The Gender Dimension of Climate Change and Food Security for the Asian Farmers’ Association Bangkok, Thailand October 6  -...
Understanding the gender dimension of climate change and food security: Important  Considerations <ul><li>Special role of ...
Understanding the gender dimension of climate change and food security: Important  Considerations <ul><li>Women are import...
Objectives of the research <ul><li>To understand and document the impacts of climate change on food security and how these...
Context of the research: Global effort to address climate change … . <ul><li>1992 - United Nations Framework Convention on...
Climate change negotiations: The 2007 Bali Plan of Action <ul><li>1. Mitigation  </li></ul><ul><li>Developed countries - Q...
Some issues and debates <ul><li>1.  Critique of Clean Development Mechanism which provides for carbon trading  </li></ul><...
Some controversial issues and debates <ul><li>Inclusion of Land use, land use conversion and forestry (LULUCF) in ascertai...
Agriculture and Climate Change <ul><li>Agriculture is a major source of GHG, accounting for 14% of global GHG emission </l...
Agriculture and Climate Change <ul><li>Between 1990 and 2005, agricultural emission in developing countries increased by 3...
GHG Emission of selected countries
Share of Selected Countries to World Co2 Emissions
Research Methodology and Parameters <ul><li>Parties involved in the research </li></ul><ul><li>Men and women farmer leader...
Research Methodology and Parameters <ul><li>Village consultations </li></ul><ul><li>Workshop 1: Gender activity profiles o...
Research Parameters <ul><li>Indonesia - Solor, Adonnara and Flores  </li></ul><ul><li>Timor Leste - Oe-Cusse </li></ul><ul...
Research Results
Women work longer hours than men <ul><li>In Indonesia, men typically work for 10 to 12 hours, while women work for 12 to 1...
Women take on productive and reproductive work <ul><li>In Indonesia, women devote 30% to 50% per cent of their workday und...
Women play an important role in ensuring household food security <ul><li>Food production </li></ul><ul><li>Food storage  <...
Food insecurity is rampant in many rural areas in SE Asia <ul><li>Food insecurity is not only the presence of hunger but a...
Coping Mechanisms <ul><li>Lesser consumption of food </li></ul><ul><li>Back to basics, going back to traditional food </li...
Coping Mechanisms <ul><li>Adoption of sustainable farming technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Use of terracing (terra sering) <...
Climate change exacerbates food insecurity <ul><li>Many  households practice subsistence farming, hence food security is v...
Farmers observe climate change: Indonesia
Farmers Observe Climate Change: Timor Leste
Farmers Observe Climate Change: Cambodia
Climate change pose multi-dimensional impacts on women on account of their productive and reproductive roles and functions...
Impact of climate change on food security and on women is influenced by many factors:  <ul><li>State of physical environme...
Impact of climate change on food security and on women is influenced by many factors:  <ul><li>Level of support given by g...
Impact of climate change on food security and on women is influenced by many factors:  <ul><li>3. Capability of farmers an...
Local, National and International Responses
Local level <ul><li>Community adaptation measures with high mitigation potential </li></ul><ul><li>Community reforestation...
Local level <ul><li>Adaptation measures for women </li></ul><ul><li>Information on family planning </li></ul><ul><li>Impro...
National <ul><li>Provision of resources for climate change mitigation and adaptation measures for women and for women in a...
International <ul><li>Mitigation – ensure that focus on agriculture is not only production efficiency and on blind carbon ...
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The Gender Dimension Of Climate Change And Food Security (Riza Bernabe)

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The Gender Dimension Of Climate Change And Food Security (Riza Bernabe)

  1. 1. The Gender Dimension of Climate Change and Food Security for the Asian Farmers’ Association Bangkok, Thailand October 6 - 8, 2009
  2. 2. Understanding the gender dimension of climate change and food security: Important Considerations <ul><li>Special role of agriculture in climate change initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change has a major impact on food production and food security especially in least developed and developing countries, and on small food producers </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture offers high potential for both climate change mitigation and adaptation measures </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change initiatives must consider the need to ensure food security </li></ul>
  3. 3. Understanding the gender dimension of climate change and food security: Important Considerations <ul><li>Women are important in food production </li></ul><ul><li>Women have important roles in meeting food security at the household and community level; </li></ul>
  4. 4. Objectives of the research <ul><li>To understand and document the impacts of climate change on food security and how these affect men and women farmers in Asia; </li></ul><ul><li>To identify concrete responses that can help men and women farmers address the many issues related to climate change as it affects food security </li></ul><ul><li>To contribute to small farmers’ local, national and international advocacy on climate change and food security; </li></ul>
  5. 5. Context of the research: Global effort to address climate change … . <ul><li>1992 - United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: to reduce green house gases </li></ul><ul><li>1997 - Adoption of the Kyoto Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Annex 1 countries - adoption of QELROs (Quantified Emission Limitation and Reduction Objectives) </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Annex 1 - qualitative mitigation measures without obligation to quantify outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting on country initiatives through national communications </li></ul><ul><li>Annex 1 countries to finance the climate change initiatives of non-Annex 1 countries </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiations are underway for new and more aggressive reduction commitments in Copenhagen among other issues </li></ul>
  6. 6. Climate change negotiations: The 2007 Bali Plan of Action <ul><li>1. Mitigation </li></ul><ul><li>Developed countries - QELROs and Measurbale, verifiable NAMAs </li></ul><ul><li>Developing countries - NAMAs in the context of sustainable development </li></ul><ul><li>2. Adaptation </li></ul><ul><li>3. Finance </li></ul><ul><li>4. Technology transfer and development </li></ul>
  7. 7. Some issues and debates <ul><li>1. Critique of Clean Development Mechanism which provides for carbon trading </li></ul><ul><li>Allows developed countries to pollute for as long as they pay other countries to reduce carbon emission in their behalf </li></ul><ul><li>2. Concept of climate justice and climate debt - the major polluters must compensate those that stand to be affected most by the GHG emissions; </li></ul><ul><li>Premised on the assumption that climate change is largely brought by anthropogenic or human factors </li></ul><ul><li>3. What should be the focus in developing countries? Mitigation or adaptation? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Some controversial issues and debates <ul><li>Inclusion of Land use, land use conversion and forestry (LULUCF) in ascertaining targets and compliance </li></ul><ul><li>Extension of CDM like mechanism providing financial incentives for farmers’ carbon sequestration efforts </li></ul>
  9. 9. Agriculture and Climate Change <ul><li>Agriculture is a major source of GHG, accounting for 14% of global GHG emission </li></ul><ul><li>If emissions due to land use changes are included, agriculture’s share will account for 1/3 of global emission </li></ul>
  10. 10. Agriculture and Climate Change <ul><li>Between 1990 and 2005, agricultural emission in developing countries increased by 32% </li></ul><ul><li>Important to have a different GHG reckoning for agriculture because the emissions is due to plants’ natural biological processes </li></ul>
  11. 11. GHG Emission of selected countries
  12. 12. Share of Selected Countries to World Co2 Emissions
  13. 13. Research Methodology and Parameters <ul><li>Parties involved in the research </li></ul><ul><li>Men and women farmer leaders at the village, district and national level </li></ul><ul><li>Non-government organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Government officials </li></ul><ul><li>Levels of Consultation </li></ul><ul><li>Village and district level consultation with men and women farmers (workshops, interviews) </li></ul><ul><li>National Consultations </li></ul>
  14. 14. Research Methodology and Parameters <ul><li>Village consultations </li></ul><ul><li>Workshop 1: Gender activity profiles of men and women farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Workshop 2: Food security </li></ul><ul><li>Workshop 3: Climate change and food security </li></ul><ul><li>Countries covered </li></ul><ul><li>Indonesia, Timor Leste, Cambodia </li></ul><ul><li>Thailand, the Philippines </li></ul>
  15. 15. Research Parameters <ul><li>Indonesia - Solor, Adonnara and Flores </li></ul><ul><li>Timor Leste - Oe-Cusse </li></ul><ul><li>Cambodia – Ang Tasom </li></ul>
  16. 16. Research Results
  17. 17. Women work longer hours than men <ul><li>In Indonesia, men typically work for 10 to 12 hours, while women work for 12 to 15 hours per day </li></ul><ul><li>In Timor-Leste, many women in Oe-cusse devote their evenings weaving clothes for their family or for selling to earn additional income </li></ul><ul><li>In Cambodia women take on more activities compared to men </li></ul>
  18. 18. Women take on productive and reproductive work <ul><li>In Indonesia, women devote 30% to 50% per cent of their workday undertaking productive work. Reproductive work accounts for 50% to 70% of their time. </li></ul><ul><li>In Oe-cusse, men and women share both productive and reproductive work </li></ul><ul><li>In Cambodia, as in most countries in Asia, women are primarily in charge of caring for their children, caring for the home, fetching water , raising farm animals, gathering firewood, among others </li></ul><ul><li>Women also undertake the work done by men such as clearing the land tera sering, plowing and cutlivating the land, among others. </li></ul><ul><li>In Indonesia, migration has resulted to single headed households where typical gender roles become irrelevant </li></ul>
  19. 19. Women play an important role in ensuring household food security <ul><li>Food production </li></ul><ul><li>Food storage </li></ul><ul><li>Resource management and allocation for food </li></ul><ul><li>Food gathering and preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Earning additional income to buy food </li></ul>
  20. 20. Food insecurity is rampant in many rural areas in SE Asia <ul><li>Food insecurity is not only the presence of hunger but also the presence of unsafe food (food produced using chemical based farming technologies) </li></ul><ul><li>Food insecurity is a function of many factors: </li></ul><ul><li>Crop failures due to unpredictable weather and other climate </li></ul><ul><li>change relates problems </li></ul><ul><li>Low production (lack of basic agri services, lack of technical capability to improve production) </li></ul><ul><li>Change in culture and diet </li></ul><ul><li>Landlessness </li></ul><ul><li>Too many children </li></ul><ul><li>Migration </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  21. 21. Coping Mechanisms <ul><li>Lesser consumption of food </li></ul><ul><li>Back to basics, going back to traditional food </li></ul><ul><li>Find other sources of income </li></ul><ul><li>Sell labor, migration </li></ul><ul><li>Small economic activities – selling fish, snacks and other produce, snacks; handicrafts, weaving </li></ul><ul><li>Send children to the city to work </li></ul><ul><li>Cut back on other expenses such as for medicine, education, clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Settring up of food and water reserves </li></ul>
  22. 22. Coping Mechanisms <ul><li>Adoption of sustainable farming technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Use of terracing (terra sering) </li></ul><ul><li>Use of compost fertilizers, organic farming, diversified integrated farming systems (DIFS) </li></ul><ul><li>System of rice intensification </li></ul><ul><li>Adoption of watershed management techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Abandonment of slash and burn farming techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Community reforestation, family tree planting </li></ul><ul><li>Use of check dams and rain water storage </li></ul><ul><li>Use of biomass for fuels instead of firewood </li></ul>
  23. 23. Climate change exacerbates food insecurity <ul><li>Many households practice subsistence farming, hence food security is very closely tied to success of agricultural production </li></ul><ul><li>Farmlands are mostly rain fed, hence agricultural productivity is highly dependent on weather conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Disrupted production cycles due to unpredictable weather (drought, or floods due to heavy rain, strong winds) </li></ul><ul><li>Higher incidence of rat, insects and pest infestation </li></ul>
  24. 24. Farmers observe climate change: Indonesia
  25. 25. Farmers Observe Climate Change: Timor Leste
  26. 26. Farmers Observe Climate Change: Cambodia
  27. 27. Climate change pose multi-dimensional impacts on women on account of their productive and reproductive roles and functions <ul><li>Greater uncertainty and risks in agricultural and food production – women as farmers and food producers </li></ul><ul><li>More difficult access to water for drinking and for other household use – women’s role in fetching water </li></ul><ul><li>Increased incidence of sickness and diseases - women as the main caregiver of the family </li></ul><ul><li>Less incomes for food and other expenses – women as the ones in charge of the management and allocating resources for food and other uses </li></ul><ul><li>Less participation in community and other social activities – women as mulltitaskers </li></ul><ul><li>Increased incidence of domestic violence </li></ul>
  28. 28. Impact of climate change on food security and on women is influenced by many factors: <ul><li>State of physical environment and communities </li></ul><ul><li>Farming communities in areas where there is deforestation are especially vulnerable (the case of Oe-cusse and Solor) </li></ul><ul><li>Farming communities with families with many children are more vulnerable to food insecurity and climate change </li></ul>
  29. 29. Impact of climate change on food security and on women is influenced by many factors: <ul><li>Level of support given by government and by NGOs (availability of resource, capability of implementors, existence and effective implementation of necessary legislation) </li></ul><ul><li>Areas with little or no irrigation or with limited or no agricultural extension work are more susceptible to food insecurity and the negative impact of climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers report that the training support provided by NGOs on terra sering, organic farming, composting, use of biomass fuel help build resilience against the negative impact of climate change </li></ul>
  30. 30. Impact of climate change on food security and on women is influenced by many factors: <ul><li>3. Capability of farmers and farmers organizations (technical, institutional and organizational, social) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Level of awareness and organization of communities </li></ul><ul><li>5. Level of organization and empowerment of rural women </li></ul>
  31. 31. Local, National and International Responses
  32. 32. Local level <ul><li>Community adaptation measures with high mitigation potential </li></ul><ul><li>Community reforestation programs </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion of sustainable farming technologies (organic farming, use of biomass for fuels, SRI, terracing) and diversified integrated farming systems </li></ul><ul><li>2. Community adaptation measures that build resilience against food insecurity and the negative impact of climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Rain water storage (umbung) and development other clean water resource </li></ul><ul><li>Community irrigation systems </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion of vegetable farms , provision of seeds and basic tools </li></ul><ul><li>Capability building for men and women farmers (technical and organizational) </li></ul><ul><li>Development of seeds </li></ul><ul><li>Information on short term and weather forecasts </li></ul>
  33. 33. Local level <ul><li>Adaptation measures for women </li></ul><ul><li>Information on family planning </li></ul><ul><li>Improved health and sanitation services </li></ul><ul><li> Capability building to improve incomes (trainings on value adding, processing) </li></ul>
  34. 34. National <ul><li>Provision of resources for climate change mitigation and adaptation measures for women and for women in agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Adoption of bottom up approach in developing and implementing climate change mitigation and adaptation programs </li></ul><ul><li>Improved short and long term weather forecasting, improved dissemination on weather to help farmers plan their cropping calendar </li></ul><ul><li>Restructuring of farm production policies and programs to support sustainable farming practices </li></ul><ul><li>Small farmers’ and CSO participation in the drafting of NAMA and in formulating reports for the UNFCCC national communication </li></ul><ul><li>National legislation (forestry management, sustainable fishing) </li></ul>
  35. 35. International <ul><li>Mitigation – ensure that focus on agriculture is not only production efficiency and on blind carbon reduction, need for special consideration for agriculture and its role in food security, livelihood security, rural development and poverty alleviation </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation measures – should be financed from funds provided by Annex 1 (developed ) countries; as much as possible, should not be used to co-finance loans by IFIs </li></ul><ul><li>Financing – increased funding for mitigation and adaptation measures for non-Annex 1 (developing) countries by Annex 1 countries; based on principle of climate justice </li></ul><ul><li>Technology – special premium in promoting sustainable farming technologies and mitigation measures with high adaptation potential and vice versa </li></ul>

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