Cakes, Sponges, Scones and Biscuits - making methods (Page 48-50 of your textbooks) Over the next 2 lessons you will be learning about cake making processes and the functions of ingredients used.What are the ingredients that make up most cakes?
Cakes – Functions of ingredientsThe main ingredients in cake making are usually not alwaysfat,sugar,eggs,flour, sometimes raising agentoften a liquid such as milk or water.•All ingredients, especially the raising agent if added separately, need tobe measured accurately•Each ingredient has a specific function in the recipe•Additional ingredients may be added•There are four basic recipes. Using these four basic recipes, ingredientsare added or combined in different ratios to produce different texturesand finishes
Cake making methods1. Rubbing–in2. Melting3. Creaming4. Whisking
Methods of making (Processes) Cake Proportion Ratio Raising Agent Method Outcome of ingredients Fat is rubbed into theRubbed in Cake 200g SR Flour 1:2 in cakes Chemical flour using fingertips Well risen product Additional ingredients-Rock buns 100g marg 1:4 in scones, Baking Powder or Self are added Rougher surface-Raspberry buns 100g caster contains Raising flour Liquid added to bind Dry, open crumb baking powder together dry texture-Scones sugar Mechanical ingredients 2 eggs Sieving Short shelf life 30ml milk Rubbing In Fat is melted with the sugars and syrupsMelted Cake Mixtures vary in Varies Chemical Moist and sticky Dry ingredients added-Flapjack ingredients depending on Bicarbonate of soda Liquids bind all Soft even texture-Gingerbread Usually a high product. ingredients together Flavour develops-Brownies sugar content during keeping Long shelf life Fat and sugar areCreamed Cake 100g SR Flour Equal Chemical creamed together Light brown quantities Eggs are slowly added a sponge with fine-Victoria Sponge 100g caster Baking Powder or Self bit at a time-Small buns sugar 1:1 Raising flour even texture Flour is folded in-Madeira Cake 100g soft marg Mechanical Longer shelf life 2 eggs Creaming Sieving Eggs and sugar areWhisked Sponge 50g caster No added fat Steam whisked until mixture Very light sponge-Swiss Roll sugar Mechanical has doubled in volume with even, soft 50g plain flour Flour is gently folded in moist texture-Gateaux Whisking-Flan case 2 eggs Sieving Short shelf life
Rubbing -in (More flour than fat)• Used for cakes that do not have a large amount of fat compared to flour• Fat is cut into chunks (block margarine is best)• Air is trapped in the sieving the flour and by lightly (with finger tips) rubbing the fat in to the flour.• Any optional ingredients (e.g. sultanas) are added before the liquid or egg that binds the crumb together.• Chemical raising agents help the cake to rise• Baked in a fairly hot oven (190-200C)• The cakes only keep fresh for a short time as they do not contain a lot of fat.• Texture is close and dense
Creaming (Half or more than half fat to flour)• Used for cakes containing more fat and sugar compared to flour• The fat and sugar are creamed together using a wooden spoon. Air is trapped by creaming the sugar and fat together• Soft margarine is better as it is easier to cream• Caster sugar has smaller crystals than granulated, so it traps more air and mixes better• Self raising flour is used to make the cakes rise• A raising agent is required when using the all in one method• They are baked in a medium to hot oven at 180C• They last longer as they have more fat
Whisking (No fat)• Used for making light sponge cakes• The eggs and sugar are whisked together to trap air (aerate) until they are light and you can form a figure eight on top (ribbon)• Self-raising flour is folded using a metal spoon –• Baked in a hot oven (200C) for a short time• The mixture is light and flexible making it ideal to roll when warm• Does not contain any fat so doesn’t keep well
Melting (High proportion of sugar ingredients)• Fat and sugar/syrup ingredients are melted in a saucepan and poured into the other ingredients• Mixture is very wet• Texture tends to be much heavier than other cakes and wont rise much• Bicarbonate of soda can be used as a raising agent to create a lighter texture• Flavour tends to improve if kept a little time.
What are the functions of flour in cakes?• Gives structure through coagulation of wheat protein (gluten)• Self raising flour acts as raising agent• Bulking agentWhat are the functions of eggs in cakes?• Holds air when whisked• Binds ingredients together• Adds colour and adds flavour• Acts as an emulsifierWhat are the functions of sugar in cakes?• Browning – adds colour• Bulking agent – holds air with fat mixture• Attracts moisture – texture• Adds flavour - sweetensWhat are the functions of fat in cakes?• Produce short textures in biscuits• Adds colour and flavour and texture• Traps air when beaten into mixture (aerates).• Create emulsions• Extends shelf life• Binding agent
Understanding faults in cake makingWhen testing and experimenting in the kitchen (developing), or making products for the first time, the results are not always perfect.As a chef, it is important to recognise and understand errors and then correct them.Knowing and understanding the functions of each ingredient and the processes used, will enable you to do this. Fault Cause Peaked cracked top Oven too hot Too much mixture for size of tin Baked on too high a shelf in oven Too stiff or too wet a mixture Over mixing cake batter Cake sinks Too much sugar causing collapse of the structure Too much raising agent Undercooking, caused by wrong temperature and time Disturbed during cooking causing structure to collapse Sugary speckled crust Too much sugar Wrong type of sugar used Insufficient creaming Close heavy texture Too much liquid in the mixture Insufficient raising agent used The creamed mixture has curdled and does not hole sufficient air Whisking method Eggs and sugar not beaten enough Over beating when adding four Coarse & open texture Too much raising agent used Insufficient mixing of flour Cake very dry Overcooking of the cake Insufficient liquid used Too much raising agent Fruit has sunk Too much liquid to carry the weight of fruit Too much sugar and raising agent
Adapting cakesYou need to be very careful when adapting cake mixtures, as changing the ingredientsand the quantity will change the flavour, texture and appearance (consider eachingredients function)Adding another ingredient will also do this, as every ingredient has more than onefunction. E.g if you add chocolate chips, consider what is in them – sugar, fat etc..How could this effect the cake?What could you add to cakes to change:• the flavour• the texture• the appearance• the nutrition
Possible ingredients for adapting cakesSpices Citrus Rinds Nuts Dried FruitCinnamon And juices Almonds AppleCloves Lemon Brazils ApricotGinger Lime Coconut BananaLemon grass Orange Pecan CherriesMixed spice Pinenut CurrantNutmeg Walnut DateVanilla Figs Fresh Fruits Pear Chopped or grated PeachEssences but be careful it RaisinPineapple does not make your SultanaLemon mixture too wet.Mint Apple Powders Be careful when addingRosewater Pear Cocoa ingredients. It couldVanilla Mashed Banana Coffee upset the balance of the sugar/fat etc. resulting in a very different cake!
Key TermsEnsure you have a good understanding of the following:Rubbing in BrowningFolding BindingRaising agent FoamingCreaming AerationBeating SettingEmulsion CoagulateCurdle RatioBatter ProportionAll-in-one CaramelisationMalliard reaction Dextrinisation
TaskFollow the recipe instructions to make the cakesTake a photo of the rubbing in/creaming/melting stage of the manufactureTake a photo of the finished productWrite up your thoughts on each cake – flavour, texture, appearance, method,possible adaptationsMake a list of other cakes / biscuits made by each method What will you be making? Small cakes: Creaming method Scones: Rubbing in method Flap Jacks: Melting method
HOMEWORK TASKComplete your notes on the recipesComplete the worksheet on Cake making Processes