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Earthquakes & Faults Abby Baker 9/20/2009
Previous Experience <ul><li>Over the summer, I took a geology class that sparked my interest in earthquakes.  The surface ...
Questions <ul><li>Why do earthquakes occur? </li></ul><ul><li>What causes earthquakes? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there differe...
Standard Indicators <ul><li>4.1.1 Observe and describe that scientific investigations generally work the same way in diffe...
Terms to Know <ul><li>Earthquake  – series of vibrations induced in the Earth’s crust by the abrupt rupture and rebound of...
<ul><li>Earth’s surface is made of plates which are constantly interacting with each other.  These interactions can produc...
Types of Faults <ul><li>Normal Fault  – The movement tend to follow the gravitational pull on the fault blocks involved.  ...
Effects on People <ul><li>Although society has come up with ways to protect against earthquake damage, they still cause de...
Effects on People <ul><li>Here is an interactive website where the students can go and simulate an earthquake and view the...
 
References <ul><li>www.dictionary.com </li></ul><ul><li>http://dsc.discovery.com/guides/planetearth/earthquake/interactive...
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Inquiry Project #1

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Inquiry Project #1

  1. 1. Earthquakes & Faults Abby Baker 9/20/2009
  2. 2. Previous Experience <ul><li>Over the summer, I took a geology class that sparked my interest in earthquakes. The surface of the Earth is constantly changing because of earthquakes and volcanoes. Earthquakes are a powerful force of nature and I began to wonder how they affected the mountains. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Questions <ul><li>Why do earthquakes occur? </li></ul><ul><li>What causes earthquakes? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there different types of faults associated with earthquakes? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the effects of earthquakes? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Standard Indicators <ul><li>4.1.1 Observe and describe that scientific investigations generally work the same way in different places. </li></ul><ul><li>4.2.5 Write descriptions of investigations, using observations and other evidence as support for explanations. </li></ul><ul><li>4.2.6 Support statements with facts found in print and electronic media, identify the sources used, and expect others to do the same. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Terms to Know <ul><li>Earthquake – series of vibrations induced in the Earth’s crust by the abrupt rupture and rebound of rocks in which elastic strain has been slowly accumulating </li></ul><ul><li>Focus – point of origin of an earthquake </li></ul><ul><li>Epicenter – a point directly above the true center of disturbance, from which the shock waves of an earthquake apparently radiate </li></ul><ul><li>Fault – break in the continuity of a body of rock or of a vein, with dislocation along the plane of the fracture </li></ul><ul><li>www.dictionary.com </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Earth’s surface is made of plates which are constantly interacting with each other. These interactions can produce large amounts of energy which is released in the form of waves. The plates can collide, diverge (move away from each other), grind past each other. Large sections of the Earth’s crust can fracture and move to dissipate the released energy. This can cause “shaking” which is what most people think of when discussing earthquakes. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Types of Faults <ul><li>Normal Fault – The movement tend to follow the gravitational pull on the fault blocks involved. The fault plane is generally steep. The two blocks involved are pulling away from each other causing one of the fault blocks to slip upward and the other downward (with respect to the fault plane). </li></ul><ul><li>Reverse Fault – A normal fault except the general movement of the fault blocks is toward each other rather than away from each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Transcurrent Fault – (AKA strike-slip fault) This is the most well known and studied fault. The movement is generally horizontal. Anything crossing the fault is either slowly torn apart or offset. These faults can be very long. An example of this fault is the San Andreas fault in California. </li></ul><ul><li>Thrust Fault – (AKA dip-slip fault) The upper block, above the fault plane, moves up and over the lower block. This is common in areas of compression, such as where one plate is being subducted under another. </li></ul><ul><li>://dwp.bigplanet.com/prepared/typesoffaults/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.tinynet.com/faults.html </li></ul>
  8. 8. Effects on People <ul><li>Although society has come up with ways to protect against earthquake damage, they still cause destruction. People’s homes are destroyed and lives lost. Economics can be affected too. If a city faces destruction by an earthquake it can temporarily stop the local economy, which can in turn affect the economy as a whole. </li></ul><ul><li>As there has been more and more research, we now have certain precautions we can follow. Cities that are along major fault lines practice regular earthquake drills, much like we practice tornado drills. Many earthquakes strike without much warning, but there is research being done to be able to accurately predict earthquakes. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Effects on People <ul><li>Here is an interactive website where the students can go and simulate an earthquake and view the potential damage. </li></ul><ul><li>http://dsc.discovery.com/guides/planetearth/earthquake/interactive/interactive.html </li></ul>
  10. 11. References <ul><li>www.dictionary.com </li></ul><ul><li>http://dsc.discovery.com/guides/planetearth/earthquake/interactive/interactive.html </li></ul><ul><li>:// dwp.bigplanet.com/prepared/typesoffaults </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.tinynet.com/faults.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://images.google.com/images?gbv=2&hl=en&q=earthquake&sa=N&start=20&ndsp=20 </li></ul>

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