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Toward a semantic Web Service discovery and
dynamic orchestration based on ontologies
Pierre Châtel
Thales Land & Joint Sy...
An issue...

 Thales: system integrator.

 How to optimize the design, deployment and execution of integrated
 information...
An implementation...

 Interconnection between entities’ signatures, implemented...

  • at the “technical” level
    ➥ li...
Table of contents

1. Service-Oriented Architecture

2. Ontologies usage

3. Semantic Web Services registry

4. Semantic W...
Service-Oriented Architecture

 Business service providers: Web Services.

  • Separated interfaces (service offers) and i...
Service-Oriented Architecture
Link between service providers and consumers




                                     Offer
...
Table of contents

1. Service-Oriented Architecture

2. Ontologies usage

3. Semantic Web Services registry

4. Semantic W...
Ontologies usage

 Ontology: mean to formally specify the usually implicit business knowledge
 stored in the mind of exper...
Ontologies usage
Link between service providers and consumers

                                         Domain ontologies
...
Ontologies usage
Link between service providers and consumers
      Consumers                    Common knowledge         ...
Ontologies usage
Technologies

 Ontologies modeling:

  • OWL (Ontology Web Language) languages family.
  • Decidable vers...
Ontologies usage
Semantic annotation
<description xmlns=quot;http://www.w3.org/ns/wsdlquot;

   xmlns:tns=quot;http://www....
Ontologies usage
Semantic annotation
<description xmlns=quot;http://www.w3.org/ns/wsdlquot;

   xmlns:tns=quot;http://www....
Ontologies usage
Semantic annotation




                      Pierre Châtel
                                 12
Table of contents

1. Service-Oriented Architecture

2. Ontologies usage

3. Semantic Web Services registry

4. Semantic W...
Semantic Web Services registry

• Need for providers to advertise their service offers.

• Need for consumers to select th...
Semantic Web Services registry
SAWSDL to UDDI mapping

 Registry technological choice:

  • UDDI (Universal Description, D...
Table of contents

1. Service-Oriented Architecture

2. Ontologies usage

3. Semantic Web Services registry

4. Semantic W...
Semantic Web Services orchestration

 Orchestration: selection and collaboration of available and relevant Web
 Services i...
Semantic Web Services orchestration

 Technological choices: ActiveBPEL Engine™ + semantic matchmaking
 capabilities.

 A ...
Semantic Web Services orchestration
 Semantic equivalence

                                                     thing



 ...
Semantic Web Services orchestration
 Semantic equivalence

                                                     thing



 ...
Semantic Web Services orchestration
 Semantic equivalence

                                                     thing



 ...
Semantic Web Services orchestration
 Semantic equivalence

                                                     thing



 ...
Semantic Web Services orchestration
 Semantic equivalence

                                                     thing



 ...
Semantic Web Services orchestration
 Semantic equivalence

                                                     thing



 ...
Semantic Web Services orchestration
 Semantic equivalence

                                                     thing



 ...
Semantic Web Services orchestration
 Semantic equivalence

                                                     thing



 ...
Semantic Web Services orchestration
 Semantic equivalence

                                                     thing



 ...
Table of contents

1. Service-Oriented Architecture

2. Ontologies usage

3. Semantic Web Services registry

4. Semantic W...
Our framework : SETHA

 Technological choices justified by industrial and legacy constraints:

  • Ontologies → OWL languag...
Our framework : SETHA


  Static   Specification of ontologies


            Specification of Services


           Specifica...
Related Work

  • Focuses on computing similarities between semantic service offers and
    requests.

  • Fails to tackle...
Future Work

 Ongoing work in research projects and thesis.

 Generalization of SETHA to non-functional considerations (Qo...
Future Work
                                                                    done
  Static
           Specification of o...
Concluding remarks

 An operational implementation, while integrating innovative solutions.


                   Ontologie...
Thanks for your attention...

      Any questions ?




                               Pierre Châtel
                     ...
Semantic Web Services registry
UDDI data model



             businessEntity
    information about the party who
  publis...
Semantic Web Services orchestration
Data adaptation




                                      Pierre Châtel
              ...
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ICSSEA 2007 - Toward a semantic Web Service discovery and dynamic orchestration based on ontologies

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ICSSEA 2007 - Toward a semantic Web Service discovery and dynamic orchestration based on ontologies

  1. 1. Toward a semantic Web Service discovery and dynamic orchestration based on ontologies Pierre Châtel Thales Land & Joint Systems, LIP6 Computer Science Laboratory 1
  2. 2. An issue... Thales: system integrator. How to optimize the design, deployment and execution of integrated information and control systems ? Major industrial constraints: 1.Maintaining interoperability during the interconnection of these systems, despite: • heterogeneity • dynamism • distributivity 2.Following a specific technical frawework: SOA (Service-Oriented Architecture) Pierre Châtel 2
  3. 3. An implementation... Interconnection between entities’ signatures, implemented... • at the “technical” level ➥ limited and superficial interoperability. • at the “business” (conceptual) level ➥ increased interoperability, interconnection relieved of technical concerns. Application domains: • Military: Communication, Command, Control and Intelligence systems (C3I) • Civilian: rescue teams coordination in crisis management system during, or after, natural disasters. Pierre Châtel 3
  4. 4. Table of contents 1. Service-Oriented Architecture 2. Ontologies usage 3. Semantic Web Services registry 4. Semantic Web Services orchestration 5. Our framework: SETHA 6. Related Work 7. Future work 8. Concluding remarks Pierre Châtel 4
  5. 5. Service-Oriented Architecture Business service providers: Web Services. • Separated interfaces (service offers) and implementations. • Centralized services registry. • Services can appear or disappear from registry at runtime. Business service consumers: Web Processes. • Set of atomic actions linked with flow control structures. • Represent business processes of the application. • Integrate features offered by Web Services at runtime. Pierre Châtel 5
  6. 6. Service-Oriented Architecture Link between service providers and consumers Offer Web Service Web Process ? Requests Offer Web Service Offer Web Service Pierre Châtel 6
  7. 7. Table of contents 1. Service-Oriented Architecture 2. Ontologies usage 3. Semantic Web Services registry 4. Semantic Web Services orchestration 5. Our framework: SETHA 6. Related Work 7. Future work 8. Concluding remarks Pierre Châtel 7
  8. 8. Ontologies usage Ontology: mean to formally specify the usually implicit business knowledge stored in the mind of experts and share it. Ontologies are related to the system’s application domain(s). “Flexible” link between service consumers and providers: • Semantic information injected into service offers and requests. Ontology-driven approach suitable: • Fields which have already been thoroughly outlined or specified (pre- existing military ontologies). • Knowledge shared between international partners (NATO). ➥ Semantic common ground. Pierre Châtel 8
  9. 9. Ontologies usage Link between service providers and consumers Domain ontologies <<Annotations>> <<Annotations>> Offer Web Service Web Process Requests Query Offer Registration Registry Web Service Offer Web Service Pierre Châtel 9
  10. 10. Ontologies usage Link between service providers and consumers Consumers Common knowledge Providers Domain ontologies <<Annotations>> <<Annotations>> Offer Web Service Web Process Requests Query Offer Registration Registry Web Service Offer Web Service Pierre Châtel 9
  11. 11. Ontologies usage Technologies Ontologies modeling: • OWL (Ontology Web Language) languages family. • Decidable version based on Description Logic : OWL-DL. Service offers definition: • SAWSDL specification (Semantic Annotation for Web Service Description Language). • WSDL 2.0 extension • W3C : various academic and industrial participants in a specific “Working Group”. • Annotation of classic service definitions with meta-data (ontological classes). Service requests definition: BPEL language and SAWSDL. Pierre Châtel 10
  12. 12. Ontologies usage Semantic annotation <description xmlns=quot;http://www.w3.org/ns/wsdlquot; xmlns:tns=quot;http://www.thalesgroup.com/TwoPiRayService/quot; xmlns:sawsdl=quot;http://www.w3.org/2002/ws/sawsdl/spec/sawsdl#quot; targetNamespace=quot;http://www.thalesgroup.com/TwoPiRayService/quot;> <types> <xsd:schema xmlns:wsdl=quot;http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/wsdl/quot; (...) <xsd:element name=quot;computeTwoPiRayStructquot; sawsdl:loweringSchemaMapping=quot;http://127.0.0.1:9090/axis2/xslt/RDFOnt2SOAPRequest.xmlquot;> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name=quot;structquot; type=quot;tns:computeTwoPiRayStructTypequot; /> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:element> <xsd:element name=quot;computeTwoPiRayStructResponsequot; sawsdl:modelReference=quot;http://www.thalesgroup.com/ontologies/setha-dyonisos- demo.owl#PerimeterMeasurequot; sawsdl:liftingSchemaMapping=quot;http://127.0.0.1:9090/axis2/xslt/SOAPResponse2RDFOnt.xslquot; xsd:type=quot;computeTwoPiRayResponseTypequot;/> </xsd:schema> </types> <interface name=quot;ITwoPiRayServicequot;> <operation name=quot;computeTwoPiRayStructquot; pattern=quot;http://www.w3.org/ns/wsdl/in-outquot; sawsdl:modelReference=quot;http://www.thalesgroup.com/ontologies/setha-dyonisos- demo.owl#PiCalculatorquot;> <input element=quot;tns:computeTwoPiRayStructquot;/> <output element=quot;tns:computeTwoPiRayStructResponsequot;/> Pierre Châtel (...) 11
  13. 13. Ontologies usage Semantic annotation <description xmlns=quot;http://www.w3.org/ns/wsdlquot; xmlns:tns=quot;http://www.thalesgroup.com/TwoPiRayService/quot; xmlns:sawsdl=quot;http://www.w3.org/2002/ws/sawsdl/spec/sawsdl#quot; targetNamespace=quot;http://www.thalesgroup.com/TwoPiRayService/quot;> <types> <xsd:schema xmlns:wsdl=quot;http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/wsdl/quot; (...) <xsd:element name=quot;computeTwoPiRayStructquot; sawsdl:loweringSchemaMapping=quot;http://127.0.0.1:9090/axis2/xslt/RDFOnt2SOAPRequest.xmlquot;> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name=quot;structquot; type=quot;tns:computeTwoPiRayStructTypequot; /> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:element> <xsd:element name=quot;computeTwoPiRayStructResponsequot; sawsdl:modelReference=quot;http://www.thalesgroup.com/ontologies/setha-dyonisos- demo.owl#PerimeterMeasurequot; sawsdl:liftingSchemaMapping=quot;http://127.0.0.1:9090/axis2/xslt/SOAPResponse2RDFOnt.xslquot; xsd:type=quot;computeTwoPiRayResponseTypequot;/> </xsd:schema> </types> <interface name=quot;ITwoPiRayServicequot;> <operation name=quot;computeTwoPiRayStructquot; pattern=quot;http://www.w3.org/ns/wsdl/in-outquot; sawsdl:modelReference=quot;http://www.thalesgroup.com/ontologies/setha-dyonisos- demo.owl#PiCalculatorquot;> <input element=quot;tns:computeTwoPiRayStructquot;/> <output element=quot;tns:computeTwoPiRayStructResponsequot;/> Pierre Châtel (...) 11
  14. 14. Ontologies usage Semantic annotation Pierre Châtel 12
  15. 15. Table of contents 1. Service-Oriented Architecture 2. Ontologies usage 3. Semantic Web Services registry 4. Semantic Web Services orchestration 5. Our framework: SETHA 6. Related Work 7. Future work 8. Concluding remarks Pierre Châtel 13
  16. 16. Semantic Web Services registry • Need for providers to advertise their service offers. • Need for consumers to select the most appropriate service offers at runtime. ➥ Centralized approach : service registry. • Industrial requirement: keep some compatibility with legacy architectures and systems. • Classic registry specifications: only syntax ! • Our architecture: high-level service offers extended by business semantics. ➥ Implementation of a semantic compatibility layer over a classic registry specification. Pierre Châtel 14
  17. 17. Semantic Web Services registry SAWSDL to UDDI mapping Registry technological choice: • UDDI (Universal Description, Discovery and Integration). • The most widespread Web service registry in the industry. • A data model designed for storing syntactic information, but allows for evolution: BusinessEntity, BusinessService, BindingTemplate, tModel. Semantic compatibility layer: • SAWSDL to UDDI mapping. • Loosely based on the WSDL 1.1→UDDI OASIS specification. • Semantic information: as key/value pairs inside UDDI’s tModels. • Compatibility: syntactic client and SAWSDL services, purely syntactic services still allowed. Pierre Châtel 15
  18. 18. Table of contents 1. Service-Oriented Architecture 2. Ontologies usage 3. Semantic Web Services registry 4. Semantic Web Services orchestration 5. Our framework: SETHA 6. Related Work 7. Future work 8. Concluding remarks Pierre Châtel 16
  19. 19. Semantic Web Services orchestration Orchestration: selection and collaboration of available and relevant Web Services in order to carry out a given Web Process. Syntactic: • Strong link and weak adaptability between service requests and offers. • Direct (URLs of the services hard-coded in processes). • Indirect (syntactic registry lookup before or at runtime). Semantic: • Uses the ontological link between service requests and offers. • Flexible because indirect and based on high-level business knowledge stored in ontologies. ➥ Dynamic discovery of services at runtime. ➥ Late binding. Pierre Châtel 17
  20. 20. Semantic Web Services orchestration Technological choices: ActiveBPEL Engine™ + semantic matchmaking capabilities. A notion of semantic equivalence: • Computed from information stored in ontologies. • The specialization relationship between classes (rdfs:subClassOf). • The equivalence relationship between classes (owl:EquivalentClass). • Works on a ‘per service operation’ basis ➥ Allows indirect and flexible links. Syntactic problematics: operations calls on semantically-selected services. • Discrepancies between actual data types used by services and processes • Ontologies as canonical models for data interchange. Pierre Châtel 18
  21. 21. Semantic Web Services orchestration Semantic equivalence thing <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> vehicle component action <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> car truck bolt engine extract <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<EquivalentClass>> diesel_engine semitrailer fuel_engine extraire extract(truck):engine 19
  22. 22. Semantic Web Services orchestration Semantic equivalence thing <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> vehicle component action <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> car truck bolt engine extract <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<EquivalentClass>> diesel_engine semitrailer fuel_engine extraire extraire(vehicle):diesel_engine extract(truck):engine ➔ extract(semitrailer):engine 19
  23. 23. Semantic Web Services orchestration Semantic equivalence thing <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> vehicle component action <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> car truck bolt engine extract <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<EquivalentClass>> diesel_engine semitrailer fuel_engine extraire extraire(vehicle):diesel_engine extract(truck):engine ➔ extract(semitrailer):engine 19
  24. 24. Semantic Web Services orchestration Semantic equivalence thing <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> vehicle component action <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> car truck bolt engine extract <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<EquivalentClass>> diesel_engine semitrailer fuel_engine extraire extraire(vehicle):diesel_engine extract(truck):engine ➔ extract(semitrailer):engine 19
  25. 25. Semantic Web Services orchestration Semantic equivalence thing <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> vehicle component action <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> car truck bolt engine extract <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<EquivalentClass>> diesel_engine semitrailer fuel_engine extraire extraire(vehicle):diesel_engine extract(truck):engine ➔ extract(semitrailer):engine 19
  26. 26. Semantic Web Services orchestration Semantic equivalence thing <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> vehicle component action <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> car truck bolt engine extract <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<EquivalentClass>> diesel_engine semitrailer fuel_engine extraire ✓ extraire(vehicle):diesel_engine extract(truck):engine ➔ extract(semitrailer):engine 19
  27. 27. Semantic Web Services orchestration Semantic equivalence thing <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> vehicle component action <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> car truck bolt engine extract <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<EquivalentClass>> diesel_engine semitrailer fuel_engine extraire ✓ extraire(vehicle):diesel_engine extract(truck):engine ➔ extract(semitrailer):engine 19
  28. 28. Semantic Web Services orchestration Semantic equivalence thing <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> vehicle component action <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> car truck bolt engine extract <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<EquivalentClass>> diesel_engine semitrailer fuel_engine extraire ✓ extraire(vehicle):diesel_engine extract(truck):engine ➔ extract(semitrailer):engine 19
  29. 29. Semantic Web Services orchestration Semantic equivalence thing <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> vehicle component action <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> car truck bolt engine extract <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<subClassOf>> <<EquivalentClass>> diesel_engine semitrailer fuel_engine extraire ✓ extraire(vehicle):diesel_engine extract(truck):engine ➔ extract(semitrailer):engine ✖ 19
  30. 30. Table of contents 1. Service-Oriented Architecture 2. Ontologies usage 3. Semantic Web Services registry 4. Semantic Web Services orchestration 5. Our framework: SETHA 6. Related Work 7. Future work 8. Concluding remarks Pierre Châtel 20
  31. 31. Our framework : SETHA Technological choices justified by industrial and legacy constraints: • Ontologies → OWL language. • Web service interfaces → SAWSDL specification. • Service registry → UDDI specification, jUDDI implementation + semantic compatibility layer. • Web Processes → BPEL language, ActiveBPEL™ implementation + semantic compatibility layer. Standardized, free and/or open-source solutions. End-user easy access (dedicated GUI for SAWSDL, OWL and BPEL edition) ➥ Simple and effective solution for integration of heterogeneous systems. Pierre Châtel 21
  32. 32. Our framework : SETHA Static Specification of ontologies Specification of Services Specification of Processes Specification Runtime Service registration Process deployment Specific process execution Service selection Dynamic Pierre Châtel 22
  33. 33. Related Work • Focuses on computing similarities between semantic service offers and requests. • Fails to tackle the end-to-end matchmaking process by integrating service registration, process execution, data interchange and adaptation. [Paolucci et al., 2002]: UDDI for service registration and matchmaking based on DAML-S. [Sycara et al. 2002]: LARKS language, syntactic and semantic matchmaking. [Di Noia et al., 2003]: matchmaking based on DL subsumption between concepts, distinguishes three distinct matchmaking degrees. [Li & Horrocks, 2004]: matchmaking based on a DAML-S ontology (now OWL- S) and DL subsumption between whole offers and requests. Pierre Châtel 23
  34. 34. Future Work Ongoing work in research projects and thesis. Generalization of SETHA to non-functional considerations (QoS). Implementation of an extensible framework capable of handling: 1. Service filtering based on functional properties and constraints (defined 1 using ontological concepts). 2. Service filtering based on non-functional properties, constraints 2 (service contracts) and user preferences related to the business domain. 3. Dynamic selection of the “best” available service offer(s) based on 3 instantaneous QoS values and user preferences. Pierre Châtel 24
  35. 35. Future Work done Static Specification of ontologies todo Specification of Services Specification of Processes Specification Runtime Service registration Process deployment 1 2 Entering process execution Service Filtering 3 Service request execution Service selection Dynamic Pierre Châtel 25
  36. 36. Concluding remarks An operational implementation, while integrating innovative solutions. Ontologies: key elements of this solution. Possible improvements in performance, data adaptation and reasoning on ontologies. Integration of this implementation in a generalized framework for functional and non-functional constraints handling in Service-Oriented Architectures. On the long term, more advanced reusability in both civilian and military activities of Thales Group. Pierre Châtel 26
  37. 37. Thanks for your attention... Any questions ? Pierre Châtel 27
  38. 38. Semantic Web Services registry UDDI data model businessEntity information about the party who publishes information about à service tModel description of specification for services or taxonomies. We use it to store ontological references. businessService descriptive information about a particular family of technical services bindingTemplate technical information about a service entry point and construction specifications Pierre Châtel 28
  39. 39. Semantic Web Services orchestration Data adaptation Pierre Châtel 29

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