Programmable Matter with Modular Robots


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Programmable Matter with Modular Robots

  1. 1. Programmable Matter with Modular Robots Daniela Rus CSAIL, MIT Z. Butler, P. Corke, C. Detweiler, B. Donald, K. Gilpin, K. Kotay, C. Levey, I. Paprotny, I. Vasilescu, M. Vona, Y. Yoon Motivation  Fixed architecture robot = fixed task set  Flexible architecture robot = versatility •Multiple locomotion gaits •Multiple manipulation gaits •Self-assembly •Self-repair  How do living cells differentiate? •Synthetic engineering exploration 1
  2. 2. Self-reconfiguring Robots slinky snake blob •Multiple modules •Physically connected •Capable of autonomous structural change •Multiple functionalities-- -form follows function Programming matter by self-reconfiguration All modules identical/active  Connections  Actuation by rotation, sliding, scaling  Local communication 2
  3. 3. Programming Matter Example: The Molecule  2 atoms, 1 bond, 5 connectors/atom  4 rotational degrees of freedom  4 Futaba S9204  10 Micro Mo motors  FDM fabrication Programming Matter Example 3
  4. 4. Programming Matter: Distributed Control Abstract model of relative motion: cube Synthesize task-specific local rules (manually or learning) Prove correctness Compile to specific hardware actuation Programming Matter: Distributed Locomotion 4
  5. 5. Programming Matter Distributed Control Analysis  Correctness:  Some rule can always be applied  Eastward motion results form all possible sequences of rule activations  The robot remains connected  Obstacle field must be shorter than the robot Programming Matter: Another Way Proof outline 1. A rule can always be applied 2. Rule applications Þ east movement 3. The cell array remains connected Graph equivalence 1. No leaves 2. Cycles : eastward displacement 3. Nodes are connected cell arrays  Automated proofs can be produced for a given rule set and cell array 5
  6. 6. Programming Matter by Disassembly Initial configuration Finished product Self-assembly as Sculpting Programming Matter by Disassembly Trade-offs  Simple actuation  Must start from pre- mechanism for assembled structure disconnection  Must rely on  Disconnection external force for easier, faster, more discarding modules robust than making (gravity) connections  Gravity pulls modules away 6
  7. 7. Programming Matter by Disassembly Example Motor ARM Processor Li-Poly Hall Effect Sensor Batteries Magnet Assembly Tilt Sensor IR LED IR Photodiode “Switchable” Magnet 2-D Accelerometer Miche Module Programming Matter Self-disassembly Algorithm 7
  8. 8. Programming Matter Self-Disassembly Execution 5 trials, 120 secs average completion, some units can’t fall Programming Matter Localization with Tokens Idea: each module computes a relative coordinate Benefits: global structure not known/needed 8
  9. 9. Programming Matter Shape Distribution Idea: included modules only receive message along shortest path Benefits: no global knowledge/need of shape Programming Matter: Self-disassembly Example 15 trials, 90 secs average completion 9
  10. 10. What Types of Modular Robots?  Spectrum of capabilities:  Self-reconfiguring: Actuation, Connection, Computation, Sensing, Communication  Self-disassembling: Connection, Computation, Sensing, Communication  Computation, Sensing, Communication  Computation and Communication  Inert  Spectrum of sizes: Large to Tiny Robots  Spectrum of applications: ground, water, space Programming Matter with Microrobots  Untethered actuators  Self-release  Power-delivery With B. Donald 10
  11. 11. Programming Matter with Microrobots Plate length: 80 microns; width 2 microns; speed 1.5 mm/sec Programming Matter with Robots and Passive Blocks 11
  12. 12. Programming Matter with Robots and Passive Blocks Programming Matter Underwater 12
  13. 13. Summary  Modular robots as alternative to fixed architecture robots  A spectrum of capabilities for modules  The future:  BioChemical+Electromechanical Robotics (Wet+Dry)  Distributed control of millions of tiny modules Questions 13