This presentation describes about hypertension, its types, signs & symptoms and measures to control it. Also this presentation describes about the services offered by Wockhardt Hospitals in heart care specialty.
What is Hypertension?• A common disorder in which blood pressureremains abnormally high (a reading of 140/90mm Hg or greater)• High Blood Pressure increases your chance (orrisk) of getting Heart Attack, Heart Failure, Stroke,Kidney disease and Peripheral vascular disease.• It is also called as Arterial Hypertension• It is a is a chronic medical condition in which theblood pressure in the arteries is elevated.
Prevalence of Hypertension in India• Hypertension is the most prevalent chronic disease in India with prevalenceincreasing rapidly among both urban and rural populations.• The prevalence of hypertension ranges from 20- 40% in urban adults and12-17% among rural adults• The number of people with hypertension is projected to increase from 118million in 2000 to 214 million in 2025, with nearly equal numbers of menand women.
Types of Hypertension• Essential Hypertension:About 90 percent to 95 percent of people with high blood pressurehave essential hypertension or primary hypertension. i.e. wherecause is unknown• Isolated Systolic Hypertension:Here systolic BP is greater than or equal to 140 and diastolic BP isnormal. In the Past Doctors considered this type of high bloodpressure to be normal in elderly patients. As people age, theirarteries tend to lose elasticity and become less able toaccommodate blood surges, leading to hardening of the arteries(arteriosclerosis). But it is not a benign condition and needs to beaggressively treated.
Types of Hypertension• Secondary Hypertension:Some medical conditions and medications can cause high blood pressures. This is calledsecondary hypertension, because high blood pressure is the second thing to develop,after the initial medical condition.• White-Coat Hypertension:Anxiety can raise blood pressure. Thats why some people who have a normal bloodpressure at home find that their blood pressure is high when they see a doctor.This phenomenon is called ‘White-Coat Hypertension’• Labile Hypertension:Labile hypertension is blood pressure that fluctuates abruptly and repeatedly, oftencausing symptoms such as headache or ringing in the ears.People with labile hypertension often react to emotional stress with an increase inblood pressure.
Types of Hypertension• Malignant Hypertension:Though rare, malignant hypertension is the most threatening formof high blood pressure. Its marked by an unusually sudden rise inblood pressure to dangerous levels.It is usually accompanied by dramatic symptoms such as severeheadache, shortness of breath, chest pain, nausea and vomiting,blurred vision, or even blindness, seizures and loss ofconsciousness. even death• Hypertension during Pregnancy:High blood pressure occurs in 6 – 8% of pregnancies, and in mostof these cases, it is diagnosed during a first pregnancy.Pregnancy can cause high blood pressure due to hormonalchanges or from a serious complication of pregnancy known aspreeclampsia.
Symptoms & Signs• Usually asymptomatic (that’s whycalled silent killer)But patients can have followingsymptoms:• Breathlessness• Headache• Bleeding from nose• Fatigue and sleepiness• Tinnitus or ringing in the ears• Profuse sweating• Blurred vision
Causes of Hypertension• Chronic kidney disease• Arterial disease• Thyroid disease (Goiter)• Sleep apnea• Birth control pills, pregnancy orhormone therapy• Genes• Drugs and Alcohol• Idiopathic (Essential hypertension)
Complications Caused• Thickens heart muscle(Left ventricular hypertension)• Ischemic heart disease• Heart failure• Stroke• Kidney Failure• Loss or reduced Vision• Trouble with Memory• Aneurysm• Metabolic Syndrome
Tips to Control Hypertension• Reduce sodium intake• Limit alcohol intake and stop smoking• Cut back on caffeine• Avoid tobacco products and passive smoking• Have a balanced weight• Exercise (Aerobics)• Meditate
The DASH Diet• The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension– a diet that is rich in fruits, vegetables and low fat dairy foods can substantially reduceblood pressure.• Increase intake of– Banana– Garlic– Poultry products– Potato– Beetroot– Onion– Olive oil– Nuts– Omega 3 rich foods– Avoid sodium(salt) rich food items
Exercises for Hypertension• Stretching or the slow lengthening of the muscles.Stretching the arms and legs before and after exercising can helpprepare the muscles for activity and helps prevent injury and musclestrain. Regular stretching may also increase your range of motionand flexibility.• Cardiovascular or aerobic exercise :This type of exercise strengthens the heart , lungs and improves thebodys ability to use oxygen. Aerobic exercise has the most benefitsfor your heart. Over time, aerobic exercise can help decrease yourheart rate and blood pressure and improve your breathing.• Strengthening exercises are repeated muscle contractions(tightening) until the muscle becomes tired.• Always consult your doctor before starting exercise
Prevention Tips• Maintain normal body weight for adults - Bodymass index 20–25 kg/m2• Reduce dietary sodium intake to <100 mmol/ day• Engage in regular aerobic physical activity such asbrisk walking (≥30 min per day, most days of theweek)• Limit alcohol consumption to no more than 3units/day in men and no more than 2 units/day inwomen• Consume a diet rich in fruit and vegetables (e.g. Atleast five portions per day)
Wockhardt Hospitals in Heart Care• For over 20 years, Wockhardt Hospitals has earned the reputation ofbeing a leader in heart care in the country.• Since 1990, Wockhardt Hospitals has successfully treated thousands ofheart patients and successfully performed a number of cardiacprocedures and surgeries.• Wockhardt Hospitals Cardiac team is strengthened by an accomplishedfull time and visiting team of over 50 cardiologists and cardiacsurgeons who provide the Wockhardt legacy of excellence in all theirhospitals.• Wockhardt Hospitals aspire to lead and continue to be the mostdesired destination for patients not just in India but also from acrossthe world.
Heart Care Services at WockhardtHospitals• Adult Cardiology and Cardiac Services:– Interventional Cardiac Procedures– Cardiothoracic and vascular surgery procedures• Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac services– Pediatric cardiology– Pediatric Cardiac Surgery– Closed heart surgeries like BT shunt, PDA interception, BDGlenn Shunt– Simple open heart surgeries, like ASD closure and VSD closure– Valve repairs, replacements, ROSS procedure• Wockhardt also houses Emergency Heart Attack care units in all itshospitals.
Bibliography• http://www.health24.com/Medical/Hypertension/Types-of-blood-pressure/Types-of-hypertension-20120721• http://www.umm.edu/patiented/articles/how_serious_high_blood_pressure_000014_5.htm• http://www.webmd.com/hypertension-high-blood-pressure/high-blood-pressure-diet• http://www.webmd.com/hypertension-high-blood-pressure/guide/dash-diet• http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/high-blood-pressure/DS00100/DSECTION=complications• http://www.intelihealth.com/IH/ihtIH/WSIHW000/8315/23999/366623.html?d=dmtContentDisclaimer: The information provided in this presentation is for education purpose only. Itshouldn’t be considered as expert or medical advice from Wockhardt Hospitals.
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