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Facialprosthesis:
colorationtechnique
AmmarGhanemSalem
1 Keen eye
2 Attention to
details
3 Adequate light
4 Practice
To be able to match color we need
1 Trial and error mixing
2
Shade guides
3
Pigment dispersion
systems
4 Color measurement using
colorimeter/spectrophotometer
There are different approaches to match color
INTRINSIC
EXTRINSIC
Applied within mold
during casting
Allow simulate laminar
structure of the skin
More accurate depth of
color and translucency
Increase service life of
prosthesis since it’s less
vulnerable to
environmental conditions
and handling
Applied to surface of
cured prosthesis
More predictable results
Can be evaluated directly
comparing to patient’s
skin
Vulnerable to
environment and handling
Two types of coloring
BASIC
TERMINOLOGY
FOR COLOR
CONCEPTS
A
B
C
D
The
opacity
will
increase
The percentage of
entire weight of
substrate pigment.
e.g. 100g silicone of
0.3g pigment = 3%
Terms and Definitions
Pigment loading
When
pigment
loading
increases
Pri Colors
mary
secon Colors
dary
Their hues are
considered opposites,
and they hold
maximum color
contrast to each other.
Complementary
colors
Light considerations
It is recommended to evaluate the color under various light
sources to reduce the effect of METAMERISM
The use of spectrophotometer and
color formulation software will
reduce the effect of
METAMERISM
SILICON
RVT HVT
Fast set Regular set
Used to simulate blood vessels
Used to add hue and texture
Opaquer, used to de-shine cured silicone
Used to lower viscosity of silicone
Used for intrinsic and extrinsic coloring
Used to clean prosthesis prior to
extrinsic coloration, brushes, and
glass palette.
For comparing mixtures
For cutting
For thinning silicone
For mixing
De-airing device
Air circulating oven
Silicone trimming bur
Accurate to 0.0001g
4
3
2
1 1. Underside of forearm
2. Along hairline
3. Anterior to tragus
4. Base of helix
How to identify base color?
Mix base color
Mix laminar glazes
Re-assess color match
Pack mold
Extrinsic coloration
Measure color with
spectrophotometer
Perform lab color charge
formulation
Evaluate color formulated
base color and adjust
Mix laminar glazes/reassess
color match/pack mold
Extrinsic coloration
Traditional trial and error method Computerized method
adding pigments in small
quantities and comparing to
skin.
addition should be
conservative and after
homogenous mixture
achieved.
Addition of pigments
increases opacity
White and kaolin are
important for achieving
opacity and value.
2nd
Kaolin has less opaquing
power than white..
3rd
5th
1st 4th
6th
Usually using Colors closer to
skin by adding small amounts
of red & yellow.
Trial and Error Method
Adding small amount of blue
will darken value and
desaturate the color.
a less saturated color is
more realistic.
For repeatability pigments
added should be measured
and recorded.
When color approaches
desired color it’s compared
to patient skin.
8th
Adding flock without
affecting translucency will
add texture.
9th
11th
7th 10th
12th
Skin with very creamy
appearance should be limited
with flock.
Trial and Error Method
It provide objective means
of color match.
Subjectivity only in selection
of skin area and during final
evaluation of formula when
patient is present.
Computing pigment formula
with color formulation
software.
Skin is measured with
spectrophotometer.
2nd
Deriving pigment formula
through the software.
3rd
5th
1st 4th
Computerized color
formulation
Choose flat accessible skin
area and take the average
of 3 measures.
Calculate the formula of
pigments using software.
Weight pigments on digital
balance and create sample
and compare to skin.
Double pigment formula to
produce the amount of
silicone.
2nd
Mix pigments and silicone.
3rd
5th
1st 4th
Clinical method using
spectrophotometer
Reduced clinical time
Formula can be mixed repeatedly with
accuracy
Metamerism is minimized
Translucency can be controlled
Layers of color painted
individually into the mold
before packing base color to
mimic histologic structure of
skin
Laminar glaze
What is laminar
glaze?
Heterogenicity
Translucency
Color
Texture
Red blush for pink skin appearance
Golden tan for melanin
Dark brown for freckles and moles
Opaque yellow-white for cartilage
Dark blue/purple for shadow areas
Opaque pink-red
Common colors in
laminar glazing
Mixing of laminar
glazing either
independent or
modifying within base
color
It is recommended to
use fast set silicone to
reduce potential
migration of color
Usually 10mL of clear
silicone is used and
small amounts of
color pigment and
flock is added
Golden tan is applied
smooth and even in
creamy skin texture.
In spotted mottled
skin it requires
random dispersion in
stippling fashion for
the golden tan
Freckles application is
not symmetric while
moles are symmetric
Pigments mixed for
freckles/moles are
red, blue, yellow, and
brown
Flocks to be used for
moles/freckles are
dark red and purple
Cartilage need white
pigment, yellow and
gold flocks
Shadow pigments are
red, green, yellow,
blue while flocks are
dark red, dark blue,
and purple.
Red blush glaze is very
translucent so avoiding
painting too thick layer is
recommended
Areas of depth in mold
represent prominence in
final product.
White die stone mold is used
to aid in assessing color.
Laminar glaze notes
Flock addition is effective for
subtle color changes without
affecting translucency
Color mixed for laminar
painting can be used for
extrinsic coloration
Areas of height in mold
represent depth in final
product
PACKING BASE COLOR
The last color placed in
the mold should b de-
aired prior to packing
and it’s much greater
bulk than laminar
layer.
Carefully close the
flask and slowly add
pressure and place in
mold clamps, then for
fast set type 71C for 2
hours and regular set
type 90C for 2 hours
o
Remove excess with
scissor
o
Fiber trimming wheel to
smooth the trimmed
o
too dark value need
reprocessing
o
Application in stippling
fashion
Extrinsic coloration
o
Too light in value can be
corrected with extrinsic
coloration
o Each glaze should allow to set
before another is added
REDUCING
SHINE
THE GLOSSY APPEARANCE OF EXTRINSIC
COLORATION LEAD TO UNNATURAL
LOOKING PROSTHESIS
DUSTING SURFACE WITH CONFECTINER
ICING SUGAR USING BROAD BRISTLE
LIGHTLY APPLIED TO SURFACE OF
UNCURED SILICONE
USING FINE GRADE SILICA
FIBER MIXED WITH SILICONE
1:4 RATIO AND STIPPLED
OVER GLOSSY PORTION
SILICA FIBERS LEAVE WHITISH
RESIDUE ON SURFACE
KAOLIN POWDER
APPLIED TO CURED
SURFAC
EXCESSIVE KAOLIN
POWDER WILL
ALTER OVERALL
VALUE
THE SUCCESS IN THESE
TECHNIQUES DEPENDS ON
INDIVIDUAL’S EXPERIENCE AND
ABILITY
SPECTROPHOTOMETER AND
COLORATION FORMULA AID IN
REDUCING METAMERISM AND
PROVIDE OBJECTIVITY TO THE
PROCESS.
TECHNOLOGY AID IN COLOR MACHTING
SKILLS AND DO NOT REPLACE THEM.
THE TRIAL AND ERROR IS STILL THE
MOST COMMON TECHNIQUE APPLIED
IN COLORING.
INTRINSITC COLORATION IS A
PIVOTAL STEP IN FABRICATION
TRANSLUCENCY IS A MAJOR
FACTOR THAT INFLENCE THE
ACCPETABILITY OF PROSTHESIS

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coloration technique facial prosthesis

  • 2. 1 Keen eye 2 Attention to details 3 Adequate light 4 Practice To be able to match color we need
  • 3. 1 Trial and error mixing 2 Shade guides 3 Pigment dispersion systems 4 Color measurement using colorimeter/spectrophotometer There are different approaches to match color
  • 4. INTRINSIC EXTRINSIC Applied within mold during casting Allow simulate laminar structure of the skin More accurate depth of color and translucency Increase service life of prosthesis since it’s less vulnerable to environmental conditions and handling Applied to surface of cured prosthesis More predictable results Can be evaluated directly comparing to patient’s skin Vulnerable to environment and handling Two types of coloring
  • 6. The opacity will increase The percentage of entire weight of substrate pigment. e.g. 100g silicone of 0.3g pigment = 3% Terms and Definitions Pigment loading When pigment loading increases
  • 8. Their hues are considered opposites, and they hold maximum color contrast to each other. Complementary colors
  • 9. Light considerations It is recommended to evaluate the color under various light sources to reduce the effect of METAMERISM
  • 10. The use of spectrophotometer and color formulation software will reduce the effect of METAMERISM
  • 12. Used to simulate blood vessels
  • 13. Used to add hue and texture
  • 14. Opaquer, used to de-shine cured silicone
  • 15. Used to lower viscosity of silicone
  • 16. Used for intrinsic and extrinsic coloring
  • 17. Used to clean prosthesis prior to extrinsic coloration, brushes, and glass palette.
  • 18. For comparing mixtures For cutting For thinning silicone For mixing
  • 19. De-airing device Air circulating oven Silicone trimming bur
  • 21. 4 3 2 1 1. Underside of forearm 2. Along hairline 3. Anterior to tragus 4. Base of helix How to identify base color?
  • 22. Mix base color Mix laminar glazes Re-assess color match Pack mold Extrinsic coloration Measure color with spectrophotometer Perform lab color charge formulation Evaluate color formulated base color and adjust Mix laminar glazes/reassess color match/pack mold Extrinsic coloration Traditional trial and error method Computerized method
  • 23. adding pigments in small quantities and comparing to skin. addition should be conservative and after homogenous mixture achieved. Addition of pigments increases opacity White and kaolin are important for achieving opacity and value. 2nd Kaolin has less opaquing power than white.. 3rd 5th 1st 4th 6th Usually using Colors closer to skin by adding small amounts of red & yellow. Trial and Error Method
  • 24. Adding small amount of blue will darken value and desaturate the color. a less saturated color is more realistic. For repeatability pigments added should be measured and recorded. When color approaches desired color it’s compared to patient skin. 8th Adding flock without affecting translucency will add texture. 9th 11th 7th 10th 12th Skin with very creamy appearance should be limited with flock. Trial and Error Method
  • 25. It provide objective means of color match. Subjectivity only in selection of skin area and during final evaluation of formula when patient is present. Computing pigment formula with color formulation software. Skin is measured with spectrophotometer. 2nd Deriving pigment formula through the software. 3rd 5th 1st 4th Computerized color formulation
  • 26. Choose flat accessible skin area and take the average of 3 measures. Calculate the formula of pigments using software. Weight pigments on digital balance and create sample and compare to skin. Double pigment formula to produce the amount of silicone. 2nd Mix pigments and silicone. 3rd 5th 1st 4th Clinical method using spectrophotometer
  • 27. Reduced clinical time Formula can be mixed repeatedly with accuracy Metamerism is minimized Translucency can be controlled
  • 28. Layers of color painted individually into the mold before packing base color to mimic histologic structure of skin Laminar glaze What is laminar glaze? Heterogenicity Translucency Color Texture
  • 29. Red blush for pink skin appearance Golden tan for melanin Dark brown for freckles and moles Opaque yellow-white for cartilage Dark blue/purple for shadow areas Opaque pink-red Common colors in laminar glazing
  • 30. Mixing of laminar glazing either independent or modifying within base color It is recommended to use fast set silicone to reduce potential migration of color Usually 10mL of clear silicone is used and small amounts of color pigment and flock is added Golden tan is applied smooth and even in creamy skin texture. In spotted mottled skin it requires random dispersion in stippling fashion for the golden tan
  • 31. Freckles application is not symmetric while moles are symmetric Pigments mixed for freckles/moles are red, blue, yellow, and brown Flocks to be used for moles/freckles are dark red and purple Cartilage need white pigment, yellow and gold flocks Shadow pigments are red, green, yellow, blue while flocks are dark red, dark blue, and purple.
  • 32. Red blush glaze is very translucent so avoiding painting too thick layer is recommended Areas of depth in mold represent prominence in final product. White die stone mold is used to aid in assessing color. Laminar glaze notes Flock addition is effective for subtle color changes without affecting translucency Color mixed for laminar painting can be used for extrinsic coloration Areas of height in mold represent depth in final product
  • 33. PACKING BASE COLOR The last color placed in the mold should b de- aired prior to packing and it’s much greater bulk than laminar layer. Carefully close the flask and slowly add pressure and place in mold clamps, then for fast set type 71C for 2 hours and regular set type 90C for 2 hours
  • 34. o Remove excess with scissor o Fiber trimming wheel to smooth the trimmed o too dark value need reprocessing o Application in stippling fashion Extrinsic coloration o Too light in value can be corrected with extrinsic coloration o Each glaze should allow to set before another is added
  • 35. REDUCING SHINE THE GLOSSY APPEARANCE OF EXTRINSIC COLORATION LEAD TO UNNATURAL LOOKING PROSTHESIS DUSTING SURFACE WITH CONFECTINER ICING SUGAR USING BROAD BRISTLE LIGHTLY APPLIED TO SURFACE OF UNCURED SILICONE USING FINE GRADE SILICA FIBER MIXED WITH SILICONE 1:4 RATIO AND STIPPLED OVER GLOSSY PORTION SILICA FIBERS LEAVE WHITISH RESIDUE ON SURFACE KAOLIN POWDER APPLIED TO CURED SURFAC EXCESSIVE KAOLIN POWDER WILL ALTER OVERALL VALUE
  • 36. THE SUCCESS IN THESE TECHNIQUES DEPENDS ON INDIVIDUAL’S EXPERIENCE AND ABILITY SPECTROPHOTOMETER AND COLORATION FORMULA AID IN REDUCING METAMERISM AND PROVIDE OBJECTIVITY TO THE PROCESS. TECHNOLOGY AID IN COLOR MACHTING SKILLS AND DO NOT REPLACE THEM. THE TRIAL AND ERROR IS STILL THE MOST COMMON TECHNIQUE APPLIED IN COLORING. INTRINSITC COLORATION IS A PIVOTAL STEP IN FABRICATION TRANSLUCENCY IS A MAJOR FACTOR THAT INFLENCE THE ACCPETABILITY OF PROSTHESIS