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Investigation of YouTube regarding Content Provisioning for HTTP Adaptive Streaming

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About 300 hours of video are uploaded to YouTube every minute. The main technology to delivery YouTube content to various clients is HTTP adaptive streaming and the majority of today’s internet traffic comprises streaming audio and video. In this paper, we in- vestigate content provisioning for HTTP adaptive streaming under predefined aspects representing content features and upload charac- teristics as well and apply it to YouTube. Additionally, we compare the YouTube’s content upload and processing functions with a commercially available video encoding service. The results reveal insights into YouTube’s content upload and processing functions and the methodology can be applied to similar services. All experi- ments conducted within the paper allow for reproducibility thanks to the usage of open source tools, publicly available datasets, and scripts used to conduct the experiments on virtual machines.

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Investigation of YouTube regarding Content Provisioning for HTTP Adaptive Streaming

  1. 1. Investigation of YouTube regarding Content Provisioning for HTTP Adaptive Streaming Priv.-Doz. Dr. Christian Timmerer Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt (AAU)  Faculty of Technical Sciences (TEWI)  Department of Information Technology (ITEC)  Multimedia Communication (MMC)  Sensory Experience Lab (SELab) http://blog.timmerer.com  http://selab.itec.aau.at/  http://dash.itec.aau.at  christian.timmerer@itec.aau.at Chief Innovation Officer (CIO) at bitmovin GmbH http://www.bitmovin.com  christian.timmerer@bitmovin.com 23rd Packet Video Workshop, June 12, 2018 https://2018.packet.video/ http://www.slideshare.net/christian.timmerer
  2. 2. June 12, 2018 Dr. Timmerer [AAU/Bitmovin] 2 $44,000,000
  3. 3. June 12, 2018 Dr. Timmerer [AAU/Bitmovin] 4 http://www.visualcapitalist.com/ internet-minute-2018/
  4. 4. How does it work? In a nutshell… June 12, 2018 Dr. Timmerer [AAU/Bitmovin] 5 Adaptation logic is within the client, not normatively specified by the standard, subject to research and development
  5. 5. Content Provisioning for HAS • Definition of objective and quantifiable metrics describing content provisioning for HAS (e.g., YouTube) • Definition of a methodology and conducting experiments to gather these metrics • Providing results and comparison with related service • Dataset and scripts provided for reproducibility June 12, 2018 Dr. Timmerer [AAU/Bitmovin] 6 Standard Delivery Infrastructure (CDN) Source Transcoding Encapsulation Encryption Multiple representations with different characteristics Single highest-bitrate representation Multiple representations at target encapsulation formats Multiple streams with multiple DRM formats Encoding API Player Player API
  6. 6. Dataset • Adopt standard dataset used in HAS – http://dash.itec.aau.at/ • Big Buck Bunny – Computer-animated sequences with large homogeneous areas and moderate motion • Tears of Steal – Futuristic action short movie with special effects and high motion June 12, 2018 Dr. Timmerer [AAU/Bitmovin] 8 https://peach.blender.org/ https://mango.blender.org/
  7. 7. Aspects • Various content features and upload characteristics • Region – Physical location of upload host/node – North America, Europe, and Asia • Time of Day – Differences in the metrics throughout the day with an interval set to two hours • Content and video resolution – See previous slide – Input resolution: 2160p, 1080p, 720p, 480p and 360p June 12, 2018 Dr. Timmerer [AAU/Bitmovin] 9
  8. 8. Metrics • Video quality – PSNR, SSIM, others (VMAF) under investigation • Upload/processing time – Bitmovin: content in the cloud already, massive parallel encoding based on config., notifies user once output is available – YouTube: upload, parallel encoding, 360p done ⇨ “finished” & content is available; remaining representations done in background – Interesting observation: VP9 is produced in addition to AVC if input resolution is ≥2160p; VP9 produced with increased popularity; no upscaling of input (e.g., 720p input results into HAS content up to 720p)June 12, 2018 Dr. Timmerer [AAU/Bitmovin] 10
  9. 9. YouTube: Average vs. config. Bitrate June 12, 2018 Dr. Timmerer [AAU/Bitmovin] 11
  10. 10. YouTube: Avg PSNR for all representations June 12, 2018 Dr. Timmerer [AAU/Bitmovin] 12
  11. 11. YouTube: Avg SSIM for ≤1080p June 12, 2018 Dr. Timmerer [AAU/Bitmovin] 13
  12. 12. YouTube: AVC vs. VP9 June 12, 2018 Dr. Timmerer [AAU/Bitmovin] 14
  13. 13. YouTube vs. Bitmovin for AVC June 12, 2018 Dr. Timmerer [AAU/Bitmovin] 15
  14. 14. YouTube Upload and Processing per Region June 12, 2018 Dr. Timmerer [AAU/Bitmovin] 16
  15. 15. YouTube Upload and Processing per Time of Day June 12, 2018 Dr. Timmerer [AAU/Bitmovin] 17
  16. 16. YouTube average finished time per representation for 2160p input sequences June 12, 2018 Dr. Timmerer [AAU/Bitmovin] 18
  17. 17. YouTube vs. Bitmovin: Comparison of Finished Times June 12, 2018 Dr. Timmerer [AAU/Bitmovin] 19
  18. 18. Conclusions • Summary – Methodology to evaluate content provisioning for HAS – Definition of aspects and metrics • Findings – Detecting flaws in HAS work flows – Document best practices allowing for potential improvements – Useful for making quantitative quality comparisons between different HAS systems and services • Future work – Content types to investigate per-tile optimization – Additional metrics • Reproducibility June 12, 2018 Dr. Timmerer [AAU/Bitmovin] 20 Armin Trattnig. 2017. An Investigation of YouTube’s Video Streaming Service. Master’s thesis. Alpen-Adria-Universität, Klagenfurt, Austria
  19. 19. Bitmovin kicks off NAB show 2018 with a bang ● Announcing $30M in Series B funding and exciting new product launches ● And yes, we are hiring… https://bitmovin.com/careers 21
  20. 20. Thank you for your attention June 12, 2018 Dr. Timmerer [AAU/Bitmovin] 22 ... questions, comments, etc. are welcome … Priv.-Doz. Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Christian Timmerer Associate Professor Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt, Department of Information Technology (ITEC) Universitätsstrasse 65-67, A-9020 Klagenfurt, AUSTRIA christian.timmerer@itec.uni-klu.ac.at http://blog.timmerer.com/ Tel: +43/463/2700 3621 Fax: +43/463/2700 3699 © Copyright: Christian Timmerer

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