Santa Susanna & Verdugo Mtns  Highly variable © Project SOUND Turkish rugging – Chorizanthe stacticoides Sandy to gravelly or rocky places, coastal scrub, mixed grassland, chaparral, pine-oak woodlands, 1000-4000 ft elevation
  109. 109. © Project SOUND Douglas’ spineflower: little annual buckwheat  Size:  12-15 in. tall  < 12 in. wide  Growth form:  Herbaceous annual wildflower  Dies after seed set  Erect; sparsely branched  Foliage:  Relatively few leaves, mostly basal and simple  Whorl of leaves mid-stem  Leaves often shrivel before flowering ©2011 Chris Winchell
  110. 110. © Project SOUND Flowers: like Red buckwheat  Blooms: in warmer months – April to July; usually April-May in our area.  Flowers:  Color: medium to very bright pink  Small, buckwheat type flowers in a spiny, ball-like cluster  Very showy – and attracts loads of pollinators  Seeds: loved by birds: collect some to insure continuance in garden. Gladys Lucille Smith © California Academy of Sciences ©2004 Brent Miller
  111. 111. © Project SOUND Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: well-drained, sandy soils best, but pretty tolerant of clays  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun to light shade  Water:  Winter: don’t let young plants dry out; supplement as needed  Summer: no water after flowering begins  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: no mulch or inorganic ©2014 Jean Pawek
  112. 112. © Project SOUND Spineflower pink  As a filler around summer-dry shrubs or native grasses  In bird and pollinator gardens  As an attractive pot plant; pink like buckwheat in springBeatrice F. Howitt © California Academy of Sciences
  113. 113. Garden seeds and birds: present a challenge  Many seed-eaters are winter migrants to our area  They come in flocks – and they are hungry  With decreasing natural food sources, they naturally come to our gardens  And they love many annual wildflower seeds © Project SOUND eucophrys.php  Partial solutions:  Conceal the seeds (gravel or sand mulch; thin leaf litter mulch)  Collect and store seeds; plant only during rainy periods (and as early as possible)  Start plants in containers, then transplant
  114. 114. © Project SOUND Variable linanthus – Leptosiphon parviflorus ©2009 Keir Morse
  115. 115. © Project SOUND * Large-flower Linanthus – Leptosiphon (Linanthus) grandiflorus bin/ grandiflorus Seeds are more readily available
  116. 116.  CA Floristic Province,  Locally: Santa Monica Mtns., Catalina, San Gabriel foothills  Collected by Beatrice Howitt (1955) in Santa Lucia Mtns, Monterey Co. © Project SOUND Variable linanthus – Leptosiphon parviflorus Charles Webber © California Academy of Sciences
  117. 117. © Project SOUND Variable linanthus is - variable  Size:  2-12 in. tall (higher elevations tend to be shorter)  < 12 in. wide  Growth form:  Erect, herbaceous annual  Slender and delicate; hairy  Foliage:  Leaves palmately dissected; in whorls  Leaves may disappear before flowering  Roots: taproot Gerald and Buff Corsi © California Academy of Sciences
  118. 118. © Project SOUND Delicate flowers  Blooms: mid-March-June; dependent on weather conditions  Flowers:  Small flowers in clusters  Flowers close at night  Color white, pink, yellow  5 petals; spiky bracts  Flowers have a long, narrow corolla tube with nectar at base; a bee fly, having a long, extremely slender proboscis, may pollinate the flower;  Seeds: many; tan-colored ©2014 Neal Kramer
  119. 119. Collecting and saving wildflower seeds  Taper off water when flowering begins  Let seeds mature & dry on the plant, if possible  Collect dry seeds by hand – or cut off dead plants and place upside-down in paper bag  Store seeds (in paper bag/envelope of glass jar) in cool, dry place (cool room is good) until ready to plant © Project SOUND
  120. 120. Why the color variability?  Stanford scientists are trying to answer that question  Color genetics may be related to adaptations to serpentine soils © Project SOUND White-flowered Leptosiphon parviflorus growing on sandstone soil, pink-flowered on serpentine. Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve
  121. 121. © Project SOUND Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: likes well-drained, but fine in any  pH: any local  Light: part-shade best in most local gardens; fine in high or dappled shade under trees.  Water:  Winter: supplement as needed; don’t let you plant dry out  Summer: taper off when starts to flowers  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: no, inorganic or very light organic mulch Margaret Williams, hosted by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  122. 122. © Project SOUND Showcase in garden  Possibly best used in containers, where small flowers can be admired.  In rain gardens (edges)  Along shady pathways  Massed with other annuals, grasses – even around sub-shrubs ©2010 Steven Thorsted =Leptosiphon%20parviflorus&searchAll=1&Itemid=135#!Leptosiphon_longitubus_IMG_0998c2
  123. 123. © Project SOUND * Lindley’s Blazingstar – Mentzelia lindleyi Beatrice F. Howitt © California Academy of Sciences Malpaso Canyon (Monterey County, California, US)
  124. 124. © Project SOUND * Lindley’s Blazingstar – Mentzelia lindleyi,4994,5008 Pleasing to the eye and easy to grow – a favorite in European gardens for years!  Alameda and Santa Clara counties and western Stanislaus and Fresno counties (CA endemic)  Rocky, open slopes, coastal-sage scrub, oak/pine woodland below 2500 ft.
  125. 125. © Project SOUND Lindley’s Blazingstar is a star annual wildflower!  Size:  1-2 ft tall  2-3 ft wide  Growth form:  Annual wildflower, altho’ form more reminiscent of a perennial  Upright or mounded & sprawly; much-branched  Foliage:  Medium green  Somewhat dandelion-like  Fuzzy/hairy © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's College
  126. 126. © Project SOUND Flowers are magical!  Blooms:  Mid- to late-spring - usually April to June, but varies with rain, temperature  Can extend bloom period somewhat with judicious water  Flowers:  Large – to 3” across  Brilliant, iridescent yellow – extremely showy & unusual  Open in late afternoon with lovely, sweet fragrance – oh so Victorian!  Seeds: many small seeds in dry capsule – plant in fall/winter as the rains begin Beatrice F. Howitt © California Academy of Sciences
  127. 127. © Project SOUND Growth Requirements  Soils:  Texture: any well-drained  pH: any local except very alkali  Light:  Full sun best – like most wildflowers  Water:  Winter/spring: needs good rainfall – supplement as needed  Summer: taper off to Zone 1 as blooming ceases; don’t over-water in clay soils  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils – but wildflowers often OK with some fertilizer Charles Webber © California Academy of Sciences
  128. 128. © Project SOUND Colorful choice for the late spring garden  As an attractive container plant – large pots and urns  In a mixed bed with perennials and other native annuals – particularly nice with blue-flowered plants  Most showy when planted in masses  Good choice for slopes OFHNUIw/P6090083.JPG odid=676
  129. 129. Growing Annuals in Containers  Choose the right container: at least 10-12” wide and deep  Choose a lean medium (cheap potting soil) and amend if needed to increase drainage  Label the pot  Plant seeds in late fall/early winter  Barely cover with potting soil – or lightly rake in  Keep seedlings watered  Take photos – get to know the seedlings  Enjoy the show  Collect seeds © Project SOUND
  130. 130. Be sure to include some summer color © Project SOUND © 2007 Steve Matson
  131. 131. © Project SOUND * Common Madia – Madia elegans © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's College
  132. 132. © Project SOUND * Common Madia – Madia elegans  West Coast species – WA to Baja; B. Howitt knew it well  Locally in Santa Monica & San Gabriel Mtns.  Dry, open, usually grassy places, in shrublands, woodlands, forests often along roadsides  Either coarse or clay soils – gardeners note! ssp. elegans ssp. densifolia ssp. vernalis ssp. wheeleri
  133. 133. © Project SOUND Common Madia is a typical annual sunflower  Size:  1-3 ft tall  1-2 ft wide  Growth form:  Herbaceous annual  Erect  Foliage:  Leaves mostly below the flowers, linear  Hairy to bristly  Aromatic – unusual – like tropical fruits © 2009 Aaron Schusteff
  134. 134. © Project SOUND One of our showiest sunflowers  Blooms: in summer usually Jul-Sept.  Flowers:  Typical sunflower heads; about an inch in diameter  Ray flowers often clefted – sometimes markedly so  Ray flowers often blotched with maroon – super showy  Flowers close at mid-day  Make nice cut flowers  Seeds:  Small, tufted sunflower seeds  Aromatic seeds were parched and ground for pinole, flavoring  Many birds also like these seeds © 2009 Barry Breckling
  135. 135. © Project SOUND Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: any well-drained  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun to light shade  Water:  Winter: moist soils during growth period  Summer: taper off water at end of flowering  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils – but can’t hurt them  Other: save some seeds for next year – or birds may eat them all!
  136. 136. © Project SOUND Madias provide nice summer color, fragrance  As a showy, larger addition to the summer flower garden  As a food plant – for yourself or birds  In the fragrance garden – be sure to plant where you’ll enjoy it © 2004 George W. Hartwell
  137. 137. © Project SOUND Don’t just limit sunflowers to the flower garden….
  138. 138. Forest heritage : a natural history of the Del Monte Forest  Editor: Beatrice F. Howitt  Paperback, 56p.  Published 1972, CA Native Plant Society/Del Monte Forest Society  Contributors include G. Ledyard Stebbins, James Griffin, Beatrice F. Howitt, Isabella A. Abbott, Alan Baldridge and others.  Topics range from floral areas and marine algae to intertidal invertebrate animals and mammals. © Project SOUND forest/
  139. 139. Publication record  Howitt, Beatrice F. – over 40 bacteriology/virology publications from 1912-1950.  Howitt, Beatrice F and Howell, John Thomas. 1964. The Vascular Plants of Monterey County, California. Wasman Journal of Biology 22:1-184.  Howitt, Beatrice F. 1965 Wildflowers of the Monterey area, California. Wheelwright Press, UT  Howitt, Beatrice F. 1972 [1980] Forest heritage : a natural history of the Del Monte Forest. Del Monte Forest Foundation [1980]  Howitt, Beatrice F and Howell, John Thomas. 1973. Supplement to the vascular plants of Monterey County, California. Pacific Grove Museum of Natural History Association © Project SOUND
  140. 140. 696 photos in Cal Photos are still used extensively © Project SOUND
  141. 141. Beatrice Howitt was also a conservationist in Monterey County, 1950’s – 1970’s © Project SOUND
  142. 142. Point Lobos State Nature Reserve  Est. as state reserve, 1933  In the 1970’s, Beatrice Howitt was responsible for updating and replacing an herbarium at Point Lobos Reserve © Project SOUND Beatrice F. Howitt © California Academy of Sciences View of China Beach at Point Lobos
  143. 143. Jack’s Peak Regional Park  As secretary of the Nature Conservancy, Miss Howitt was a principal figure in the effort to establish Jacks Peak Park. © Project SOUND
  144. 144. UC Santa Cruz Fort Ord Natural Reserve  600 acres  Miss Howitt was involved in establishing a rare plant reserve at Fort Ord, for which the military installation received a national award  Incorporated into the UC Natural Reserve system in June 1996 © Project SOUND
  145. 145. Miss Howitt was right: California wildflowers root us to place © Project SOUND
  146. 146. Gardens that sooth – Gardens that heal 1. Include something that you can anticipate, year after year 2. Use annual wildflowers to provide the colors you love in spring and summer © Project SOUND Lessons & guides
  147. 147. What can we learn from Beatrice Howitt’s life? Many lessons  Hard work pays off  Don’t be afraid to follow your dreams  Be strong when the going gets tough  Don ‘t be afraid to change course in mid-life  Share your passions: writings, teaching, clubs, actions, photographs - even your own front yard  Record your memories © Project SOUND
  148. 148. Get out and plant some wildflowers… © Project SOUND … and come back next month to learn about some interesting plants from the Sonoran Desert