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Real Time Web with Node

Tim Caswell
Tim Caswell
Tim CaswellSoftware Developer at Creationix Innovations

Real Time Web with Node

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REAL TIME WEB
                          WITH NODE
                           By Tim Caswell




Saturday, June 5, 2010
Live Interaction
            The web is about doing things, not just tourism anymore.

Saturday, June 5, 2010
Uses of Live Interaction
                         Chat Widget
                         Twitter Feed
                         Stock Ticker
                         Real-Time Game
                         Collaborative
                         Documents
                         TXJS Demos


Saturday, June 5, 2010
Why we need non-blocking
                  Polling is too slow and inefficient.
                  Live interaction requires the server to push data.
                  In order to push data, the connections need to be
                  persistent.
                  The server needs to handle thousands of persistent
                  connections
                  Threads aren’t going to scale.


Saturday, June 5, 2010
This is your server.
                         (with blocking I/O)
Saturday, June 5, 2010
This is your server
                  with low concurrency.




Saturday, June 5, 2010
Ad

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Real Time Web with Node

  • 1. REAL TIME WEB WITH NODE By Tim Caswell Saturday, June 5, 2010
  • 2. Live Interaction The web is about doing things, not just tourism anymore. Saturday, June 5, 2010
  • 3. Uses of Live Interaction Chat Widget Twitter Feed Stock Ticker Real-Time Game Collaborative Documents TXJS Demos Saturday, June 5, 2010
  • 4. Why we need non-blocking Polling is too slow and inefficient. Live interaction requires the server to push data. In order to push data, the connections need to be persistent. The server needs to handle thousands of persistent connections Threads aren’t going to scale. Saturday, June 5, 2010
  • 5. This is your server. (with blocking I/O) Saturday, June 5, 2010
  • 6. This is your server with low concurrency. Saturday, June 5, 2010
  • 7. This is your server with high concurrency. Saturday, June 5, 2010
  • 8. Connect We’ll use a new node framework that “connects” the web users to each other. Saturday, June 5, 2010
  • 9. It’s like Japanese Legos Saturday, June 5, 2010
  • 10. Pre-Built Blocks Connect.createServer([ {filter: "log"}, {filter: "body-decoder", route: "/stream"}, {provider: "pubsub", route: "/stream"}, {filter: "conditional-get"}, {filter: "cache"}, {filter: "gzip"}, {provider: "cache-manifest", root: root}, {provider: "static", root: root} ]); Saturday, June 5, 2010
  • 11. And easy too! Saturday, June 5, 2010
  • 12. method-override.js var key; // Initialize any state (on server startup) exports.setup = function (env) { key = this.key || "_method"; }; // Modify the request stream (on request) exports.handle = function(err, req, res, next){ if (key in req.body) { req.method = req.body[key].toUpperCase(); } next(); }; Saturday, June 5, 2010
  • 13. response-time.js exports.handle = function(err, req, res, next){ var start = new Date, writeHead = res.writeHead; res.writeHead = function(code, headers){ res.writeHead = writeHead; headers['X-Response-Time'] = (new Date - start) + "ms"; res.writeHead(code, headers); }; next(); }; Saturday, June 5, 2010
  • 14. Well, actually, it’s not always easy. Saturday, June 5, 2010
  • 16. static.js var fs = require('fs'), Url = require('url'), Path = require('path'); var lifetime = 1000 * 60 * 60; // 1 hour browser cache lifetime var DEFAULT_MIME = 'application/octet-stream'; module.exports = { setup: function (env) { this.root = this.root || process.cwd(); }, handle: function (err, req, res, next) { // Skip on error if (err) { next(); return; } var url = Url.parse(req.url); var pathname = url.pathname.replace(/..+/g, '.'), filename = Path.join(this.root, pathname); if (filename[filename.length - 1] === "/") { filename += "index.html"; } Saturday, June 5, 2010
  • 17. static.js // Buffer any events that fire while waiting on the stat. var fs = require('fs'), var events = []; Url = require('url'), function onData() { Path = require('path'); events.push(["data"].concat(Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments))); } var lifetime = 1000 * 60 * 60; // 1 hourfunction onEnd() { browser cache lifetime events.push(["end"].concat(Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments))); } var DEFAULT_MIME = 'application/octet-stream'; req.addListener("data", onData); module.exports = { req.addListener("end", onEnd); setup: function (env) { fs.stat(filename, function (err, stat) { this.root = this.root || process.cwd(); }, // Stop buffering events req.removeListener("data", onData); handle: function (err, req, res, next) {req.removeListener("end", onEnd); // Skip on error if (err) { // Fall through for missing files, thow error for other problems next(); if (err) { return; if (err.errno === process.ENOENT) { } next(); var url = Url.parse(req.url); // Refire the buffered events events.forEach(function (args) { req.emit.apply(req, args); var pathname = url.pathname.replace(/..+/g, '.'), }); filename = Path.join(this.root, pathname); return; if (filename[filename.length - 1] === "/") { filename += "index.html"; } Saturday, June 5, 2010
  • 18. static.js // Buffer any events that fire while waiting on the stat. var fs = require('fs'), var events = []; Url = require('url'), function onData() { Path = require('path'); events.push(["data"].concat(Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments))); } var lifetime = 1000 * 60 * 60; // 1 hourfunction onEnd() { browser cache lifetime events.push(["end"].concat(Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments))); } var DEFAULT_MIME = 'application/octet-stream'; req.addListener("data", onData); module.exports = { req.addListener("end", onEnd); (err); setup: function (env) { fs.stat(filename, function (err, stat) { rn; this.root = this.root || process.cwd(); }, // Stop buffering events req.removeListener("data", onData); req.removeListener("end", onEnd); the file directly using (err, req, res, next) { handle: function buffers ile(filename, function error data) { // Skip on (err, if (err) { // Fall through for missing files, thow error for other problems err) { next(); if (err) { next(err); return; if (err.errno === process.ENOENT) { return; } next(); var url = Url.parse(req.url); // Refire the buffered events writeHead(200, { events.forEach(function (args) { ontent-Type": Mime.type(filename), req.emit.apply(req, args); ontent-Length": pathname = url.pathname.replace(/..+/g, '.'), var data.length, }); filename = Path.join(this.root, pathname); ast-Modified": stat.mtime.toUTCString(), return; / Cache in browser for 1 year ache-Control": (filename[filename.length - 1] === "/") { if "public max-age=" + 31536000 filename += "index.html"; end(data); } Saturday, June 5, 2010
  • 19. static.js // Buffer any events that fire while waiting on the stat. var fs = require('fs'), var events = []; Url = require('url'), function onData() { Path = require('path'); events.push(["data"].concat(Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments))); } var lifetime = 1000 * 60 * 60; // 1 hourfunction onEnd() { browser cache lifetime }; events.push(["end"].concat(Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments))); } var DEFAULT_MIME = 'application/octet-stream'; // Mini mime module for static file serving req.addListener("data", onData); module.exports = { var req.addListener("end", onEnd); Mime = { (err); type: function getMime(path) (err, stat) { setup: function (env) { fs.stat(filename, function { rn; var index = path.lastIndexOf("."); this.root = this.root || process.cwd(); }, if (index < buffering events // Stop 0) { return DEFAULT_MIME; req.removeListener("data", onData); } req.removeListener("end", onEnd); the file directly using (err, req, res, next) { type = Mime.TYPES[path.substring(index).toLowerCase()] || DEFAULT_MIME; handle: function buffers var ile(filename, // function error data) { Skip on (err, if (err) { return Fall through for missing files, thow error "; charset=utf-8" : type; // (/(text|javascript)/).test(type) ? type + for other problems err) { }, next(); if (err) { next(err); return; if (err.errno === process.ENOENT) { return; TYPES : { ".3gp" } next(); "video/3gpp", : var url = Url.parse(req.url); ".a" Refire the buffered events // : "application/octet-stream", writeHead(200, { ".ai" : "application/postscript", events.forEach(function (args) { ontent-Type": Mime.type(filename), ".aif" req.emit.apply(req, args); : "audio/x-aiff", ontent-Length": pathname = url.pathname.replace(/..+/g, '.'), "audio/x-aiff", var data.length, ".aiff" : }); filename = Path.join(this.root, pathname); ast-Modified": stat.mtime.toUTCString(), ".asc" return; "application/pgp-signature", : / Cache in browser for 1 year ".asf" : "video/x-ms-asf", ache-Control": (filename[filename.length - 1] === "/") { if "public max-age=" + 31536000 ".asm" : "text/x-asm", filename += "index.html"; ".asx" : "video/x-ms-asf", end(data); } ".atom" : "application/atom+xml", ".au" : "audio/basic", Saturday, June 5, 2010 ".avi" : "video/x-msvideo",
  • 20. static.js // Buffer any events that fire while waiting on the stat. var fs = require('fs'), : "video/x-flv",var events = []; ".flv" ".for" : function onData() { Url = require('url'), "text/x-fortran", Path = require('path'); ".gem" events.push(["data"].concat(Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments))); : "application/octet-stream", } ".gemspec" : "text/x-script.ruby", var lifetime = ".gif" 60: *"image/gif", function onEnd() { 1000 * 60; // 1 hour browser cache lifetime }; events.push(["end"].concat(Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments))); ".gz" : "application/x-gzip", ".h" : "text/x-c", } var DEFAULT_MIME = 'application/octet-stream'; // Mini mime module for static file serving req.addListener("data", onData); ".hh" : "text/x-c", module.exports ".htm" = { var Mime = { : "text/html", req.addListener("end", onEnd); (err); ".html" : "text/html", rn; setup: function (env) "image/vnd.microsoft.icon", getMime(path) (err, stat) { ".ico" : { type: function fs.stat(filename, function { var index = path.lastIndexOf("."); this.root = this.root || process.cwd(); ".ics" : "text/calendar", }, ".ifb" : "text/calendar", (index < buffering events if // Stop 0) { return DEFAULT_MIME; req.removeListener("data", onData); ".iso" : "application/octet-stream", } : req, res, next) {req.removeListener("end", onEnd); the file directly ".jar" (err,"application/java-archive", handle: function buffers using var type = Mime.TYPES[path.substring(index).toLowerCase()] || DEFAULT_MIME; ile(filename, // function error: data) { Skip".java" on (err, "text/x-java-source", if (err) { return Fall through for missing files, thow error "; charset=utf-8" : type; // (/(text|javascript)/).test(type) ? type + for other problems ".jnlp" : "application/x-java-jnlp-file", err) { }, next(); ".jpeg" : "image/jpeg", if (err) { next(err); return; ".jpg" : "image/jpeg", if (err.errno === process.ENOENT) { return; TYPES : { ".3gp" : "video/3gpp", } ".js" : "application/javascript", next(); var url = Url.parse(req.url); ".a" Refire the buffered events // : "application/octet-stream", writeHead(200, { ".json" : "application/json", ".ai" : "application/postscript", ".log" : "text/plain", events.forEach(function (args) { ontent-Type": Mime.type(filename), ".aif" req.emit.apply(req, args); : "audio/x-aiff", ontent-Length": pathname = url.pathname.replace(/..+/g, '.'), "audio/x-aiff", var data.length, "audio/x-mpegurl", ".m3u" : ".aiff" : filename = Path.join(this.root, pathname); ".m4v" : "video/mp4", }); ast-Modified": stat.mtime.toUTCString(), ".asc" return; "application/pgp-signature", : / Cache in browser ".man" year "text/troff", for 1 : ".asf" : "video/x-ms-asf", ache-Control": (filename[filename.length - 1] === "/") { if "public max-age=" + 31536000 ".mathml" : "application/mathml+xml", ".asm" : "text/x-asm", filename += : "application/mbox", ".mbox" "index.html"; ".asx" : "video/x-ms-asf", end(data); } ".mdoc" : "text/troff", ".me" : "text/troff", ".atom" : "application/atom+xml", ".au" : "audio/basic", ".mid" : "audio/midi", Saturday, June 5, 2010 ".avi" : "video/x-msvideo",
  • 21. static.js // Buffer any events that fire while waiting "text/x-c", ".cc" : on the stat. var fs = require('fs'), : "video/x-flv",var events = []; ".flv" ".chm" : "application/vnd.ms-htmlhelp", Url = require('url'), "text/x-fortran", ".for" : function onData() { ".class" : "application/octet-stream", Path = require('path'); ".gem" events.push(["data"].concat(Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments))); : "application/octet-stream", ".com" : "application/x-msdownload", } ".gemspec" : "text/x-script.ruby", ".conf" : "text/plain", var lifetime = ".gif" 60: *"image/gif", function onEnd() { 1000 * 60; // 1 hour browser cache lifetime ".cpp" : "text/x-c", }; events.push(["end"].concat(Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments))); ".crt" : "application/x-x509-ca-cert", ".gz" : "application/x-gzip", var DEFAULT_MIME = 'application/octet-stream'; ".h" : "text/x-c", } ".css" : "text/css", // Mini mime module for static file serving req.addListener("data", onData); ".csv" : "text/csv", ".hh" : "text/x-c", module.exports ".htm"= { var Mime = { : "text/html", req.addListener("end", onEnd); ".cxx" : "text/x-c", ".html" : "text/html", ".deb" : "application/x-debian-package", (err); rn; setup: function (env) "image/vnd.microsoft.icon", getMime(path) (err, stat) { ".ico" : { type: function fs.stat(filename, function { ".der" : "application/x-x509-ca-cert", var index = path.lastIndexOf(".");".diff" : "text/x-diff", this.root = this.root || process.cwd(); ".ics" : "text/calendar", }, ".ifb" : "text/calendar", (index < buffering events if // Stop 0) { ".djv" : "image/vnd.djvu", return DEFAULT_MIME; req.removeListener("data", onData); ".djvu" : "image/vnd.djvu", ".iso" : "application/octet-stream", } : req, res, next) {req.removeListener("end", onEnd); ".dll" : "application/x-msdownload", the file directly ".jar" (err,"application/java-archive", handle: function buffers using var type = Mime.TYPES[path.substring(index).toLowerCase()] || DEFAULT_MIME; // function error: data) { Skip".java" on (err, "text/x-java-source", ".dmg" : "application/octet-stream", ile(filename, return Fall through for missing files, thow error "; charset=utf-8" : type; if (err) { // (/(text|javascript)/).test(type) ? : "application/msword", ".jnlp" : "application/x-java-jnlp-file", ".doc" type + for other problems err) { }, next(); ".jpeg" : "image/jpeg", if (err) { ".dot" : "application/msword", next(err); return; ".jpg" : "image/jpeg", if (err.errno === process.ENOENT) { "application/xml-dtd", ".dtd" : return; TYPES : { ".3gp" : "video/3gpp", ".dvi" } ".js" : "application/javascript", next(); : "application/x-dvi", var url = Url.parse(req.url); ".a" Refire the buffered events : "application/java-archive", // : "application/octet-stream", ".ear" writeHead(200, { ".json" : "application/json", ".ai" : "application/postscript", ".log" : "text/plain", events.forEach(function (args) : "message/rfc822", ".eml" { ontent-Type": Mime.type(filename), ".aif" req.emit.apply(req, args); : "application/postscript", : "audio/x-aiff", ".eps" ontent-Length": pathname = url.pathname.replace(/..+/g, '.'), "audio/x-aiff", var data.length, "audio/x-mpegurl", ".m3u" : ".aiff" : filename = Path.join(this.root, pathname); ".m4v" : "video/mp4", }); ".exe" : "application/x-msdownload", ast-Modified": stat.mtime.toUTCString(), ".asc" return; "application/pgp-signature", : ".f" : "text/x-fortran", / Cache in browser ".man" year "text/troff", for 1 : ".asf" : "video/x-ms-asf", ".f77" : "text/x-fortran", ache-Control": (filename[filename.length - 1] === "/") { if "public max-age=" + 31536000 ".mathml" : "application/mathml+xml", ".asm" : "text/x-asm", ".f90" filename += : "application/mbox", ".mbox" "index.html"; : "text/x-fortran", ".asx" : "video/x-ms-asf", end(data); } ".mdoc" : "text/troff", ".me" : "text/troff", ".atom" : "application/atom+xml", ".au" : "audio/basic", ".mid" : "audio/midi", Saturday, June 5, 2010 ".avi" : "video/x-msvideo",
  • 22. static.js // Buffer any events that fire while waiting "text/x-c", ".cc" : on the stat. var fs = require('fs'), : "video/x-flv",var events = []; ".flv" ".chm" : "application/vnd.ms-htmlhelp", Url = require('url'), "text/x-fortran", ".for" : function onData() { ".class" : "application/octet-stream", Path = require('path'); ".gem" events.push(["data"].concat(Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments))); : "application/octet-stream", ".com" : "application/x-msdownload", } ".gemspec" : "text/x-script.ruby", ".conf" : "text/plain", var lifetime = ".gif" 60: *"image/gif", function onEnd() { 1000 * 60; // 1 hour browser cache lifetime ".cpp" : "text/x-c", }; events.push(["end"].concat(Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments))); ".crt" : "application/x-x509-ca-cert", ".gz" : "application/x-gzip", var DEFAULT_MIME = 'application/octet-stream'; ".h" : "text/x-c", } ".css" : "text/css", // Mini mime module for static file serving req.addListener("data", onData); ".csv" : "text/csv", ".hh" : "text/x-c", module.exports ".htm"= { var Mime = { : "text/html", req.addListener("end", onEnd); ".cxx" : "text/x-c", ".html" : "text/html", ".deb" : "application/x-debian-package", (err); rn; setup: function (env) "image/vnd.microsoft.icon", getMime(path) (err, stat) { ".ico" : { type: function fs.stat(filename, function { ".der" : "application/x-x509-ca-cert", var index = path.lastIndexOf(".");".diff" : "text/x-diff", this.root = this.root || process.cwd(); ".ics" : "text/calendar", }, ".ifb" : "text/calendar", (index < buffering events if // Stop 0) { ".djv" : "image/vnd.djvu", return DEFAULT_MIME; req.removeListener("data", onData); ".djvu" : "image/vnd.djvu", ".iso" : "application/octet-stream", } req.removeListener("end", onEnd); ".dll" : "application/x-msdownload", the file directly ".jar"".bmp" req, "image/bmp", type = Mime.TYPES[path.substring(index).toLowerCase()] || DEFAULT_MIME; handle: function (err,"application/java-archive", using buffers : res, next) { : var // function error: data) { Skip".java" on (err, "text/x-java-source", ".bz2" : "application/x-bzip2", ".dmg" : "application/octet-stream", ile(filename, return (/(text|javascript)/).test(type) ? : "application/msword", : type; type + "; charset=utf-8" err) { if (err) { : "text/x-c", // Fall through for missing files, thow error for other problems ".jnlp" : "application/x-java-jnlp-file", ".c" ".doc" }, if (err) { ".dot" : "application/msword", next(err); next(); ".cab" ".jpeg" : "image/jpeg", : "application/vnd.ms-cab-compressed", return; ".jpg" : "image/jpeg", if (err.errno === process.ENOENT) { "application/xml-dtd", ".dtd" : return; TYPES : { ".3gp" : "video/3gpp", ".dvi" } ".js" : "application/javascript", next(); : "application/x-dvi", var url = Url.parse(req.url); ".a" Refire the buffered events : "application/java-archive", // : "application/octet-stream", ".ear" writeHead(200, { ".json" : "application/json", ".ai" : "application/postscript", ".log" : "text/plain", events.forEach(function (args) : "message/rfc822", ".eml" { ontent-Type": Mime.type(filename), ".aif" req.emit.apply(req, args); : "application/postscript", : "audio/x-aiff", ".eps" ontent-Length": pathname = url.pathname.replace(/..+/g, '.'), "audio/x-aiff", var data.length, "audio/x-mpegurl", ".m3u" : ".aiff" : filename = Path.join(this.root, pathname); ".m4v" : "video/mp4", }); ".exe" : "application/x-msdownload", ast-Modified": stat.mtime.toUTCString(), ".asc" return; "application/pgp-signature", : ".f" : "text/x-fortran", / Cache in browser ".man" year "text/troff", for 1 : ".asf" : "video/x-ms-asf", ".f77" : "text/x-fortran", ache-Control": (filename[filename.length - 1] === "/") { if "public max-age=" + 31536000 ".mathml" : "application/mathml+xml", ".asm" : "text/x-asm", ".f90" filename += : "application/mbox", ".mbox" "index.html"; : "text/x-fortran", ".asx" : "video/x-ms-asf", end(data); } ".mdoc" : "text/troff", ".me" : "text/troff", ".atom" : "application/atom+xml", ".au" : "audio/basic", ".mid" : "audio/midi", Saturday, June 5, 2010 ".avi" : "video/x-msvideo",
  • 23. Built-in Filter Modules Authentication Error Handler Authorization Gzip Body Decoder Log Cache Method Override Conditional Get Response Time Debug Session Saturday, June 5, 2010
  • 24. Built-in Data Providers Static Cache Manifest Rest Direct Router JSON-RPC PubSub More... Saturday, June 5, 2010
  • 26. app.js (stack) require.paths.unshift("./lib"); var Connect = require('connect'); var root = __dirname + "/public"; module.exports = Connect.createServer([ {filter: "log"}, {filter: "body-decoder"}, {provider: "pubsub", route: "/stream", logic: Backend}, {filter: "conditional-get"}, {filter: "cache"}, {filter: "gzip"}, {provider: "cache-manifest", root: root}, {provider: "static", root: root} ]); Saturday, June 5, 2010
  • 27. app.js (Backend) var Backend = { subscribe: function (subscriber) { if (subscribers.indexOf(subscriber) < 0) { subscribers.push(subscriber); } }, unsubscribe: function (subscriber) { var pos = subscribers.indexOf(subscriber); if (pos >= 0) { subscribers.slice(pos); } }, publish: function (message, callback) { subscribers.forEach(function (subscriber) { subscriber.send(message); }); callback(); } }; Saturday, June 5, 2010
  • 28. http://github.com/extjs/connect http://twitter.com/creationix http://raphaeljs.com http://nodejs.org Saturday, June 5, 2010
  • 29. Any Questions ? Saturday, June 5, 2010