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Software Testing Concepts and Definition
Presented by Naseer Ahmad / Prepared by Sikandar Ahmed
Primary purpose of testing is to detect software
failures, so that defects may be discovered and
Items to be covered
• SQA vs Testing
• Test Senario vs Test Cases
• Testing Cycle
• Testing Definitions
• Testing Methods
• Testing Levels
• Testing Types
Software Quality Assurance
• SQA consists of a means of monitoring the software
engineering processes and methods used to ensure quality.
• In SQA, software process specialists and auditors are concerned for the
software development process rather than just the artifacts such as
documentation, code and systems.
• They examine and change the software engineering process itself to
reduce the number of faults that end up in the delivered software
• SQA is the implementation of policies and procedures intended to
prevent defects from occurring in the first place.
• Software testing is a task intended to detect defects in software by
contrasting a computer program's expected results with its actual
results for a given set of inputs.
• Software testing is a part of the software quality assurance (SQA)
•A test specification is called a test plan.
•A test plan is a document detailing a systematic approach to testing
•The plan typically contains a detailed understanding of the
•There are three major elements that should be described in the test
plan, These are also used in a formal test strategy:
• A test script is a procedure, or programming code that replicates
• Test Case will be a baseline to create test scripts using a tool or a
• A traceability matrix is a table that correlates requirements or
design documents to test documents.
• It is used to change tests when related source documents are
• The Purpose to select test cases for execution when planning for
tests by considering requirement coverage.
Test Scenario VS Test Case
Test Scenario is “What to be tested”
Test Case is “How to be tested”.
• It is also known as Test Suite or less commonly Validation Suite.
• A test scenario is a collection of test cases that are intended to be
used to test a software program
• Purpose is to show that it has some specified set of behaviors.
• It often contains detailed instructions or goals for each collection of
test cases and information on the system configuration to be used
• A test case is a set of conditions or variables under which a tester
will determine whether an application, software system or one of its
features is working as it was originally established for it to do.
• A test case is usually a single step, or occasionally a sequence of
steps, to test the correct behavior/functionality, features of an
• For a Test case, an expected result or expected outcome is usually
• In most cases, multiple sets of values or data are used to test the
same functionality of a particular feature.
• All the test values and changeable environmental components are
collected in separate files and stored as test data.
• It is also useful to provide this data to the client and with the
product or a project.
Example: Login Feature
Test Scenarios of Login Feature:
1) Verify UI components of the Login screen.
2) Verify functionality of Login.
3) Verify functionality of Keep me logged in.
4) Verify functionality of Forget password.
Example: Login Feature (Cont.)
Test Scenario 2: Verify functionality of Login
List of Test Cases:
1) Click on login button with enter valid username and password.
2) Click on login button with enter username only (Password left empty).
3) Click on login button with enter password only (username left empty).
4) Click on login button without username and password (both are empty).
5) Click on login button with enter invalid username and password.
Example: Login Feature (Cont.)
Test Case 1: Click on login button with enter the username and password.
Step1: Click in user name text box and enter user name in this field.
Expected Result: It allows to type username.
Step2: Click in password text box and enter password in this field.
Expected Result: It allows to type password and it should not visible to
Step 3: Click on Login button.
Expected Result: System verifies user name and password if both are valid
then user should be logged in successfully.
Basic Testing Cycle
• Requirements Analysis
• Test Planning
• Test Development
• Test Execution
• Test Reporting
• Test Result Analysis
• Defect Retesting
• Regression Testing
• Test Closure