• Set up under the Coastal Security Scheme Phase I of the Ministry of Home
• The Scheme had an outlay of 646 crore - 495 crore for non-recurring
Expenditure and 151 crore for recurring expenditure for 6 years on
fuel,repairs and maintenance of the boats and training of Marine Police
PHASE I – COASTAL SECURITY SCHEME
• 2,346 police personnel have been imparted training by the Coast Guard.
• 10 lakh per Police Station has been approved for computers and
• Annual Maintenance Contract (AMC) has been signed by the Ministry of
Home Affairs, on behalf of coastal States/UTs, with GSL and GRSE for a
period of four years.
COASTAL POLICE IN KERALA
• Currently Kerala Police maintains 8 Coastal Police Stations, located at
Vizhinjam (Thiruvananthapuram District), Neendakara (Kollam District),
Thottampally (Alapuzha District), Fort Kochi (Ernakulam District),
Azhikkode (Thrissur District), Beypore (Kozhikode District), Azheekkal
(Kannur District) and Thalangara (Kasargode District)
FORT KOCHI COASTAL POLICE
• Jurisdiction - Upto 12 nautical miles from baseline from Chellanam to
• Station House Officer (SHO) – Circle Inspector
• Patrolling is normally done upto 3 nm. However, in rough weather,
patrolling is not carried out.
• The Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) manual of the Coastal Police
stations requires an intelligence wing to be setup in each station. In the Fort
Kochi station, this wing comprises personnel from the station itself.
Intelligence is collected mainly from land.
• Coastal Police Stations maintain an additional 19 records alongwith the
normal records that all stations maintain.
• When people who, otherwise, are not allowed to enter Indian territory
without a permit are to be brought into India, the Intelligence Bureau takes
over such people.
• The coastal police station is capable of communicating with the navy via a
24*7 functioning hotline to the Joint Operation Centre.
• The station is connected to the Control Room of the Central Industrial
Security Force (CISF) at Kochi Port.
• The station also has liaison with the customs, coast guard, BPR&D ( Bureau
of Police Research and Development) and ADGP Intelligence.
• Two of the boats in the station were not in working condition.
• When the interceptor boats are to be lifted onto land or back into water,
pvt. Crane companies are called. They bill large amounts per hour. The
commissioner, IG and DGP have spending limits of Rs. 5,000, Rs. 15,000
and Rs. 30,000 respectively (figures not certain). Whenever that limit is
exceeded, they have to approach the state govt. which would result in the
request getting stuck in redtape.
• The boats are covered by a warranty for a period of 4 years from Goa
Shipyard ltd. after which there is uncertainty as to who will undertake
• Incapable of conducting patrols in rough weather.
• The propellers of the interceptor boats take in a lot of dirt and waste which
results in high maintenance work.
കടലലലോര ജോഗ്രത സമിതി
• Setup in all coastal area police station districts in Kerala.
• Comprises 22 members.
• Integral part of HUMINT (Human Intelligence)
• Monthly meetings, Awareness classes and training programmes for
members as well as coastal population
• Each member given sim-card which is topped up monthly by the police.
KJS in Ernakulam District
Fort Kochi 2
• International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS) adopted in all 12
major ports and 53 minor ports in India
• ISPS code was formulated by IMO after 9/11
• It outlines "a standardized, consistent framework for evaluating risk,
enabling governments to offset changes in threat with changes in
vulnerability for ships and port facilities."
• At present no Indian port is Container Security Initiative (CSI) compliant. A
CSI compliant port requires large numbers of special electronic and X-ray
machines to quickly scan hundreds of containers being offloaded from
ships onto trucks before they are driven to major cities inland.
• CISF is in-charge of security in major ports.
• Ministry of Shipping awarded 70 crore to Electronics Corporation of India
Limited (ECIL), to install radiation detection equipment at the 12 major
• “Need to find a balance between security and efficiency in the
contemporary cargo and ports security context.”
• Ships waiting for extra time incur demurrage which is ultimately passed on
to the shipper, adding to the transaction costs of the exporter
• India has announced a new set of guidelines for security clearance for port
projects in the country, which will speed up response time.
• Delay in granting security clearances has affected efficiency
• India's Cabinet Committee on Investment has requested various security
agencies to adhere to the 12-week period of awarding clearances
• Shipping Ministry has asked a Committee of Secretaries (CoS) to
expeditiously review the current norms and exempt Indian companies with
less than 15 per cent of foreign equity from the purview of national security
• Govt. has been wary of Chinese investment in port development
• Govt. denied security clearance to the winning bidders — a consortium of
two Chinese companies, Kaidi Electric Power Co and China Harbour
Engineering Co and Mumbai-based Zoom Developers in August, 2006 for
the Vizhinjam project
• Hong Kong-based Hutchison Port Holdings, one of the world’s leading
port developers, has not been successful in bidding for port projects in
Chennai and Mumbai (Jawaharlal Nehru Port) due to its Chinese
• “India’s port tariffs are higher than other competing ports in South Asia.”
• the vessel related charges in India for a ship with a capacity to load 2,500
standard cargo containers range from $8,500 (Jawaharlal Nehru Port) to
$23,000 (Cochin Port).
• $2,500-3,000 in Dubai and $4,500-5,000 in Colombo.
Port Security Levels
• A dry port is an inland terminal directly connected by rail or road to a sea
port, providing services for handling, temporary storage, inspection and
customs clearance for international freight
• India has 155 places so notified, with 89 in the development stage.
• Dry Ports do not come under the purview of the ISPS code.
• GOI has not prescribed any minimum security standards for a dry port
• Maritime domain awareness (MDA) is defined by the International
Maritime Organization as the effective understanding of anything
associated with the maritime domain that could impact the security, safety,
economy, or environment.
Coastal Surveillance Network
• Sensors are typically located atop lighthouses owned and operated by
India’s Director General Lighthouses & Lightships (DGLL).
• 46 radars in the first phase, 36 will be installed on the main land and 10 in
• Already installed 36 radars on the main land
• Phase-I was conceptualized to provide real time surveillance cover upto 25
nautical miles around the areas of high sensitivity and traffic density along
our coast line.
• In the phase-2 of CSN, India will have another 38 radars.
• During the Phase-II, the Static Radar Chain is also proposed to be
supplemented by 08 Mobile Surveillance Systems.
• The Indian MoD describes the CSN as a “robust hierarchical network”
connecting 12 district headquarters (DHQ), five regional headquarters
(RHQ), and the Coast Guard Headquarters (CGHQ) at New Delhi.
National Automatic Identification
System (NAIS) Network
• Implemented by India’s Directorate General of Lighthouses and Lightships
• The International Maritime Organization's International Convention for the
Safety of Life at Sea requires AIS to be fitted aboard international voyaging
ships with gross tonnage (GT) of 300 or more tons, and all passenger ships
regardless of size.
• In India, under the Coastal Security Scheme, the Director General
(Shipping) has issued two circulars to ensure that all types of vessels
including fishing vessels, except vessels of less than 20 feet length are
installed with AIS transponders for the purposes of identification and
• For vessels of less than 20 meters length, a Committee under the Director
General, Coast Guard has carried out ‘No Cost No Commitment (NCNC)’
trials of suitable tracking systems
• two ‘pilot projects’ will be held at Mumbai and Porbander to test the
suitability of the three technologies
• The NAIS has been integrated with Gulf of Kachchh (GOK) VTMS
network to provide a Common Operating Picture (COP) with radar and
AIS target correlated.
Flow of Data
• Data from surveillance network would be further supplemented with the
AIS data from the National AIS Chain of DGLL/Ministry of Shipping and
interfaced with the Vessel Traffic Management Systems (VTMS) of the
major ports, Fishing Vessel Monitoring System, Long Range Identification
and Tracking (LRIT) and National Command Communication Control and
intelligence Network (NC3I) of Indian Navy.
• The sensor data generated by the Coastal Surveillance Network would also
be shared with other maritime agencies via the NC3I network
National Command Control
Communication and Intelligence Network
• National Command Control Communication and Intelligence Network
(NC3IN), is being set up by Navy as the "main backbone" for the national
• The aim is to generate a "common operational picture" of all ongoing
activities at sea through an institutionalised mechanism for collecting,
fusing and analysing information from technical and other sources.
• “State monitoring centres" in coastal states/UTs to act as nodes for the
national MDA network and upgradation of the four existing joint
operations centres at Mumbai, Kochi, Vizag and Port Blair to be carried out.
• The Navy will soon have its own ISRO built GSAT 7 satellite in GEO orbit
and with the Israeli Orbit terminals (Rukmani) fitted on large warships
making instant transfer of data will be possible.
• The Indian Regional Navigation Seven Satellite System [IRNSS] also being
progressed by ISRO will be operational in 2013 to provide GPS data with in
1000 miles range of India.
• Need to set up VTMS at the 56 non-major ports that handle international
• small vessels under 20 meters in length, like the hijacked fishing boat used
by the seaborne terrorists in 2008 is difficult to track as these vessels are not
yet required to carry AIS.
• Various people such as Admiral Suresh Mehta have echoed the need for a
National Maritime Adviser to coordinate between the various maritime