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Hydraulics

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Hydraulics

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  • it is all you need for basic hydraulics
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Hydraulics

  1. 1. Importance of Hydraulics Cuttings removal in the annulus Hydrostatic pressure to balance pore pressure and prevent the wellbore from collapsing ECD (Equivalent Circulating Density) Surge/swab pressures during tripping Limitation of pump capacity Optimisation of the drilling operation It becomes more important for HPHT and extended reach wells: Small margin between pore and fracture pressures Increased ECD for extended reach wells
  2. 2. Circulating System Drill pipe Annulus Casing & cement Open hole Drill collar Mud pump Mud pit Drill bit
  3. 3. Components of the Pressure Losses  Pressure loss through the surface equipment  From the pump to the top of the drill pipe  Difficult to calculate due to the variation from rig to rig  It is usually taken as 100 psi. Consult the rig personnel.  Pressure loss through the drill string  Downhole tool pressure loss  Varied from 200 psi up to 2000 psi depending on the tools  No general model available.  Consult the service company  Bit hydraulics  Pressure loss through the annulus
  4. 4. Pore Pressure & Fracture Pressure  Pore pressure  The pressure of the formation fluids.  Fracture pressure  The pressure to fracture the formation.  Design criteria  Pore Pressure < Mud Pressure < Fracture Pressure  Consequences of poor design:  Formation fluids flows into the borehole if mud pressure is less than the pore pressure.  Lost circulation occurs if mud pressure exceeds the fracture pressure.
  5. 5. Operating Margin of Mud Pressures Pore pressure Fracture pressure Pressure Depth Mud pressure
  6. 6. Basic Concepts  Average fluid velocity:  Fluid velocity through the annulus Vf (ft/min) 24.51   f d d Q 2 2 h p ( ) v   Fluid velocity through the drill string Vf (ft/min) v Q 24 . 51 d f  2  Where: Q = pump rate (gpm) d2 = wellbore diameter (inch) d1 = Outer diameter of the drill string (inch) d = Inner diameter of the drill string (inch)
  7. 7. Basic Concepts  Hydrostatic pressure:  The pressure acting on the hole bottom due to mud weight.  For a given mud density rf, the pressure imposed by the mud at a given true vertical depth (TVD) is: Pst  0.052rf TVD rf: = Mud density (ppg) TVD: = The true vertical depth (ft) Pst : = Hydrostatic mud pressure (psi)  Criteria for the hydrostatic mud pressure:  High enough to balance the pore pressure of the formation  Low enough to avoid fracturing the formation.
  8. 8. Basic Concepts  Equivalent circulating density (ECD):  Mud weight rf (ppg)  Pressure loss through the annulus Pa (psi)  True Vertical Depth (TVD) (ft) ECD p TVD f a    r 0.052 ECD = Equivalent Circulating Density (ppg)  Factors affecting the ECD:  Mud density.  Annular pressure loss Pa.  TVD. The smaller the TVD, the higher the ECD.  Rate of penetration and cuttings size
  9. 9. Basic Concepts  Equivalent viscosity meq:  In the pressure loss calculations for non-Newtonian fluids, the equations for Newtonian fluids are usually used. The effective viscosity for non-Newtonian fluids is the equivalent Newtonian viscosity of the fluid which would give the same friction factor versus Reynolds number relationship as that for Newtonian fluids.  Equivalent diameter Deq:  The equivalent diameter of a non-circular conduit is the geometric parameter of the conduit based on which a laminar Newtonian fluid flow through the conduit would give the same friction factor vs. Reynolds number relationship as that for Newtonian laminar flow through a circular pipe.
  10. 10. Basic Concepts  Reynolds number NRe:  Reynolds number is defined as follows (in consistent unit system):  Critical Reynolds number NRec:  The number for the transition from laminar flow to turbulent flow.  If the fluid Reynolds number is greater than the critical Reynolds number, the fluid is in turbulent flow regime. Otherwise, the fluid is in laminar flow regime.  For Newtonian and Bingham plastic fluids: NRec = 2100  For Power Law fluids NRec n  34701370 N D v eq f f eq Re   r m m r f f a D D v N     15.47( 2 1) Re
  11. 11. Reynolds Number  Reynolds number Drill Pipe (NRe)): Q 378.78 . D PV N . Re  r  NRe = Reynolds Number D = Pipe diameter, (in). PV = Plastic Viscosity (cps). Q = Flow Rate (gpm). r = Density (lb/gal).
  12. 12. Pressure Loss Equations – Bingham Fluids  The critical velocity (drill pipe): 97 97 8.2 . 2 2 PV PV D YP   r Vc . Vc = Critical Velocity (ft/min) D = Pipe diameter, (in). PV = Plastic Viscosity (cps). YP = Yield Point (lb/100ft2). r = Density (lb/gal). D r 
  13. 13. Pressure Loss - Pipe )  Pressure Loss in Laminar Flow (V<Vc): PV V 5 . YP ( 300. D D L Pd   Pd = Pressure Loss (psi) D = Drill Pipe diameter, (in). PV = Plastic Viscosity (cps). L = Length of pipe (ft) V = Fluid Velocity (ft/min) YP = Yield Point (lb/100ft2).
  14. 14. Pressure Loss – Pipe  Pressure Loss in Turbulent Flow (V>Vc): 5 0.8 1.8 0.28.91 10 . . . . x Q PV L 4.8 D Pd r   Pd = Pressure Loss (psi) D = Drill Pipe diameter, (in). PV = Plastic Viscosity (cps). L = Length of pipe (ft) Q = Flow rate (gpm) YP = Yield Point (lb/100ft2). r = Density (lb/gal).
  15. 15. Reynolds Number  Reynolds number Annulus (NRe)): Q 378 .78 . Re   D D PV N ( h p).  r NRe = Reynolds Number Dh = Hole diameter, (in). Dp = Pipe diameter, (in). PV = Plastic Viscosity (cps). Q = Flow Rate (gpm). r = Density (lb/gal).
  16. 16. Pressure Loss – Annulus  The critical velocity (annulus): 97 97 6.2( ) . 2 2 PV  PV  D  D YP Vc  Vc = Critical Velocity (ft/min) Dh= Hole diameter, (in). Dp = Pipe diameter, (in). PV = Plastic Viscosity (cps). YP = Yield Point (lb/100ft2). r = Density (lb/gal). .( h p ) h p D D  r r
  17. 17. Pressure Loss - Annulus  Pressure Loss (annulus) in Laminar Flow (V<Vc): YP . L Pd  200.( ) PV . V . L D D 60000 .( ) 2  h  p Dh Dp  Pd = Pressure Loss (psi) Dh = Hole diameter, (in). Dp = Pipe diameter, (in). PV = Plastic Viscosity (cps). L = Length of pipe (ft) V = Fluid Velocity (ft/min) YP = Yield Point (lb/100ft2).
  18. 18. Pressure Loss – Annulus  Pressure Loss (annulus) in Turbulent Flow (V>Vc): 5 0.8 1.8 0.2 x Q PV L 8.91 10 . . . . Pd   3 1.8 DH Dp Dh Dp ( ) ( )   r Pd = Pressure Loss (psi) Dh = Hole diameter, (in). Dp = Pipe diameter, (in). PV = Plastic Viscosity (cps). L = Length of pipe (ft) Q = Flow Rate (gpm) YP = Yield Point (lb/100ft2). r = Density (lb/gal).
  19. 19. Bit Hydraulics  Pressure loss at bit PN: PN = 156.8 rQ2 ( D1 2)2 PN = Nozzle pressure loss (psi). r = Fluid density (ppg). Q = Flow rate (gpm).  D1 2 = Sum of square of nozzles (32nd inch). Pbit = Pstandpipe – (Pdrillpipe + Pannulus)
  20. 20. Bit Hydraulics ECD = Equivalent Circulating Density (ppg) ECD p TVD f a    r 0.052 Factors affecting the ECD:  Mud density.  Annular pressure loss Pa.  TVD. The smaller the TVD, the higher the ECD.  Rate of penetration and cuttings size
  21. 21. Nozzle Velocity Nozzle Velocity Vn: Vn = Nozzle velocity (fps). Pbit = Pressure Loss at Bit (psi). r = Mud density (ppg). Pbit  If the nozzle velocity is too high hole erosion will occur.  Guidelines for nozzle velocities. Formation. Nozzle Velocity. (ft/sec) Hard competent 380 - 450 Medium hard 340 - 380 Fractured, faulted, dipped 320 - 400 or rubble like, soft Soft, gummy, sticky formations 290- 320 r VN  33.36
  22. 22. Nozzle Size Nozzle Size: 0.32. VN Q AT  Vn = Nozzle velocity (fps). Q = Flow rate (gpm). 4 3 32. At Nsize 
  23. 23. Bit Hydraulics  Hydraulics impact force Fim: F Q v im r   1930 n  r = Fluid density (ppg). Q = Flow rate (gpm). Fim = Impact force (lbs) Vn = Nozzle velocity (f/sec)
  24. 24. Hydraulic Horsepower  At bit:  At pump: HHP bit = (PN)(Q) 1714 HHP pump = (PT)(Q) 1714 HHP = Hydraulic horse power. PN = Nozzle pressure loss (psi). PT = Total pressure loss (psi). Q = Flow rate (gpm).  Bit hydraulic horsepower relates to the rate at which the fluid performs work at the bit. (efficiency of cuttings removal from beneath the bit).  As a rule of thumb the bit HHP should be 3.5 - 4 HHP per square inch of hole cross section area being drilled.
  25. 25. Surge and Swab Pressures (I) Surge pressure. Mud pressure increase when running into the hole. Swab pressure. Mud pressure decrease when tripping out of hole. Affecting parameters: Viscosity Tripping speed Annular geometry Mud density
  26. 26. Surge and Swab Pressures (II) The effect is similar to that of a plunger: A large proportion of kicks while tripping are due to swabbing. Excessive surges cause lost circulation, the resultant loss of hydrostatic head could cause a kick. The pressure changes caused by surges and swabs may cause hole sloughing, solids bridges and solids fill on bottom. Swab pressures may result in mud contamination by formation fluids entering the system. Surge and swab pressures can be reduced by reducing the pipe running / pulling speed and by reducing the viscosity.
  27. 27. Effects of P & T on Mud Density  Compressed by pressure  Expanded by temperature  Overall density variation depending on the thermal gradient and compositions of the fluid.  Water is less compressible than oil or synthetic fluids.  The effects of P & T are more pronounced for OBM than for WBM.  The variation in solids content of mud at a given weight has small influence on the variation of mud density at depth.
  28. 28. Hole Cleaning Efficiency Rheology, higher viscosities give better hole cleaning. Flow rate, needs to be greater than settling velocity. Particle size, shape; and density will affect its settling velocity. Fluid density, higher densities will be more buoyant. ROP, the rate the particles come to the surface will be the annular velocity - the settling rate - the R.O.P. Hole angle, deviated holes are more difficult to clean. Hole geometry, washed out sections will have lower annular velocities.
  29. 29. Particle Slip Velocity - Stokes Law The particle slip velocity is given by:   v r r d 2 m s    p p  (N . ) Re 8160 01 vs = Particle slip velocity (fpm). dp = Diameter of particle (inch). rp = Density of particle (ppg). r = Density of Fluid. h = Viscosity of fluid around the particle (cps).
  30. 30. Procedure for Pressure Loss calculations  Select rheology model and derive rheology parameters based on viscometer readings  Select the pressure loss equations  Calculate the followings for each section of the string and annulus: Critical flow rate Pressure loss  Compute the bit pressure loss  Estimate the pressure loss through downhole tools and surface lines  Add all the pressure losses to obtain the pump pressure
  31. 31. Dilemmas in Rheology & Hydraulics Design Parameters Advantages Disadvantages Good hole cleaning No kicks or blowouts Stable hole Good hole cleaning Good hole cleaning Lower torque, drag Good suspension of barite High pump pressure High ECD More hole washouts Loss circulation Low ROP Pressure sticking High ECD High pump pressure Low ROP Diff. for solids control High flow rate High mud density High mud viscosity
  32. 32. Design Philosophy and Necessary Tools Definition of optimum rheology and hydraulics:  Best compromises (rheology, hydraulics and related drilling parameters) Design philosophy:  Modify mud rheology and hydraulics to meet drilling requirements Modify drilling parameters to meet the needs of hydraulics Necessary tools: Hydraulics programme  Hole cleaning model
  33. 33. Criteria of Optimum Hydraulics Design Design criteria Pump capacity Tripping in/out Hole cleaning Bit hydraulics Maximum ROP BHA design Weighting agent sag Cementing operations Running casing Pore pressure < mud pressure Frac. pressure > mud pressure Breaking circulation
  34. 34. Optimisation of Rheology & Hydraulics Given parameters Hole cleaning yes Pump pressure Mud pressures Bit hydraulics Barite sagging yes yes yes Other criteria OK? OK? Tolerable? Tolerable? All met? no no no no no yes Optimum design Modify parameters parameters

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