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Thoughts on Utility, Grid, on
                      demand, Cloud computing and
                      Appliances
                      NCOIC Conference, St Petersburg, FL
                      Mark Cathcart, IBM Distinguished Engineer,
                      m_cathcart@us.ibm.com

                      http://ibmcorner.com


                              M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com
                            Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007

INNOVATION THAT MATTERS
Agenda

    › Look back
    › Evolution of Grid and on demand
    › Cloud Computing
    › Where Next?
    › The Appliance conundrum




                                 M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com
                              Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007
2
IBM Evolution towards Internet scale data centers

    › Utility computing initiative started in 1999

    › Investment in Grid computing in 2001 onwards
       – Through Globus, Univa – Globus Toolkit
       – Contributed to Web Services
       – Open Grid Services Interface(OGSI) and Architecture(OGSA)

    › Web Services evolution
       – From web technology to secure Enterprise interoperability

    › Open Standards for Managenments and Interoperability
       – Web Services Distributed Management(WSDM), CIM, WSRF, et al


                                      M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com
                                   Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007
3
Grid and Web Services Standards



    Grid       GT1
                       GT2
                                          OGS
                                             i
 Started far
                                                                                WS-I Compliant
  apart in
                     Have been                                                   Technology
applications
                     converging
      &                                                                             Stack
                                                                         WSRF
                                                            BPEL
technology
                                 -*
                             , WS
                         WSDL
                      ML
                   PX     SOAP
                TT
     W eb
               H


             Convergence of Core Technology Standards allows
            Common base for Business and Technology Services

                                M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com
                             Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007
4
The Operating Environment Architecture

               Business                                               Application Container                                                                               Information
                                                                                                                                                                          Management
               Services
                                 User                   User                 Business Process                   Business                       Common                       Services
                                Access               Interaction              Choreography                      Function                       Services
      User                      Services              Services                   Services                       Services                                                 Information Access
                 Business
                                                                                                                                                                        Information Integration
                 Services       Adaptation            Collaboration                  Choreography           Packaged Applications               Reporting
                                                                                                                                                                              Analytics
                                                                                                                 Custom
                                Interaction          Presentation…              Business Rules…                                              Acquired Services
                                                                                                               Applications…                                                   Content
                 Business
                 Services     Connectivity…                                                                                                  Personalization…           Metadata Services …



                                                                       Mediation, Messaging, Events
                Business
    Business
               Performance                                                  Business Connections
               Managemen
                     t                                                Enterprise Service Bus


                                                                           Utility Business Services

                                                          Rating
                             Metering Services                                           Billing                     Peering                      Settlement…
                 Business
                                                               Service Level Automation & Orchestration
                 Services

                             Problem Management        Security Services                Workload Services           Configuration Services           Availability Services…

                                                                      Resource Virtualization Services
                 Business
                 Services
                                         Server                                                                     Network                              Resource Mapping…
                                                                           Storage

                                                                      Infrastructure Services

                                                     M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com
                                                  Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007
5
SOA Reference Architecture
    The Enabling Foundation for an SOA Product Strategy


                      IBM SOA Reference Architecture

                                                                                                             Provide a common,
                         Business Innovation & Optimization                                            1    open-standards-based
                                     Services
                                                                                                                 run-time…
                  Interaction           Process               Information
                   Services             Services                Services                                    …on top of which we build




                                                                                          Management
    Development




                                                                                                       2     added-value targeted at




                                                                                            Service
      Services




                                                                                                               specific domains…
                                Enterprise Service Bus
                                                                                                            …providing a platform for
                                                                                                       3    clients and ISVs / SIs to
                   Partner           Business App               Access
                   Services            Services                 Services                                        build solutions…

                                                                                                           …around which we apply
                                                                                                       4
                                Infrastructure Services
                                                                                                           a common set of quality of
                                                                                                               service extensions


         Built on a common framework for: Tooling, Runtime, Messaging, and Infrastructure



                                                        M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com
                                                     Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007
6
IBM Unveiled Plans “Blue Cloud” on 11/15

      › Family of ready-to-use cloud computing offerings
         – Based on open standards and open source software together with IBM software,
           systems technology and services
         – First offering to support Power and x86 processors
         – Plans to support System z and highly dense rack clusters

      › Reduces IT management complexity and increases business
        responsiveness
      › Supports both existing and emerging, data-intensive workloads
      › Vietnamese Ministry of Science and Technology plans to leverage Almaden
       Research Center’s cloud environment to run country innovation portal

      › Delivers an SOA environment
         – in a on demand infrastructure, based on a specific implementation

       Initial Blue Cloud offering targeted for Spring, 2008 availability


                                           M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com
                                        Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007
7
Forces Driving Cloud Computing



                                                                                 Fast growth of mobile
                                                                                       commerce
      Explosion of data
    intensive applications
         on Internet




                                                                                       Advances in
                                                                                 computer architecture
           Increased network                                                               and
         capacity and availability                                                 price/performance


       Requires massively scalable cloud infrastructures to serve billions of
                     heterogeneous browser-based clients
                                        M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com
                                     Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007
8
Blue Cloud Initial Offering

Delivers a massively scalable and flexible compute platform for
hosting both existing and emerging data-intensive workloads.
                                                                                              Apache



                                                                       Virtual Virtual          Virtual   Virtual
                                                                       Machine Machine          Machine   Machine


                                                                                 Tivoli Monitoring Agent
                 BladeCenter
                 BladeCenter
                                                                                         Linux with Xen

                                                                             Virtualized Infrastructure Based
                                                                                      on Linux & Xen
                                                                           • Based on open standards and open source
                                                                             software
                                Provisioning Baremetal
          Monitoring            & Virtual Machines
                                                                           • Includes IBM software, systems
                                                                             technology and services
                 DB2
                                                                           • Supports both Power and x86 processors
                           Provisioning     WebSphere
  IBM
                        Manager v.5.1     Application Server
Monitoring v.6
                                                                           • Web 2.0 resource reservation system
            Provisioning Management Stack
                                                M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com
                                             Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007
9
IBM and Massive Scale Computing


       › IBM has established pedigree to deliver cloud computing
       › Blue Cloud builds off of IBM’s decades of experience
         developing and leading massive-scale computing:
          – Parallel Sysplex
          – IBM’s Deep Blue SP Cluster
          – Blue Gene
          – Grid Computing




                                 M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com
                              Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007
10
Business Benefits of Blue Cloud

     › Cost efficient model for creating and acquiring information services

     › Reduces IT management complexity

     › Increases business responsiveness with real-time capacity
      reallocation as demand for compute power grows

     › Powers both existing and emerging data-intensive workloads

     › Significantly improved TCO and environmental properties



                                    M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com
                                 Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007
11
Vietnam Ministry Leverages Cloud to Run
     Innovation Program

                   VISTA Innovation Portal                                        VIP pilot hosted on IBM’s
                           (VIP)                                                    Blue Cloud computing
                                                                                  infrastructure at Almaden


      Students




      Teachers
                                                                                 VIP, powered by IBM Innovation Factory,
                                                                                 provides a platform to foster collaborative
                     Blogs        Wikis          Forums
                                                                                 innovation among major universities and
                       Profiles       Social Tagging                             research institutes.
                        Information Discovery
     Researchers
                     IBM Innovation Factory
                                        M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com
                                     Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007
12
First Principles For Simplification
     › Decompose large/hard problems into multiple smaller/easier ones
         – Form complex systems from modular subsystems (e.g., using services model)
         – Employ layered/hierarchical system structures
     ›   Avoid interlocking dependencies
         – Decouple components (both hardware and software) using virtualization, standard interfaces, and service
           abstractions
         – Provide compatibility per component type/family, and across versions over time
     ›   Use standard interfaces, formats, and functions
         – Use standard components and configurations; reduce the number of unique building blocks
     ›   Use building blocks that hide their internal implementation
     ›   Leverage homogeneity
         – Aggregate multiple building blocks of like type into pools that are managed as a single entity
     ›   Limit change to where it really matters
         – Exploit mature products and processes to minimize problems/incidents and leverage existing skills
     ›   Unify management infrastructure and centralize points of control.
         – Avoid use of multiple, interdependent management infrastructures, functions, interfaces
     ›   Reduce the need for user/operator skills and effort
         – Simplify and automate tasks that are complex or costly
         – Provide intelligent default behaviors
                                                       M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com
     ›   …                                          Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007
13
IBM Virtualization Strategy

                       Service Management: Tivoli                                                                                 Process Management
        1. Tivoli roadmap to fully support and leverage                  Change Mgmt, Configuration, Problem Mgmt, Incident Mgmt, Availability Mgmt
           virtualization on IBM and industry platforms
                                                                                                                           Business System Management
        2. Common development with Systems Director
                                                                         Business Continuity QOS (& Capacity Management) Resource Pool Mgmt.
        3. Advantage IBM platforms through additional
           exploitation and solution orientation                                                                      System Lifecycle Management
                                                                         Create, Deploy, Discover, Monitor, Update, Audit /Compliance/Secure, License



                Platform Management: Systems Director




                                                                                                                                                    Deployment Mgr


                                                                                                                                                                     WPAR Mgr




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                TVDC Integrity Mgr
                                                                                                                                                                                   Partition Wkld Mgr
                                                                                                       VS Relocation Mgr


                                                                                                                              VS Availability Mgr
                                                                                  Active Energy Mgr




                                                                                                                                                                                                        TVDC Isolation Mgr
        1. All IBM platforms and multiple x86 hypervisors
        2. Advantage System z & p - common user interfaces
           with high volume servers for skills leverage
        3. Support multiple x86 hypervisors – including
           VMware – to alleviate VMware domination
                                                                                                               Systems Director
        4. Compelling roadmap, infuse selective acquisitions
                                                                                                      Integrated Virtual & Physical Mgmt

                                                                               System z                                       System p/i                                                                                System x
                                                                                                                                                                                Storage
                       Virtualization Technologies
        1. Sustain leadership in System z & p and storage:
           customer value from superior scaling and RAS
        2. Foster open industry alternatives to VMware in
           x86 space to alleviate their market domination
        3. Drive adoption of IBM storage virtualization                                                                                                                                                                      VMware,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Viridian,
                                                                            PR/SM LPARs   LPARs   DS LPARs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Xen, etc.
                                                                              and z/VM  and WPARs and SVC


                                                   M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com
                                                Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007
14
Classic Complex Data Center

       Business Processes as Services




              Topologies of federated services are mapped onto large numbers
              of diverse virtual and physical resources from competing vendors
              Sea of Heterogeneous Servers, Storage, Networks and Their Virtualization




     › Data center complexity has reached crisis levels and is continuing to increase
     › Businesses spend a large fraction of their IT budgets on data center resource
      management rather than on valuable applications and business processes
                                           M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com
                                        Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007
15
Data Center “implementation” Approach to IT
     Simplification

        Business Processes as Services




        Topologies of federated services are mapped onto smaller numbers of systems.
                     implementations replace ad hoc groups of systems.
                      Sea of Heterogeneous Servers, Storage, Networks and Their Virtualization
                                                                                                                        implementation
                          implementation
                                                                                         implementation
        implementation

                                                                            implementation
       implementation              E                                                                                           implementation
                                     E
                            implementation


     › An implementation is a new kind of parallel system designed to simplify data centers
       – It consists of a pool of compatible networked systems with integrated virtualization and management software that manages and leverages virtualization
       – It can scale from a few to many thousands of servers, while having management complexity / cost essentially independent of its size and like that of a single
         system
       – Parallel Sysplex, Blue Gene, and Google are examples of implementations in many ways
       – Virtual resource mobility is an important capability within most implementations


                                                                      M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com
                                                                   Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007
16
Blue Cloud implementation Illustration

              IT Cloud:
              • Heterogeneous with many traditional networked systems (not shown)
              • Immense scale (may even span datacenters)
              • Network service (data center fabric)
              • Security service (federated identity)
              • Service Registry
                                                            “implementation”
                                      Autonomic Resource Pool: (1 of N per cloud)
                                      • Homogeneous systems with virtual resource
                                        mobility functions (z/VM, PHYP, Xen)
                                      • Locally networked servers and storage / SVC
                                      • Integrated software stacks
                                      • Libraries of virtual resources (e.g., images)
                                      • Scales from a drawer to many racks
                                      • Integrated service management:
                                           – Workload optimization
                                           – Availability
                                           – Recovery
                                           – Change/release mgmt
                                           – Security




                                         M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com
                                      Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007
17
Blue Cloud implementation Examples
                 IT Cloud:
                 • Heterogeneous with many traditional networked systems (not shown)
                 • Immense scale (may even span datacenters)
                 • Network service (data center fabric)                     DB service
                 • Security service (federated identity)
                 • Service Registry
                                                                                  File system service
                                     z/VM, LPAR service
        Consolidation
         service
                                       PHYP service                               Storage backup,
                                                                                  archive, service
          Virtual Client                   Xen service
           service
                                              Hybrid service
             SAP Application
              service




                                         M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com
                                      Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007
18
Implementation Value Proposition

     › implementations are highly scalable, virtualized systems that provide a single
      system management image – they look like single systems with respect to
      management.
       – implementations dramatically reduce the effort customers must expend in managing their
         physical and virtual hardware resources.
     › implementations apply the first principles of simplification:
       – Insulate IT software stacks from changing hardware
         • Make hardware/firmware maintenance non-disruptive to virtual resources and their software
           stacks/applications
         • Avoid the need to upgrade software stacks in order to move them to newer hardware
       – Aggregate like resources into pools that can be managed as a single entity independent
         of their aggregate scale
       – Integrate IT components so they work together “out of the box”
       – Support software appliances for a variety of benefits
       – Separate application management from IT resource management, allowing customers
         to focus more on their applications and less on the IT plumbing
       – ….
                                             M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com
                                          Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007
19
Services Map To Images Which Deploy To
     implementations

              Processes
                                         image
                                                                                             image
                                                                                  image
     #1: Tools & Standards
     for image creation




     #2: GRID-SOA Interfaces
                                      GRID-SOA Abstraction (‘place images in implementations’)
     #3: Deploy Images
     from libraries


                IBM
                implementations

     #4: Optimize implementation
     for performance, availability,                                                            System x
                                         System z                            System p
     and efficiency




                                                    M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com
                                                 Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007
20
Moving toward Internet Scale Data Center

                                                                          Service
                                Shared
       Simplified
                                                                         Orientation
                            Infrastructure

                           Highly Virtualized                          Internet scale
      Consolidate from
                           pools of resources
      many to fewer data                                               Embedded super computers
                           (homogenous clouds)
      centers                                                          Cloud computing
                           Automated Service                           Web + Enterprise platform
      Server/Storage
                           management
      consolidation                                                    Converged network
                           Green design
      Server / Storage
      Virtualization
                           Optimized Appliances
      Improve business     and Hybrid Systems
      resilience
                           Advanced provisioning
      Reduce Systems       and workload
      Management           management
      Complexity
                           High performance
      Green                network
      Converged Network



                              M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com
                           Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007
21
The Stack: Four Key Infrastructure areas
                                                                                                                                           IBM Plays
     Service Management
      Process Management (Physical & Virtual)
        Change Mgmt Configuration Mgmt. Release Management Problem Mgmt Incident Mgmt Availability Management Capacity mgmt




                                                                                                                                            TIVOLI




                                                                                                                                                             NEW “INTEGRATED AND OPEN” SYSTEMS
      Business System Management (Physical and Virtual Systems)
        Business Continuity QOS (& Capacity Management)   System Consolidation Resource Pool (Farm) Mgmt.


      System Lifecycle Management (Physical & Virtual) - Image                                                                               Many
                                                                                                                                           Common
        Create Version Deploy   Discover Monitor Update (Patch) Audit /Compliance/Secure License/Usage Destroy                             Functions

                                                    Standards Based Interfaces




                                                                                                                                            DIRECTOR
                                                                                                                                            SYSTEMS
     Platform Management – combined Physical and Virtual
      Physical Platform Management                            Virtualization Create             Clone      Aggregate
                                                                             Delete             Suspend    Segregate
                                                              Basic Control Move/Migrate                               Common Data Model
       Firmware update Hardware monitoring Bare metal Install                                   Resume     Snapshot


                                                    Standards Based Interfaces
                                            Virtual Resources & Aggregations




                                                                                                                                            VIRTUALIZATION
                                                                                                                                            TECHNOLOGIES
                                 Virt. Stg. Servers                                                                      Virt. Routers
         Virt. Servers                                    Virt. Disks/Files                  Virt. Networks

     System Resource Virtualizers – add on hypervisors, SVC, ...
                                                            Storage Virt.
                            Server Virt.                                                          Network Virt.

     System Resources – hardware and OS software including integrated virtualizers
                                                                                                             Network Hardware
             SMP Servers                             Storage Servers                 Storage
                                     Blades

                                                                  M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com
                                                               Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007
22
Virtual Software Resource Pools?

     Composite Configurations of virtual implementation                                      implementation application mgmt.
       resources                                                                               software
     • Networked services made of virtual resources (atoms and                               • Service Lifecycle management
                                                                                             • Service Registry
       molecules) provisioned from virtual resource libraries
     • SOA-based                                                                             • Service Management (monitoring,
                                                                                               optimization, security, continuity,
                                                                                               process automation)
     Virtualized Software Resource Pool                                                      implementation resource mgmt.
                                                                                               software
     • Middleware and Application Pools, hosted on virtualized
                                                                                             • Service and application mgmt of Pools
       hardware resource pool
     • Mobility of software resources within pool and with like pools                        • Automated software lifecycle mgmt
     • Initial middleware pools: WAS, db, transaction, file system,                          • Automated workload optimization, HA,
       LAMP, windows consolidation                                                             backup and recovery
     • Initial application pools: collaboration, desktop PS, SAP, etc.                       • Virtual software image libraries

     Virtualized Hardware Resource Pool                                                      implementation resource mgmt.
                                                                                               software
     • Pool of compatible servers with integrated hypervisors
     • Mobility of all virtual resources within pool and with like pools                     • Service and platform mgmt of physical
     • Three main types: System z with z/VM, System p with PHYP,                               and virtual resources
                                                                                             • Same APIs/GUIs as for SMP server
       System x with Xen
     • Scales from a drawer to many racks                                                    • Automated QoS/HA/Power optimization
                                                                                             • Virtual resource libraries



                                                    M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com
                                                 Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007
23
The Appliance spectrum

     › Appliances are a spectrum, not just stand-alone device




           Hardware Appliance   Stand alone BladeCenter form              Rack Mounted or   Virtual Appliance
                                factor appliance or Integrated             Total Solution
                                     “solution” appliance                   “appliance”



     › Special purpose hardware, optional in all cases
     › Power processor advantage – low power options, p5+ to p7, PRISM
     › Solution “appliances”
       – Total solution package incorporating H/W, S/W and possibly services
                                          M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com
                                       Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007
24
The Power appliance advantage




         Deploy into real                       Re-factor into industry                 Deploy in racks and as
             appliances                               standard blades                           “Appliance on
                                                             and racks                       demand”, virtual
                                                                                                    appliances




              Power PRISM processor and
                       other accelerators

                             Power Systems p6
                               and derivatives




                               › Built on the Power platform
                                               M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com
                                            Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007
25
How can you “build” a solution today?
                                                                                                        “Integrated”
                   “A la carte”




                            +


                            +

     VMWorld 2007 S288511 Virtual Appliances and the New Datacenter - Massimo Re Ferre’, Senior IT/Architect, IBM
                                                               M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com
                                                            Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007
26
How can you “build” a solution today?
The true story...
                                                                                                         “Integrated”
                    “A la carte”
     - Very inefficient                                                               -Solves some issues
                                                                                            - but doesn’t scale.....
     - Lots of hw / os / sw dependencies
                                                                                      -Still too many servers
     - Server proliferation
                                                                                      - Still running at 5 / 20 %
     - Supportability matrixes is more than a nightmare....
                                                                                      - 100 solutions = 100 different
                                                                                      servers/appliances

                                                                                      - HA issues ?

                                                                                      - ISV just can’t handle this model

                                                                                      ... they deal with SW ... not HW.

                                                                                      - etc. Etc.



      VMWorld 2007 S288511 Virtual Appliances and the New Datacenter - Massimo Re Ferre’, Senior IT/Architect, IBM
                                                                M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com
                                                             Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007
27
In medio stat virtus
 Virtue stands in the middle. Virtue is in the moderate, not the extreme position. (Horace)



         Why don’t we take the best of both worlds ?

         Why don’t we take a “hardware appliance” ..... and virtualize it ?




                                                                                                              Virtual Appliance




     VMWorld 2007 S288511 Virtual Appliances and the New Datacenter - Massimo Re Ferre’, Senior IT/Architect, IBM
                                                               M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com
                                                            Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007
28
The current Open Software Stack

                                                                                                  › A default Win2003 install is
                                Application
                                                                                                        roughly 2GB
                                                                                                  ›     Windows 2003 has roughly 50/60
                                                                                                        components/services
                           Application Support (API’s)
                                                                                                  ›     Most of this code is not even used
          Security                          Workload Management
                                                                                                        at run time
             Storage Services
                                                                                                  ›
                                                           Network Services                             Lots of dependencies among
                                                                                                        application, hardware and OS
                     Operating System
                                                                                                        services
                                                          HA Cluster
                                                                                                  ›     Most of the time the application is
      HW Management
                                                                                                        bound to and meant to “possess”
                              Hardware Support
                                                                                                        the whole stack
                                                                                                  ›     Causes server sprawl
                                                                                                  ›     Application migration problems



     VMWorld 2007 S288511 Virtual Appliances and the New Datacenter - Massimo Re Ferre’, Senior IT/Architect, IBM
                                                               M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com
                                                            Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007
29
But have you noticed what’s happening?

                              Application                                                                             Application
                            Application Support (API’s)                                                             Application Support (API’s)
                 Security                                                                                Security
                                       Workload Management                                                                     Workload Management
                  Storage Services                                                                       Storage Services
                                              Network Services                                                                        Network Services
                       Operating System                                                                       Operating System
                                       HA Cluster                                                                            HA Cluster
             HW Management                                                                         HW Management
                        Hardware Support                                                                      Hardware Support




           Mobility
                                                                     Virtualization




        Many typical “OS services” are draining into the virtual infrastructure
                 Fast becoming a “composite OS”
        this is diminishing, or at least changing, the role of the OS (as we know it today at least)


     VMWorld 2007 S288511 Virtual Appliances and the New Datacenter - Massimo Re Ferre’, Senior IT/Architect, IBM
                                                                M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com
                                                             Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007
30
But have you noticed what’s happening?

                             Application                                                                    Application
                          Application Support (API’s)                                                   Application Support (API’s)

                          Operating System                                                              Operating System




           Mobility            HA Cluster                               Mgmt               Future ?
                                                         DRS
                                                                    Virtualization




        Many typical “OS services” are draining into the virtual infrastructure
                 Fast becoming a “composite OS”
        this is diminishing, or at least changing, the role of the OS (as we know it today at least)


     VMWorld 2007 S288511 Virtual Appliances and the New Datacenter - Massimo Re Ferre’, Senior IT/Architect, IBM
                                                               M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com
                                                            Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007
31
Virtual Appliance continuum(1)

     › Virtual appliance
        – Bi-directional delivery channel
           • Entry level, restricted function version
              – i.e. EMC Avamar virtual edition
           • Up-sell to full external appliance
              – i.e. EMC Avamar datacenter edition
           • Use same code-base, packaging

        – Consolidation option, one or more servers running multiple virtual appliances
           • Deployed into common OS virtualization – WPARs
           • Deployed using own Server packaging, ie custom Linux
           • i.e. Cisco vFrame – network, security, XML virtual appliances in network “server”




                                            M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com
                                         Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007
32
Virtual Appliance continum(2)

     › Virtual Appliances
       – Easy install, for SMB on existing server
          • Does not require new rack, Bladecenter
          • If Software Appliance, does not update, disrupt existing OS/Apps
       – Efficient use of existing infrastructure
       – Exploit Capacity upgrade on-demand
          • Exploit available capacity
       – Use accelerator or co-processor Firmware “masked” operation
             – Flexible charging option




                                             M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com
                                          Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007
33
Summary

     › Utility computing infrastructure can be implemented now!
        – Build from components
        – Use industry standard, services based management

        – Deploy solution offerings
           • IBM Bluecloud
           • Use Grid solution providers

        – Focus on implementations
           • Need to understand application needs
           • Not just infrastructure

     › Traditional OS functions
        – Implemented in infrastructure fabric
        – Composite OS
           • OS constructed from distributed software and fabric services


                                              M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com
                                           Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007
34
Service Oriented Infrastructure

     › IBM Virtualization and the On Demand
      Business – Redbook
       – Book from 2004, a little dated but Chapter-
         3 sets out Service Oriented Infrastructure

       – http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/red
         p9115.html

       – Or Google for “Virtualization and the on
         demand business”
       – Author Chapters 1-4




                                       M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com
                                    Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007
35

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Thoughts on Utility, Grid, Cloud Computing and Appliances

  • 1. Thoughts on Utility, Grid, on demand, Cloud computing and Appliances NCOIC Conference, St Petersburg, FL Mark Cathcart, IBM Distinguished Engineer, m_cathcart@us.ibm.com http://ibmcorner.com M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007 INNOVATION THAT MATTERS
  • 2. Agenda › Look back › Evolution of Grid and on demand › Cloud Computing › Where Next? › The Appliance conundrum M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007 2
  • 3. IBM Evolution towards Internet scale data centers › Utility computing initiative started in 1999 › Investment in Grid computing in 2001 onwards – Through Globus, Univa – Globus Toolkit – Contributed to Web Services – Open Grid Services Interface(OGSI) and Architecture(OGSA) › Web Services evolution – From web technology to secure Enterprise interoperability › Open Standards for Managenments and Interoperability – Web Services Distributed Management(WSDM), CIM, WSRF, et al M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007 3
  • 4. Grid and Web Services Standards Grid GT1 GT2 OGS i Started far WS-I Compliant apart in Have been Technology applications converging & Stack WSRF BPEL technology -* , WS WSDL ML PX SOAP TT W eb H Convergence of Core Technology Standards allows Common base for Business and Technology Services M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007 4
  • 5. The Operating Environment Architecture Business Application Container Information Management Services User User Business Process Business Common Services Access Interaction Choreography Function Services User Services Services Services Services Information Access Business Information Integration Services Adaptation Collaboration Choreography Packaged Applications Reporting Analytics Custom Interaction Presentation… Business Rules… Acquired Services Applications… Content Business Services Connectivity… Personalization… Metadata Services … Mediation, Messaging, Events Business Business Performance Business Connections Managemen t Enterprise Service Bus Utility Business Services Rating Metering Services Billing Peering Settlement… Business Service Level Automation & Orchestration Services Problem Management Security Services Workload Services Configuration Services Availability Services… Resource Virtualization Services Business Services Server Network Resource Mapping… Storage Infrastructure Services M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007 5
  • 6. SOA Reference Architecture The Enabling Foundation for an SOA Product Strategy IBM SOA Reference Architecture Provide a common, Business Innovation & Optimization 1 open-standards-based Services run-time… Interaction Process Information Services Services Services …on top of which we build Management Development 2 added-value targeted at Service Services specific domains… Enterprise Service Bus …providing a platform for 3 clients and ISVs / SIs to Partner Business App Access Services Services Services build solutions… …around which we apply 4 Infrastructure Services a common set of quality of service extensions Built on a common framework for: Tooling, Runtime, Messaging, and Infrastructure M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007 6
  • 7. IBM Unveiled Plans “Blue Cloud” on 11/15 › Family of ready-to-use cloud computing offerings – Based on open standards and open source software together with IBM software, systems technology and services – First offering to support Power and x86 processors – Plans to support System z and highly dense rack clusters › Reduces IT management complexity and increases business responsiveness › Supports both existing and emerging, data-intensive workloads › Vietnamese Ministry of Science and Technology plans to leverage Almaden Research Center’s cloud environment to run country innovation portal › Delivers an SOA environment – in a on demand infrastructure, based on a specific implementation Initial Blue Cloud offering targeted for Spring, 2008 availability M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007 7
  • 8. Forces Driving Cloud Computing Fast growth of mobile commerce Explosion of data intensive applications on Internet Advances in computer architecture Increased network and capacity and availability price/performance Requires massively scalable cloud infrastructures to serve billions of heterogeneous browser-based clients M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007 8
  • 9. Blue Cloud Initial Offering Delivers a massively scalable and flexible compute platform for hosting both existing and emerging data-intensive workloads. Apache Virtual Virtual Virtual Virtual Machine Machine Machine Machine Tivoli Monitoring Agent BladeCenter BladeCenter Linux with Xen Virtualized Infrastructure Based on Linux & Xen • Based on open standards and open source software Provisioning Baremetal Monitoring & Virtual Machines • Includes IBM software, systems technology and services DB2 • Supports both Power and x86 processors Provisioning WebSphere IBM Manager v.5.1 Application Server Monitoring v.6 • Web 2.0 resource reservation system Provisioning Management Stack M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007 9
  • 10. IBM and Massive Scale Computing › IBM has established pedigree to deliver cloud computing › Blue Cloud builds off of IBM’s decades of experience developing and leading massive-scale computing: – Parallel Sysplex – IBM’s Deep Blue SP Cluster – Blue Gene – Grid Computing M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007 10
  • 11. Business Benefits of Blue Cloud › Cost efficient model for creating and acquiring information services › Reduces IT management complexity › Increases business responsiveness with real-time capacity reallocation as demand for compute power grows › Powers both existing and emerging data-intensive workloads › Significantly improved TCO and environmental properties M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007 11
  • 12. Vietnam Ministry Leverages Cloud to Run Innovation Program VISTA Innovation Portal VIP pilot hosted on IBM’s (VIP) Blue Cloud computing infrastructure at Almaden Students Teachers VIP, powered by IBM Innovation Factory, provides a platform to foster collaborative Blogs Wikis Forums innovation among major universities and Profiles Social Tagging research institutes. Information Discovery Researchers IBM Innovation Factory M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007 12
  • 13. First Principles For Simplification › Decompose large/hard problems into multiple smaller/easier ones – Form complex systems from modular subsystems (e.g., using services model) – Employ layered/hierarchical system structures › Avoid interlocking dependencies – Decouple components (both hardware and software) using virtualization, standard interfaces, and service abstractions – Provide compatibility per component type/family, and across versions over time › Use standard interfaces, formats, and functions – Use standard components and configurations; reduce the number of unique building blocks › Use building blocks that hide their internal implementation › Leverage homogeneity – Aggregate multiple building blocks of like type into pools that are managed as a single entity › Limit change to where it really matters – Exploit mature products and processes to minimize problems/incidents and leverage existing skills › Unify management infrastructure and centralize points of control. – Avoid use of multiple, interdependent management infrastructures, functions, interfaces › Reduce the need for user/operator skills and effort – Simplify and automate tasks that are complex or costly – Provide intelligent default behaviors M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com › … Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007 13
  • 14. IBM Virtualization Strategy Service Management: Tivoli Process Management 1. Tivoli roadmap to fully support and leverage Change Mgmt, Configuration, Problem Mgmt, Incident Mgmt, Availability Mgmt virtualization on IBM and industry platforms Business System Management 2. Common development with Systems Director Business Continuity QOS (& Capacity Management) Resource Pool Mgmt. 3. Advantage IBM platforms through additional exploitation and solution orientation System Lifecycle Management Create, Deploy, Discover, Monitor, Update, Audit /Compliance/Secure, License Platform Management: Systems Director Deployment Mgr WPAR Mgr TVDC Integrity Mgr Partition Wkld Mgr VS Relocation Mgr VS Availability Mgr Active Energy Mgr TVDC Isolation Mgr 1. All IBM platforms and multiple x86 hypervisors 2. Advantage System z & p - common user interfaces with high volume servers for skills leverage 3. Support multiple x86 hypervisors – including VMware – to alleviate VMware domination Systems Director 4. Compelling roadmap, infuse selective acquisitions Integrated Virtual & Physical Mgmt System z System p/i System x Storage Virtualization Technologies 1. Sustain leadership in System z & p and storage: customer value from superior scaling and RAS 2. Foster open industry alternatives to VMware in x86 space to alleviate their market domination 3. Drive adoption of IBM storage virtualization VMware, Viridian, PR/SM LPARs LPARs DS LPARs Xen, etc. and z/VM and WPARs and SVC M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007 14
  • 15. Classic Complex Data Center Business Processes as Services Topologies of federated services are mapped onto large numbers of diverse virtual and physical resources from competing vendors Sea of Heterogeneous Servers, Storage, Networks and Their Virtualization › Data center complexity has reached crisis levels and is continuing to increase › Businesses spend a large fraction of their IT budgets on data center resource management rather than on valuable applications and business processes M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007 15
  • 16. Data Center “implementation” Approach to IT Simplification Business Processes as Services Topologies of federated services are mapped onto smaller numbers of systems. implementations replace ad hoc groups of systems. Sea of Heterogeneous Servers, Storage, Networks and Their Virtualization implementation implementation implementation implementation implementation implementation E implementation E implementation › An implementation is a new kind of parallel system designed to simplify data centers – It consists of a pool of compatible networked systems with integrated virtualization and management software that manages and leverages virtualization – It can scale from a few to many thousands of servers, while having management complexity / cost essentially independent of its size and like that of a single system – Parallel Sysplex, Blue Gene, and Google are examples of implementations in many ways – Virtual resource mobility is an important capability within most implementations M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007 16
  • 17. Blue Cloud implementation Illustration IT Cloud: • Heterogeneous with many traditional networked systems (not shown) • Immense scale (may even span datacenters) • Network service (data center fabric) • Security service (federated identity) • Service Registry “implementation” Autonomic Resource Pool: (1 of N per cloud) • Homogeneous systems with virtual resource mobility functions (z/VM, PHYP, Xen) • Locally networked servers and storage / SVC • Integrated software stacks • Libraries of virtual resources (e.g., images) • Scales from a drawer to many racks • Integrated service management: – Workload optimization – Availability – Recovery – Change/release mgmt – Security M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007 17
  • 18. Blue Cloud implementation Examples IT Cloud: • Heterogeneous with many traditional networked systems (not shown) • Immense scale (may even span datacenters) • Network service (data center fabric) DB service • Security service (federated identity) • Service Registry File system service z/VM, LPAR service Consolidation service PHYP service Storage backup, archive, service Virtual Client Xen service service Hybrid service SAP Application service M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007 18
  • 19. Implementation Value Proposition › implementations are highly scalable, virtualized systems that provide a single system management image – they look like single systems with respect to management. – implementations dramatically reduce the effort customers must expend in managing their physical and virtual hardware resources. › implementations apply the first principles of simplification: – Insulate IT software stacks from changing hardware • Make hardware/firmware maintenance non-disruptive to virtual resources and their software stacks/applications • Avoid the need to upgrade software stacks in order to move them to newer hardware – Aggregate like resources into pools that can be managed as a single entity independent of their aggregate scale – Integrate IT components so they work together “out of the box” – Support software appliances for a variety of benefits – Separate application management from IT resource management, allowing customers to focus more on their applications and less on the IT plumbing – …. M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007 19
  • 20. Services Map To Images Which Deploy To implementations Processes image image image #1: Tools & Standards for image creation #2: GRID-SOA Interfaces GRID-SOA Abstraction (‘place images in implementations’) #3: Deploy Images from libraries IBM implementations #4: Optimize implementation for performance, availability, System x System z System p and efficiency M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007 20
  • 21. Moving toward Internet Scale Data Center Service Shared Simplified Orientation Infrastructure Highly Virtualized Internet scale Consolidate from pools of resources many to fewer data Embedded super computers (homogenous clouds) centers Cloud computing Automated Service Web + Enterprise platform Server/Storage management consolidation Converged network Green design Server / Storage Virtualization Optimized Appliances Improve business and Hybrid Systems resilience Advanced provisioning Reduce Systems and workload Management management Complexity High performance Green network Converged Network M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007 21
  • 22. The Stack: Four Key Infrastructure areas IBM Plays Service Management Process Management (Physical & Virtual) Change Mgmt Configuration Mgmt. Release Management Problem Mgmt Incident Mgmt Availability Management Capacity mgmt TIVOLI NEW “INTEGRATED AND OPEN” SYSTEMS Business System Management (Physical and Virtual Systems) Business Continuity QOS (& Capacity Management) System Consolidation Resource Pool (Farm) Mgmt. System Lifecycle Management (Physical & Virtual) - Image Many Common Create Version Deploy Discover Monitor Update (Patch) Audit /Compliance/Secure License/Usage Destroy Functions Standards Based Interfaces DIRECTOR SYSTEMS Platform Management – combined Physical and Virtual Physical Platform Management Virtualization Create Clone Aggregate Delete Suspend Segregate Basic Control Move/Migrate Common Data Model Firmware update Hardware monitoring Bare metal Install Resume Snapshot Standards Based Interfaces Virtual Resources & Aggregations VIRTUALIZATION TECHNOLOGIES Virt. Stg. Servers Virt. Routers Virt. Servers Virt. Disks/Files Virt. Networks System Resource Virtualizers – add on hypervisors, SVC, ... Storage Virt. Server Virt. Network Virt. System Resources – hardware and OS software including integrated virtualizers Network Hardware SMP Servers Storage Servers Storage Blades M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007 22
  • 23. Virtual Software Resource Pools? Composite Configurations of virtual implementation implementation application mgmt. resources software • Networked services made of virtual resources (atoms and • Service Lifecycle management • Service Registry molecules) provisioned from virtual resource libraries • SOA-based • Service Management (monitoring, optimization, security, continuity, process automation) Virtualized Software Resource Pool implementation resource mgmt. software • Middleware and Application Pools, hosted on virtualized • Service and application mgmt of Pools hardware resource pool • Mobility of software resources within pool and with like pools • Automated software lifecycle mgmt • Initial middleware pools: WAS, db, transaction, file system, • Automated workload optimization, HA, LAMP, windows consolidation backup and recovery • Initial application pools: collaboration, desktop PS, SAP, etc. • Virtual software image libraries Virtualized Hardware Resource Pool implementation resource mgmt. software • Pool of compatible servers with integrated hypervisors • Mobility of all virtual resources within pool and with like pools • Service and platform mgmt of physical • Three main types: System z with z/VM, System p with PHYP, and virtual resources • Same APIs/GUIs as for SMP server System x with Xen • Scales from a drawer to many racks • Automated QoS/HA/Power optimization • Virtual resource libraries M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007 23
  • 24. The Appliance spectrum › Appliances are a spectrum, not just stand-alone device Hardware Appliance Stand alone BladeCenter form Rack Mounted or Virtual Appliance factor appliance or Integrated Total Solution “solution” appliance “appliance” › Special purpose hardware, optional in all cases › Power processor advantage – low power options, p5+ to p7, PRISM › Solution “appliances” – Total solution package incorporating H/W, S/W and possibly services M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007 24
  • 25. The Power appliance advantage Deploy into real Re-factor into industry Deploy in racks and as appliances standard blades “Appliance on and racks demand”, virtual appliances Power PRISM processor and other accelerators Power Systems p6 and derivatives › Built on the Power platform M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007 25
  • 26. How can you “build” a solution today? “Integrated” “A la carte” + + VMWorld 2007 S288511 Virtual Appliances and the New Datacenter - Massimo Re Ferre’, Senior IT/Architect, IBM M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007 26
  • 27. How can you “build” a solution today? The true story... “Integrated” “A la carte” - Very inefficient -Solves some issues - but doesn’t scale..... - Lots of hw / os / sw dependencies -Still too many servers - Server proliferation - Still running at 5 / 20 % - Supportability matrixes is more than a nightmare.... - 100 solutions = 100 different servers/appliances - HA issues ? - ISV just can’t handle this model ... they deal with SW ... not HW. - etc. Etc. VMWorld 2007 S288511 Virtual Appliances and the New Datacenter - Massimo Re Ferre’, Senior IT/Architect, IBM M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007 27
  • 28. In medio stat virtus Virtue stands in the middle. Virtue is in the moderate, not the extreme position. (Horace) Why don’t we take the best of both worlds ? Why don’t we take a “hardware appliance” ..... and virtualize it ? Virtual Appliance VMWorld 2007 S288511 Virtual Appliances and the New Datacenter - Massimo Re Ferre’, Senior IT/Architect, IBM M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007 28
  • 29. The current Open Software Stack › A default Win2003 install is Application roughly 2GB › Windows 2003 has roughly 50/60 components/services Application Support (API’s) › Most of this code is not even used Security Workload Management at run time Storage Services › Network Services Lots of dependencies among application, hardware and OS Operating System services HA Cluster › Most of the time the application is HW Management bound to and meant to “possess” Hardware Support the whole stack › Causes server sprawl › Application migration problems VMWorld 2007 S288511 Virtual Appliances and the New Datacenter - Massimo Re Ferre’, Senior IT/Architect, IBM M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007 29
  • 30. But have you noticed what’s happening? Application Application Application Support (API’s) Application Support (API’s) Security Security Workload Management Workload Management Storage Services Storage Services Network Services Network Services Operating System Operating System HA Cluster HA Cluster HW Management HW Management Hardware Support Hardware Support Mobility Virtualization Many typical “OS services” are draining into the virtual infrastructure Fast becoming a “composite OS” this is diminishing, or at least changing, the role of the OS (as we know it today at least) VMWorld 2007 S288511 Virtual Appliances and the New Datacenter - Massimo Re Ferre’, Senior IT/Architect, IBM M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007 30
  • 31. But have you noticed what’s happening? Application Application Application Support (API’s) Application Support (API’s) Operating System Operating System Mobility HA Cluster Mgmt Future ? DRS Virtualization Many typical “OS services” are draining into the virtual infrastructure Fast becoming a “composite OS” this is diminishing, or at least changing, the role of the OS (as we know it today at least) VMWorld 2007 S288511 Virtual Appliances and the New Datacenter - Massimo Re Ferre’, Senior IT/Architect, IBM M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007 31
  • 32. Virtual Appliance continuum(1) › Virtual appliance – Bi-directional delivery channel • Entry level, restricted function version – i.e. EMC Avamar virtual edition • Up-sell to full external appliance – i.e. EMC Avamar datacenter edition • Use same code-base, packaging – Consolidation option, one or more servers running multiple virtual appliances • Deployed into common OS virtualization – WPARs • Deployed using own Server packaging, ie custom Linux • i.e. Cisco vFrame – network, security, XML virtual appliances in network “server” M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007 32
  • 33. Virtual Appliance continum(2) › Virtual Appliances – Easy install, for SMB on existing server • Does not require new rack, Bladecenter • If Software Appliance, does not update, disrupt existing OS/Apps – Efficient use of existing infrastructure – Exploit Capacity upgrade on-demand • Exploit available capacity – Use accelerator or co-processor Firmware “masked” operation – Flexible charging option M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007 33
  • 34. Summary › Utility computing infrastructure can be implemented now! – Build from components – Use industry standard, services based management – Deploy solution offerings • IBM Bluecloud • Use Grid solution providers – Focus on implementations • Need to understand application needs • Not just infrastructure › Traditional OS functions – Implemented in infrastructure fabric – Composite OS • OS constructed from distributed software and fabric services M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007 34
  • 35. Service Oriented Infrastructure › IBM Virtualization and the On Demand Business – Redbook – Book from 2004, a little dated but Chapter- 3 sets out Service Oriented Infrastructure – http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/red p9115.html – Or Google for “Virtualization and the on demand business” – Author Chapters 1-4 M.Cathcart @ http://ibmcorner.com Dec. 6th, 2007 - (c) IBM Corporation 2007 35