FlowMeasurement
Basic Flow Measurement Many methods of flow measurement Bernoulli’s Equation – A statement of energy conservation       1 ...
Flow Pattern
Orifice Plate             Orifice Plate                 Flow            Sharp Edge       Bevel         High Pressure      ...
Typical Orifice Plates
Beveled Edge on Orifice
Typical Transmitter Installation
Flange Taps
Vena Contracta Taps
Pro’s and Con’s High delta P       High pressure loss Lots of data       Erosion Low cost Easy replacement
Venturi Tube
Flow Nozzle
Elbow Taps
Pitot Tube
Annubar
Annubar
Annubar
Annubar
Annubar
Output of the Transmitter ∆P
Square Root Extractor
Flow Loop with Square RootExtractor
Extractor at Low Inputs
Cutoff Relay
Effect of Process Conditions Flow measurements are inferential – Measure a pressure drop and infer a flow Affect by densit...
Density Compensating                   Flow   High Pressure   Sensing Line                                           RTD  ...
Flow Measurement Errors Erosion Over ranging the D/P cell Vapour formation in the throat Clogging Plugged or leaking impul...
For you to do Read pp. 18-32 Answer Questions pp. 82-85, #6-14
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Flow

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Flow

  1. 1. FlowMeasurement
  2. 2. Basic Flow Measurement Many methods of flow measurement Bernoulli’s Equation – A statement of energy conservation 1 2 p + ρv + ρgy = constant 2
  3. 3. Flow Pattern
  4. 4. Orifice Plate Orifice Plate Flow Sharp Edge Bevel High Pressure Low Pressure Sensing Line Sensing Line
  5. 5. Typical Orifice Plates
  6. 6. Beveled Edge on Orifice
  7. 7. Typical Transmitter Installation
  8. 8. Flange Taps
  9. 9. Vena Contracta Taps
  10. 10. Pro’s and Con’s High delta P High pressure loss Lots of data Erosion Low cost Easy replacement
  11. 11. Venturi Tube
  12. 12. Flow Nozzle
  13. 13. Elbow Taps
  14. 14. Pitot Tube
  15. 15. Annubar
  16. 16. Annubar
  17. 17. Annubar
  18. 18. Annubar
  19. 19. Annubar
  20. 20. Output of the Transmitter ∆P
  21. 21. Square Root Extractor
  22. 22. Flow Loop with Square RootExtractor
  23. 23. Extractor at Low Inputs
  24. 24. Cutoff Relay
  25. 25. Effect of Process Conditions Flow measurements are inferential – Measure a pressure drop and infer a flow Affect by density of the fluid – Temperature – Pressure – Increasing density increases the indicated flow rate
  26. 26. Density Compensating Flow High Pressure Sensing Line RTD Low Pressure Sensing Line DP Cell Pressure Cell Logic 4-20 mA Output
  27. 27. Flow Measurement Errors Erosion Over ranging the D/P cell Vapour formation in the throat Clogging Plugged or leaking impulse lines
  28. 28. For you to do Read pp. 18-32 Answer Questions pp. 82-85, #6-14

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