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Wet Testing of textile materials

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Color fastness is one of the important factors in case of buyers demand. The outstandingly important property of a dyed material is the fastness of the shade of color. Color fastness refers to the resistance of color to fade or bleed of a dyed or printed textile materials to various types of influences e.g. water, light, rubbing, washing, perspiration etc. to which they are normally exposed in textile manufacturing and in daily use. We have written a lot of articles on color fastness. 

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Wet Testing of textile materials

  1. 1. WET TESTING OF TEXTILE MATERIALS 3/26/2015 Md.Azmeri Latif Beg MSc. in Textile Engineering(DIU) BSc. in Textile Engineering(CU)
  2. 2. At first I thanks to Allah who has created us.Then I give thanks to my honorable course instructor Ismat Zerin who teaches us nicely. My special thanks also goes to lab instructor Md. Rafiqul Islam who learn us friendly.
  3. 3. Exp number Name of experiment 1 Color fastness to Perspiration. 2 Color fastness to Wash 3 Measuring shrinkage% to Wash 4 Color fastness to Rubbing 5 Dyeing of blended fabric with disperse and reactive dye (Hot brand). 6 Improvement of color fastness properties
  4. 4. Color fastness is one of the important factors in case of buyers demand. The outstandingly important property of a dyed material is the fastness of the shade of color. Color fastness refers to the resistance of color to fade or bleed of a dyed or printed textile materials to various types of influences e.g. water, light, rubbing, washing, perspiration etc. to which they are normally exposed in textile manufacturing and in daily use. We have written a lot of articles on color fastness. Standards of Color Fastness: 1. AATCC (American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists) technical manual: Describes 66 numbers of different color fastness tests. 2. SDC (Society of Dyers and Colorists): In 1927, SDC (Europe) made fastness test committee. 3. ISO(International Organization for Standardization): In 1947, ISO made color sub committee. ISO also grades the fastness: For light fastness: 1~8 For other fastness: 1~5
  5. 5. Factors Affecting the Color Fastness Properties: •The chemical nature of the fiber. For example, cellulosic fibers dyed with reactive or vat dyes will show good fastness properties. Protein fibers dyed with acid mordant and reactive dyes will achieve good fastness properties and so on. That is to say compatibility of dye with the fiber is very important. •The molecular structure (e.g.) of a dye molecule: If the dye molecule is larger in size, it will be tightly entrapped inside the inter-polymer chain space of a fiber. Thus the fastness will be better. •The manner in which the dye is bonded to the fiber or the physical form present. •The amount of dye present in the fiber i.e. depth of shade. A deep shade will be less fast than a pale or light shade. •The presence of other chemicals in the material. •The actual conditions prevailing during exposure.
  6. 6. Factors Affecting the Color Fastness Properties: The textile color fastness is the capacity of a dyed textile to keep its original aspect without loosing color when being wet, washed or exposed to the light. It is one of the main issue of the textile industry The fiber type used The dye and the fiber used have to be compatible. A cellulosic fiber and a vat dye will have a good resistance. And the polyesters provide a very good result with substantive dyes. The dye type The way the dye is fixed on the fiber is a factor affecting the textile color fastness: the bigger is the dye molecule the easier it will fix on the fiber. There are also insoluble dyes in water so that the textile color fastness is improved when washing. The tone The color fastness depends on the dye quantity present on the fiber. A neutral or pastel color is more resistant than a dark color. Other chemical elements : the fiber finishing The textile color fastness can be altered by different finishing used to improve the user comfort. A fastness is a place, such as a castle, which is considered safe because it is difficult to reach or easy to defend against attack. This test is designed to determine the degree of color which may be transferred from the surface of a colored fabric to a specify test cloth for rubbing (which could be dry and Wet).
  7. 7. Experiment Name: - Color Fastness to perspiration. Continuous contact with the human perspiration also affects the fastness of some the dyed fabrics. In fact the perspiration is found to be either slightly alkaline or acidic in nature. When fabric is subjected to this alkaline or acidic perspiration continuously some times the tone and depth of the dyed shade gets affected. We can see how this change can be tested by artificially simulating the perspiration condition. Perspiration Reagents required for Alkaline perspiration Reagents required for Acidic perspiration Histidine mono hydrochloride monohydrate 0.5 gram/litre 0.5 gram/litre Sodium Chloride 0.5 gram/litre 0.5gram/litre Disodium hydrogen orthophosphate 2.5 gram/litre -- Sodium dihydrogen orthophosphate -- 2.2 gram/litre 0.1N Sodium hydroxide adjust pH to 8 0.1N Acetic acid -- pH 5.5 MLR 1:50 Dip the fabric in the above recipe for 30 minutes at 30C; allow it dwell for 14hours under 4.5 kg weight of the perspirometer. Dip the fabric in the above recipe for 30 minutes at 30C; allow it dwell for 14hours under 4.5 kg weight of the perspirometer.
  8. 8. Experiment Name: - Color Fastness to perspiration. Recipe Acid Bath Alkali Bath L-Histidine mono-hydrochloride mono-hydrate (C6H9O2N3Hcl.H2O) 0.5g/L 0.5g/L Disodium hydrogen orthophosphate (Na2HPO4.2H2O) 2.2g/L 2.5g/L Sodium chloride (Nacl) 5g/L 5g/L Distilled water 1000mL 1000mL PH 5.5 8 Temperature 37-380c 37-380c Time 4 hours 4 hours
  9. 9. Before knowing about the Color Fastness to perspiration you must have to know about Color Fastness to Wash and Color Fastness to Rubbing. Measurement Principle The garments awhich come into contact with the body where perspiration is heavy may suffer serious local discoloration. This test is intended to determine the resistance of color of dyed textile to the action of acidic and alkaline perspiration. Equipment For Fastness Measurement 1. Perspiration tester 2. Oven, Maintained at 37+-2 Degree centigrade 3. Multifiber test fabric 4. Grey scale 5. Color matching chamber 6. Acidic and Alkaline solution 7. Glass or Acrylic plat3e 8. Weight.
  10. 10. Sample size will be 10 CM * 4 CM Test Procedure 1. Wet-o0ut the composite test sample in mentioned alkaline or acidic solution at room temperature. The Material ration will be 1:50 and leave for 30 minutes. 2. Pour off excess solution and place the composite sample between two glass plate or acrylic plate under a pressure of 4.5 KG and place in a oven for 4 hours at 37+- and 2 degree centigrade temperature. 3. Remove the specimen and hang to dry in warn air not exceeding 60 Degree centigrade. Evaluation Evaluation is done by Grey scale in a dyed color matching cabinet and rate from 1 to 5.
  11. 11. Description of Test Test result Acid Alkali Color change in shade 3 3 Staining to Acetate 4 3-4 Cotton 3 3 Polyamide 4 5 Polyester 4 5 Acrylic 4 4 Wool 3 3 Format for Reporting
  12. 12. Test method Temp 0C Time Steel balls Chemicals ISO-1 40 30 min 0 Soap 5g/L ISO-2 50 30 min 0 Soap 5g/L ISO-3 60 30 min 0 Soap 5g/L Soda ash 2g/L ISO-4 95 30 min 10 Soap 5g/L Soda ash 2g/L ISO-5 95 4 hours 10 Soap 5g/L Soda ash 2g/L
  13. 13. Recipe: Standard soap 5g/L Soda ash 2g/L Temp 950c Time 30 min No. of steel Ball 10 Sample size 10 cm ×4cm Preparation of solution: Standard soap 5g/L and soda ash 2g/L to make a solution.
  14. 14. Description of test Test result Color change in shade 2 Staining to Acetate 4 Cotton 1 Polyamide 2 Polyester 4 Acrylic 4 Wool 1 Test Report Example of multifiber
  15. 15. Experiment Name: -Color fastness to rubbing Test result grade Dry 4/5 Wet 2/3 Interpretation of Grade: Gray scale rating is based on scale 1 to 5, where 5 is good and 1 is bad. Range of testing.
  16. 16. Apparatus: 1. Crock meter 2. Rubbing cloth  Dry  Wet 3) Grey scale
  17. 17. Color fastness against rubbing /Crocking In order to determine the color fastness of dyed or printed textiles or leather, this test is used for the determination of color fastness against rubbing, either under dry or under wet conditions. Features of Crockmeter: 1.To determine the Color Fastness of Textiles. 2.The equipment consists of a counter. 3.It is provided with a flat peg. 4.It also consists of an operating handle. 5.Tests the color fastness of the textile in a very accurate manner. 6.It gives not only accurate but quick results also.
  18. 18. There are two test methods for rubbing fastness. 1.ISO-105-X12 2.AATCC-08 In ISO-105-X12 the wet pickup of the rubbing cloth is 100% .While in AATCC- 08 the wet Pickup of the rubbing cloth is 65%.We check rubbing by Dry and Wet methods. In wet rubbing we wet the rubbing cloth according to test method and give rating by comparing the Staining with the gray scale. Similarly for dry rubbing we check the rubbing with dry rubbing cloth and compare the staining With gray scale for ratings.Color Fastness to rubbing is a main test which is always required for every colored fabric either it is Printed or dyed. If the color fastness to rubbing is good then its other properties like Washing fastness and durability etc improves automatically because the rubbing is a method to check the fixation of the color on the fabric. So if the fixation is good its washing properties will be good.
  19. 19. Rubbing Fastness depends on: Nature of the Color Depth of the Shade Construction of the Fabric Nature of the color Each color either it is pigment ,Reactive ,Disperse or direct has its own fastness properties to rubbing. There are some colors like black, Red ,Burgundy ,Navy blue which have poor Color fastness properties because of their chemical structure. Like Black color is a carbon base color and the particle size of carbon is large than the other colors that's why its rubbing properties are poor. Similarly red and blue are in the same case. So to improve the color fastness we add more binder to improve the fastness properties of these colors. It doesn't mean that we can not achieve the best results with these colors. The required results can achieve but production cost will be increase. On the other hand the construction of the fabric also effects the fastness properties. If the rubbing fastness on 100.80/40.40 is 3 on the gray scale it will be 2-3 on 52.52/22.22 with the same printing parameters. So always keep in mind these effects during finalize the required parameters with your customer .
  20. 20. Always Check Quality construction Color Depth of the Color End Use of the product
  21. 21. Specifications of Crockmeter: Diameter of the Rubbing Finger : 16 mm & 25 mm Load on the Finger : 9 N & 20 N Size of Crocking Cloth : (5 x 5) Cms & (7 x7) cms Length of the Traverse : 100 ±5 mm Counter (Re-settable) : 4-Digit Counter Size of Test Specimen : 25 x 5 Cm Overall Dimension of the Unit : 600 (W) x 190 (D) x 200 (H) mm Net Weight of the Unit : 4 Kg. (9 lbs.) Construction : Cold-rolled steel Working Principle of Crockmeter: The crockmeter consists of a rigid flat metallic platform on which the test specimen can be held firmly and a abrading finger which rubs against it under a specified load. The platform is fixed over the base of the equipment and lies in a horizontal plane. The test specimen is held firmly over an abrasive paper which is pasted on the upper face of the platform, with the help of two pins holding it at both ends. The abrading finger has a flat circular rubbing face which is covered with 4 piece of white abradant fabric during the test. The abradant fabrics picks up color lost by the test specimen during rubbing. It is held over the finger with the help of a tapered ring. Motion to the finger is given through a reciprocating arm with runs an two ball bearings to minimize friction and to apply a uniform load on the finger. The arm is moved by a manually operated crank and connecting lin The equipment is finished in dark metallic paint and bright chrome plating to give it a corrosion resistant finish
  22. 22. Some time we may improve the light fastness properties by natural sunlight. If we get the LF grade 2-3, then we make light fastness improvement by the sample with the solution of 1% detergent washing to get sample light also remove unfixed dyes. Then we dry it in the present of sunlight for 12-20 hours. After this if we test LF may get 3-4 rating .it is only for sample improvement which is already formed garments.
  23. 23. Improvement Fastnesses and Color Strength Of Pigment Printed Textile Fabric by plasma treatment Fastness of treated samples was also higher than untreated fabrics because of improving bonding strength to the binder. At the same time, more color and dry rubbing fastness can be obtained with high treatment power argon plasma treatment. Therefore, we recommend proper argon or air plasma treatment to improve the functionality of the textile fibers and also fabrics. We may improve of fastnesses and color strength of pigment printed textile fabrics. To improve fastness and color strength of the polyester fabrics, atmospheric plasma treatment was used. Polyester fabric was treated with argon or air plasma at atmospheric pressure, and plasma pretreatment effect on the pigment printing was evaluated. A printing paste comprising synthetic thickener, binder, and pigment was applied using a flat screen printing technique. The fabric was then dried and exposed to heat. The cured prints were evaluated for color property, color fastness to washing, and dry/wet rubbing. The effects of atmospheric plasma treatments were evaluated by XPS, SEM and AFM. When the properties of atmospheric plasma treated samples were compared to those of untreated sample, higher K/S values were obtained. Also, the fastness of treated samples increased between ½ and 1 point.
  24. 24. Plasma treatments are ecologic, and can replace some finishing steps of textile materials. Plasma is produced by accelerating a gas via an electric field. Gas atoms are ionized, and free electrons are produced. Properties obtained with plasma are dependent on plasma parameters such as gas, discharge power, pressure, and electrical characteristics of the gas. Plasma is the physicochemical treatment, and generally is used for changing surface properties of polymers or the other materials without any marked change in the bulk structure of the materials, because plasma only modifies outermost layers. During a plasma treatment, several concurrent processes may occur at the plasma-polymer interface, depending on the chemical and physical characteristics of the plasma itself. As is well known, plasma treatment has two effects on the fiber surface. One is physical etching, which occurs when an inert gas, such as argon, is used to modify the surface. The other is chemical graft, which occurs when some polar radicals, such as oxygen and nitrogen, are induced to functionalize the surfaces of fibers. Crosslinking of radical and excited surface species may also contribute to the modification of the polymer surface structure. Among the surface properties textile materials which can be improved with the use of the plasma are wetability and quality of dyeing and printing . To achieve sufficient dyestuff adhesion and thus a satisfactory printing result, atmospheric plasma treatment has been applied to textile materials.
  25. 25. Recipe: Standard soap 2g/L M: L 1:50 Time 35 min Temp 500c
  26. 26. 35cm Sample size: Dimensional stability to wash: Final (after wash) length-Original (before wash) ×100 Original (before wash) length For warp=33-35/35×100 =-5.75 For weft=35.5-35/35×100 =1.42 Result: Warp=-5.75 % shrinkage Weft=+1.42% shrinkage 50 cm 50cm
  27. 27. NAME OF THE EXPERIMENT: DYEING OF BLENDED FABRIC (35×65) WITH DISPERSE DYE & REACTIVE DYE. Recipe of polyester part: Disperse dye (blue) ―3% (OWF) Dispersing agent ―1.5 g/L Carrier ―1 g/L Acetic Acid ―0.5 g/L M:L ―1:20 Time ―30 min Temp ―900c PH ―4.5-5.5
  28. 28. Calculation:- Sample weight – 20 gm. Total liquor =20×20=400cc Amount of Dye (blue) =13×3/100=.39gm Amount of dispersing agent=400×1.5/1000=0.27gm Amount of carrier =400×1/1000=0.4gm Amount of acetic acid -400×0.5/100=2cc Amount of additional water=400-(0.4+0.2) =399.4cc
  29. 29. Addi water Steam onSamplePH check Acetic acidCarrierDispersing agent Drain Reduction cleaning Cold wash De watering Drying Dyeing curve 1300c×30 min
  30. 30. Recipe of Cotton part: Reactive dye (Blue) ―3% Leveling agent ―1g/L Common salt ―70g/L Soda ash ―18g/L M:L ―1:20 Time ―60 min Temp ―900c PH ―9-11
  31. 31. Additional water Leveling agent Dye Sample Salt Soda PH check Steam on 900c×60 min Drain Hot wash Cold wash De watering Drying Dyeing curve
  32. 32. Calculation: Sample weight=20gm Total liquor=20×20=400cc Amount of dye=7×3/100=0.21gm Amount of leveling agent=400×1/1000=0.4gm Amount of salt=400×70/1000=28gm Amount of soda ash=400×8/1000=3.2gm Amount of additional water=400-0.4=399.6cc
  33. 33. EXPERIMENT NAME: -FIBER COMPOSITION.  Acrylic fiber is dissolved D.M.F in 5 min boil.  Polyester fabric is dissolved phenol in 5 min boil.  Cotton fabric is dissolved 75% H2SO4 with 20 boil at room temp.  Wool fabric is dissolved 5% NaOH with 10 min boil.  Nylon fabric is dissolved HCl with 10 min boil at room temperature.  After weight-Before weight /before weight×100 70-200/200×100 =-65 polyester =35 cotton.

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