Project development and implementation for strategic managers
Table of contents:Task Contents1 Choose ans organization you are considerably familiar with and develop abusiness case a new product/service/process and how its development willresult in success and profitability for your organization based on researchand also submit and idea for your product plan by outlining costs of allresources required for implementation, timescales and workable strategy.2Produce a power point presentation3Carry out project in accordance with project proposal. Include crucialfactors for success of the new product/process/service.Identify the cost of training and development of staff.Developing appropriate marketing strategy.Developing monitoring and evaluation process in regard to new process.
Task1: Choose ans organization you are considerably familiar with.Develop a business case a new product/service/process and how itsdevelopment will result in success and profitability for your organizationbased on research.Submit and idea for your product plan by outlining costs of all resourcesrequired for implementation, timescales and workable strategy.Fishery:"Training in Fish Stock Assessment and Fishery ResearchPlanning" has organized trainingcourses on fish stock assessment and workshops dealingwith the assessments of specificresources in many countries. The general experience hasbeen that in many cases properassessments were difficult to achieve due to restrictions inthe available data, both in quality andquantity.In August 1997 at its first session, the APFIC Joint Working Party on Fishery StatisticsandEconomics recommended that APFIC and FAO should prepare "draft guidelinesonmethodologies and standards for the collection of production and structural statisticsforcapture fisheries".On this basis it was decided to form an informal inter-departmental workinggroup to organizean Expert Consultation on Routine Data Collection and a Regional Workshopto allowexperts from Asia to review the draft guidelines on the collection of data from marineandinland fisheries. Chapters of the guidelines were written prior to the Expert Consultation,butduring the meeting most of these manuscripts were re-arranged and simplified.Further:1. The organization is constantly trying to identify and explore opportunities in order to surviveand be profitable.2. Its manager focuses on the market and tries to identify opportunities which the organizationcan explore and face market threats.
Central to the success or failure of a business is the health of its product (or service) mix. Theproduct life cycle concept is a useful conceptual framework within which to study how firms canvary their marketing strategies. At different stages in the product life cycle certain marketingstrategies seem to be more appropriate than others. The life cycle concept also points to thedifferent earning patterns of products or services at various points in time. It indicates that it isnecessary to have a balanced portfolio of products services in terms of cash generatingcapabilities in order to ensure steady-sales and profits at all times. Since products will generatedifferent cash flows and profits over their lives it means that the firm has to constantly review itsproduct mix, prune its product lines and introduce new products from time to time in order tomaintain long-run profits and stay in business.
Task 3:Methods of collecting data:1. Qualitative Data and Quantitative Data: Qualitative data is data that is mainly words,sounds orimages.Quantitative data is data that is mainly numbers.2. Structured and Unstructured Data: Structured data is organised, unstructured dataisrelatively disorganised.Structured data can be produced by closedquestions,unstructured data can be produced by open questions.
Setting up a data collection programme follows from identifying data needsthrough to working out how the data should becollected. In designing the programme,all options should be carefully considered.Strategies for the design of data collection programmes will vary between fisheries. Within astateor region, there almost always will be a mixture of industrial, small scale commercial,artisanal,subsistence and recreational fisheries. Each will have its own characteristics, itsown relativeimportance and its own potential for the supply of data. In addition, someinformation must beobtained from external sources, such as international market data, orcatch data from foreignfishing vessels that never visit state ports.Each fishery will require its own strategy with elements
of complete enumeration andsampling. Over time some aspects of a data collection strategy maymove from completeenumeration to sampling (or vice versa), particularly as knowledge isdeveloped andrequirements or resources change. Sampling strategies are often punctuated bycompleteenumeration from time to time in order to re-evaluate baseline data.It is not feasible toconstruct a perfect strategy for any one fishery or subsector that will meetall requirements for alltime. Flexibility and the adoption of alternative approaches must forma key component of anystrategy, whether it is designed for assessment of fish stocks, theevaluation of markets or theassessment of community dependence on fisheries.In general, however, any strategy will requirethe following steps:• evaluate existing data sets in relation to the objectives of the programme, includingaccessibilityof the data (i.e. computerised, on paper);• describe the operating characteristics of the sector or subsector (e.g. fishery, market,fleet,community, institutional environment), also known as the census or frame survey;• decide on the approach to be taken: complete enumeration or sampling, including costbenefitand cost effectiveness analysis and an evaluation of operationalconsiderations(institutional, financial and human resources);• design methods according to the approach adopted, including the form of stratificationto beused in sampling;• implement a test phase to validate the method, including participation by otherstakeholders;• establish a continuing feedback mechanism between data sources and data users toensure thatdata types, quantity, quality and origin are consistent with the requirementsfor determination ofthe performance indicator in question.INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS FOR SYSTEM DESIGN:Infrastructure information is essential for constructing frames for a data collectionprogramme.The first step is to define the water bodies and areas that will be included, andprepare adescription of the fishing industry operating within them (ports and landing places,fishing fleets,
fishers, markets and transportation routes etc.). Such information serves toprovide a detailedclassification and description of the structure of the primary fishery sector,and is essential forestablishing a proper collection scheme for all fishery data. Many of theseinstitutional data arealso required for socio-cultural analyses.Crucial factors for the success of new project/process:1. Understanding your customersThe importance of understanding the customers cannot be overstated. Most companies operatewithout clear and well-defined understanding of true customer needs, what their customersactually value the most and the least, what they are willing to pay for and what would make themstay loyal. And, even if these factors are well understood, the ability to build and execute acompetitive strategy is often lacking. So potential competitive strengths never materialize in theeyes of the customer.
2. Strong product management:But in my view, the lack of proper organization and well-defined product management processesis an extremely typical cause of inability to bring even excellent product ideas to the market.Without an owner nothing is going to happen after the initial brainstorming. And even with awell-defined product owner, most required actions will not take place unless the processes are inplace to get beyond the idea stage. Make sure the product owner is not merely a ‘technical’ one,but in fact measured on all 3 components of my initial objective: profitability, time-to-volumeand customer satisfaction. And with ownership and customer understanding in place, we canstart moving.
3. Ability to identify and focus on the best product ideasFar too many companies try to develop too many product ideas at the same time. Try to avoidthat pitfall.4. The right product architecture:
What happens when you move from the stage of product idea into deeper analysis, design andengineering? Different people take over. So we must make sure we create a handover where thenew people really understand what’s vital. And do we manage that? Rarely.Normally, there is no easy way to ‘tune’ a product architecture once products have been built andlaunched based upon that specific architecture. It’s like building a house: You better find outwhether you need an elevator before you have already built the first three floors. It is notimpossible to redesign afterwards, but it is extremely expensive and time consuming. And oftenyou are better off scratching whatever you built and start with blank sheets of paper.5. Strong project management:
This success factor is also rarely on the radar of the ‘innovation people’. But true innovation isnot about generating ideas, but about execution. Ideas are not very valuable unless they areproperly implemented, which brings me to the hard disciplines of managing time and costs,benefits and risks, team members, contractors and vendors, issues and requirements, tasks andmilestones. And all the other good stuff related to project management. Project management?Yes, proper product development requires heavy involvement across typical boundaries betweendepartments and business areas. So the project form is nearly always better than implementationthrough a line organization.6. Support for customization:
Getting the customization issue right actually has to do with most other success factors. It isrelated to understanding which customer needs are customer specific, and which are ‘generic’. Itis about building a product architecture that enables customization. And it’s about the waycustomer projects are run and how different customer groups are involved in regular productdevelopment projects.All the factors when taken together becomes as shown in the diagram below:
Analysis of the businessUnderstanding a business in depth is the goal of self-analysis and is based on detailed currentinformation on sales, profits, costs, organizational structure, management style and other factors.Approaches include: focus on marketing competencies and the resource-based view of the firmwhich are central to any thinking about self-analysis from a marketing perspective. Next there isvalue chain analysis which examines the elements upon which a competitive advantage can bebased. Other useful frameworks include Kay’s distinctive capabilities and the BalancedScorecard. Then there is shareholder value analysis which provides a financial evaluation of abusiness. These might be briefly discussed and illustrated.One should also mention sales and profitability analysis along with the need to implement morequalitative measures of analysis which try to ascertain customer perceptions of the organizationand its products or services.Creativity in business is an important issue and there is a need be aware of problems associatedwith negative mind sets and blocks to creativity. Discuss how such problem can be circumvented
and illustrate some of the creative problem solving techniques mentioned in the chapter in thebook.Sustainable competitive strategy and generic strategies:In order to keep the strategic window open it is necessary to maintaining a sustainablecompetitive advantage. In consequence, one should note that competitive advantage should bemarket led.One should explore and examine the nature of core competencies and interpret their importanceas the basis of gaining a sustainable competitive advantage in the market place. Along with thesecore competencies are a number of generic strategies that an organization can seek to follow orimplement. Each of these generic strategies should be examined in turn. That is low-cost, focusand pre-emptive strategies and differentiation strategies. The latter leads on then to theconsideration of product and service quality, customer focus and relevant issues relating to brandmanagement.Evaluation of staff development and training cost:Staff development is an important part of assisting performanceimprovement at organisational,faculty/central department, unitand individual levels. It is therefore important that the transferoflearning into the workplace is assessed through a process ofreview and evaluation so that itssuccess or otherwise can beestablished and so that we can demonstrate the contributionlearningmakes towards overall organisational success.Evaluation is the process of finding out how the development ortraining process has affected theindividual, team and theorganisation.The benefits of evaluating training and development are to:- Promote business efficiency by linking efforts to train anddevelop staff to operational priorities,goals and targets.
- Identify cost effective and valuable training events orprogrammes, leading to better focusedlearning anddevelopment.- Ensure the transfer of learning into the workplace.- Use and reinforce techniques learned to help improvequality and customer service within theorganisation.- Help define future development objectives.The role of employee training and development is becoming more important as companies areincreasingly relying on the knowledge, skills and abilities of their human capital to drive firmperformance. According to the SHRM Employee Development Survey Report, the top threemethods that are used most frequently for employee development are generic training (84%),cross-functional training (80%) and leadership training (71%). Since training is a majorcomponent in enhancing employee competencies, tracking the training-cost-per-employee metrichelps determine the investment in training at an individual level. This metric can be computed bydividing the total training cost for an organization by its headcount. Shown below is the formulafor calculating the general cost:
Organizations commit to training for different reasons, such as improving product quality,introducing technology to gain operational efficiency, reducing errors, etc. Yet capturing thetraining cost per employee is only the initial step in quantifying the value of training. From there,it is necessary for HR professionals to analyze the effectiveness of training by identifyingoperational results, if any, that training had on employee performance. To more completelyevaluate the return on investment of training, HR professionals must work with departmentmanagers to determine the effects of improved employee performance on business results. Forexample, if recent training improved employee performance by reducing the amount of errorsthose assembly technicians made when assembling a product, it may be possible to quantify theamount of time that quality control technicians saved in reworking products before they areshipped to customers. Tracking this metric may also facilitate the budgeting process. Forexample, based on an established record of training cost per employee, HR practitioners canestimate the expenses involved in training new hires. In addition, by comparing training cost peremployee with similar organizations, HR professionals may find the data helpful in justifyingtraining initiatives for their organizations, because developing the skills of their workforce is oneway that organizations can enhance their competitiveness in the market. An illustration of thiscan be seen when call-center employees are provided with in-depth customer and conflictresolution training. Such training provides call-center employees with additional skills to
positively resolve customer complaints, which, in turn, creates a loyal customer base that willlikely purchase products from the organization in the future.Other worth noting facts and various cost factors:
Terms of reference:1. Acheson, J. M. (1981). Anthropology of Fishing. Annual Review of Anthropology10:275-316.2. Anderson, J.E. (1987). Quotas as options: optimality and quota licence pricingunderuncertainty. Journal of International Economics, 23(1/2):21-39.3. Caddy, J. and Mahon, R. (1995). Reference points for fisheries management. FAOFish.Tech. Pap. No. 347. Rome, FAO, 83p.4. Davidse, W.P., Cormack, K., Oakeshott, E., Frost, H., Jensen, C., Rey, H.S., Foucault,F.and Taal, C. (1993). Costs and earnings of fishing fleets in four EC countriescalculatedon a uniform basis for the development of sectoral fleet models. The Hague,AgriculturalEconomic Research Institute (LEI-DLO).5. FAO, (1995a). Code of conduct for responsible fisheries. Rome, FAO, 41p.6. FAO, (1995b). Programme for the World Census of Agriculture 2000 (WCA 2000).FAOStatistical Development Series No 5, Rome, FAO, 79 p.7. El Sayed H.R. (on-going) Ecological studies on planktonic and epiphyticmicroinvertebrates in LakeNasser, Egypt. Faculty of Science, Benha University, Egypt8. Sarkar, Sanchta. (on-going) Reservoir Fisheries Development in Indian Indo-GangeticBasin: AnEcono-institutional Perspective. Ph, D. Thesis, Vidyasagar University,Midnapore, West Bengal
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