Application holy wars or a new reformation


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The presentation introduces and summarizes a nearly completed hypertext book project on the co-evolution of and revolutions in tools humans use and human cognition. It explores and combines threads of knowledge including: the archeology and history of technological revolutions, epistemology (the theory of information and knowledge), the emergence and nature of life, the evolution of record-keeping through the automation of information and knowledge processing from ancient Greece to the future. In other words, the evolution of and revolutions in human cognition is traced from our primate ancestors through to the emergence of posthuman cyborgs as cognitive technologies progressively become part of our cognitive processes. There is also a parallel story of the emergence of human social and economic organizations as living systems at a higher level of organization, with their own cognitive processes partially comprised of but different from the cognitions of individual humans belonging to the organizations. Because of the complexity of the story, it recursive develops a few core themes that become increasingly elaborated as new lines of evidence are woven into the picture.
The author, Dr William (Bill) Hall, bases the book on threads in his own personal evolution from a child born in 1939 and immersed in the world of marine biology; through physics, computers, neurophysiology, ecology and zoology, PhD in Evolutionary biology from Harvard, postdoctoral studies of the theory of knowledge and the history of evolutionary biology, personal computer journalism, technical authoring and documentation management for a software house and bank; to the last 17-1/2 years of his career prior to his retirement in mid 2007 as an engineering documentation and knowledge management systems analyst and designer for what was the Australia’s largest defense contractor. Around 2000 he returned to academia part time (full-time after “retirement”) as an honorary fellow to research the material covered in this hypertext book. The research is also represented in a number of publications covering the theories of knowledge and organization and the practice of managing knowledge in large organizations that can be found on Bill’s web site, The Evolutionary Biology of Species and Organizations.
On completion of the writing and editorial work finalize the book, it will be published via Kororoit Institute ( Crowd funding will be sought to complete the editorial and publishing work (more on this later).
The book will be a multimedia hypertext in the Web. The text is a fugally structured sequential argument crossing many disciplinary paradigms. Direct Web links from the text mostly define and discuss the linked terms or expand on them. Hyperlinked notes in the document offer more information, explanations, arguments and web links. Text citations link to the extensive bibliography where most items link directly to the complete work being cited.

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  • Defense Contracting’s business model is built around and coordinates four critical process flows (capstone functions in these flows are emphasized): Contracting : all those business, legal, and administrative functions associated with winning and managing contracts and associated supplier subcontracts. Engineering : all those creative functions involved determining how the client’s contractual requirements can be satisfied with physical product(s). Support Engineering : all those creative functions involved in building deliverable technical data and knowledge products documenting and explaining how to safely support, maintain and operate the physical products in service. Production : All those functions involved in turning the engineering concepts of the product(s) into physical deliverables. These process flows are immersed in and interconnected via a web of IT, Networking and Communications Systems. There are also several particularly important supporting functions, without which the critical process flows would be very much less effective. Content Management : All project-related documentation and data should be consistently preserved, managed and accessed via a standardized interface within a single content management umbrella that provides a common user interface for versioning, indexing, search, retrieval combined with workflow management functions. This is integrally associated with all Engineering and Support Engineering process functions and receives and manage documentation associated with the Contracting Process Flows. Notionally, Content Management consists of four major components Correspondence & Records Management Text and structured text authoring tool(s) Computer Aided Design (CAD) tool(s) Product Lifecycle Management is a relationally-based management environment that provides global management of product breakdown structure(s) and all associated product and parts-related technical data and documentation (text and CAD). Most importantly, PLM orchestrates the management functions for Engineering Change Management and Follow-on Support (where the Client chooses to use the latter). Manufacturing Resource Planning and the closely associated Supply Chain & Warehouse Management , control process and work flows through the Production process flow, ensuring the scheduling of work tasks and required tooling, parts and materials. It is fed with production engineering data, drawings and Bill of Material by the Product Lifecycle Management function that also tracks the completion of production tasks and feeds these on to the Contracting process flow’s Cost & Schedule Control / Payment function Accounts & Financial Management function provides the accounting, payroll, and payments/receivables functions All official communications and information exchanges with the Client are processed and tracked via the Client Management Portal – working closely with Content Management. Similarly, all official communications and information exchanges with subcontractors and suppliers are processed and tracked via the Supplier Management Portal – working closely with Content Management. Two other specialized database management systems provide specialized functions not readily subsumed within the Content Management umbrella: Business & Market Intelligence : a rumor and person tracking system seeking early information on potential RFIs, RFQs, and RFTs that will allow advance preparation for particular bid situations. Test and Trials, Warranty Engineering Change Request (ECR) Management: A system for registering, reviewing and tracking all engineering and documentation change requests – whether generated internally or initiated by the Client. Approved ECRs feed into Engineering Change Management via PLM.
  • Application holy wars or a new reformation

    1. 1. APPLICATION HOLY WARS OR A NEW REFORMATION? A Fugue on the Theory of Knowledge William P. Hall An attractor Senior Fellow Engineering Learning Unit University of Melbourne School of Engineering President Kororoit Institute Proponents and Supporters Assoc., Inc. - Revision 2 – 11/11/2012 Download full presentation from unique area in Access my research papers supporting the bookthe state space of the definition fromMandlebrot set Google Citations
    2. 2. P-1 Note The full slide set contains 100 slides – abstracts the main ideas of the book – it is intended to be read (~ 2 hrs) In the spoken presentation I will discuss only key slides to try to persuade you to download and read the full presentation. Download from I hope that will convince you to ask to download the draft book (for free), read it, and give me some feedback on how it works2
    3. 3. P-2 Presentation summarizes part of my hypertext book Title: Application Holy Wars or a New Reformation - A fugue on the theory of knowledge – “Application” computer-based system designed to solve a class of problems – “Holy war” (~ “flame war”) conflict over competing knowledge paradigms or technologies that becomes heatedly emotional when protagonists of different paradigms do not consciously understand implicit aspects of world views associated with them; often related to scientific or technological revolution – “Reformation” improvement or transformation of existing institutions or practices etc; intended to make a revolutionary change for the better. the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century was enabled by the revolutionary invention of the printing press to replicate and disseminate knowledge – “Fugue” (illustrated by J. S. Bachs "Little" fugue in G minor, BWV578) a compositional technique in two or more voices, built on a subject (theme) and possibly a counter subject (secondary theme) that are introduced at the beginning and recur frequently in the course of the composition the logical development in the book is modelled after a fugue – “Knowledge” solutions to problems of life what the book is all about – “Theory of knowledge” branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope (limitations) of knowledge, addressing the questions: What is knowledge? How is it constructed? How well does knowledge reflect external reality? Scope: explores the co-evolution of and revolutions in human cognition and knowledge-based tools to extend cognition3
    4. 4. P-3 “Application Holy Wars” is a hypertext: a revolutionary format for sharing knowledge Text displayed on a screen including clickable hyperlinks to other text or other objects that can be instantly accessed by a pointing action (mouse click) – besides texts, hyperlinks may access tables, images, audio, video, and other presentational formats – links may be other parts of the same document, or – may be located anywhere in the World Wide Web Hypertext is the underlying concept defining the structure of the World Wide Web. The book is constructed as a hypertext living in the Web – top layer of text is a fugally structured sequential argument providing a guided tour through many disciplinary paradigms – direct links from the text to the Web mostly define and discuss the linked terms – hyperlinked notes in the document offer additional information, explanations, arguments and web links – text citations link to extensive bibliography where most references then link directly to the complete work being cited The result is knowledge built on and directly connected to4 knowledge and wisdom held in the World Wide Web
    5. 5. P-4 Hypertextually navigating the landscape of the web of knowledge Paradigms are attractor basins in the topography of the global web of knowledge Links to the web access knowledge objects that help us cross paradigm boundaries towards unification5
    6. 6. P-5 Background for the book Combines polydisciplinary threads in my background – studied physics for 2½ years from 1957 (failed because of maths dyslexia) – hands on first & second generation computers – neurophysiology research assistant for 3 years – ·············· – vertebrate & invertebrate biology, cytogenetics, genetics – sophisticated user of the products of library science – evolutionary biology (PhD Harvard, 1973), research & teaching to 1980 – theory of knowledge and history and philosophy of science (UoM 1977-79) ·············· – technical communication and computer literacy training from 1981 (UoM) – analysis and design of computerized authoring and content management systems from 1990 to 2007 structured authoring (SGML, XML, HTML) analysis and design of maintenance content authoring, management and delivery for $7 BN ANZAC Ship Project ANZAC Ship maintenance doco problems solved by 2000 Holiday break 2000-2001 – time on my hands to think about difficulties in organizational knowledge management Result: started writing a hypertext book on co-evolution and6 revolutions in human cognition and cognitive tools humans use
    7. 7. P-6 History of the writing Started serious work at Tenix Defence ~ Jan. 2001 – stimulated by a holy war in the technical writing community over the use of conventional paper-based word processing applications versus the newer semantically structured authoring environments based on SGML and XML Working in industry I had no library access – A structure of Subject, Counter Subject and 4 Episodes established early – Concept was to link and distill freely available knowledge on the Web – Worked very well for first three Episodes – Took extended leave 2001-2002 for heavy-duty writing First three episodes flowed easily In the last episode I ould not reconcile my understanding of Tenix with web- accessible literature on knowledge management or organization theory I had to access to academic thinking and research libraries Hon fellowships – Research to develop a unified theory of organizational knowledge – Monash 2002-2005 (1 day/week at Monash in 2003 on Tenix time) – UoM 2005- (helped establish TOMOK, Melbourne Emergence, KIPSA) – Retired Tenix mid 2007 – Many publications as I explored the theory and practice of organizational knowledge By 2009 I understood the theory well enough to return to working on7 the book directly
    8. 8. P-7 Book organization Fugal development around knowledge growth (learning) cycles – SUBJECT: epistemology, learning cycles construct new knowledge, and revolutionary cycles of technology and knowledge growth – COUNTER SUBJECT: knowledge and its value – EPISODE 1: (historical) counting, writing, books, printing – EPISODE 2: (historical) automating cognitive processes – EPISODE 3: (historical) cognitive tools for individuals – INTERLUDE (theory): systems, theory of living knowledge, hierarchically complex autopoietic systems/organizations – EPISODE 4: (history and theory informed observation) social computing: moving posthumans into the cloud – EPISODE 5: (history and theory informed observation) individuals forming societies and socio-technical organizations – CADENZA: liberating knowledge, knowledge explosion and the “global brain”, organizational knowledge management – CODA: is the singularity a spike or a point of inflection?8
    9. 9. SUBJECTknowledge, revolutionsand knowledge growth cycles
    10. 10. S-1 Thomas Kuhn and Karl Popper help understand evolution, and the evolution of knowledge & technology Thomas Kuhn’s 1962 Structure of Scientific Revolutions – Normal science & revolutionary science – Also applies to technology – Revolutions imply conflict Karl Popper’s 1972 Objective Knowledge – major work on the topic of evolutionary theory of knowledge – “general theory of evolution” – cyclic emergence/construction of knowledge: problem situation raise tentative theories test to eliminate errors back to left-over/changed problems not resolved with situation in hand Grade shifts in evolving & other chaotic systems – an initial small change may open a new attractor basin – adaptation to the new attractor may result in large change (revolution) over short period of time (in an evolutionary sense) – grade shift in the evolution of a species is a revolutionary shift in the species’ ecological paradigm10
    11. 11. S-2 Popper’s greatest idea Poppers "general theory of evolution" – (From Hall 2005, after Popper 1972: pp. 243) – If you don’t eliminate your maladaptive errors via critical thinking, natural selection will eliminate you for expressing them TS1 TS2 Pn • EE Pn +1 • • • • TSm P = problem of life; TS = tentative solution; EE = eliminate erroneous solutions; Pn+1 = changed problem situation after Pn has been solved Cycle iterates to solve Pn+1 etc.11
    12. 12. S-3 Revolutions in material technology cause grade shifts in the nature of the human species M = millions, K = thousands, C = centuries, D = decades, Y = years, (BP = before present) Accelerating change in our material technologies: – ~ 2.5 M BP - Tool Making: stones, levers, and fire extend human reach and digestion – ~ 12 K BP - Agricultural Revolution: Ropes and digging implements used to control and manage non–human organic metabolism – ~ 3.5 C BP - Industrial Revolution: extends human and animal muscle power with mechanical power – ~ 5 D BP - Microelectronics Revolution: extends human cognitive capabilities with computers – > 10 Y BP - Cyborg Revolution: merges human and machine cognition with smartphones and neural prosthetics12
    13. 13. S-4 Grade shifting revolutions reinvent the nature of human cognition Accelerating change in human cognition – ~ 500 M BP - Evolutionary origin of individual memory and learning (genetic heredity) – ~ 150 K BP - Evolution of speech to transfer knowledge between individuals (genetic heredity) – ~ 11 K BP – Invention of physical counters (11 K), writing and reading (5 K) to record and transmit knowledge external to human memory (cultural use of technology) – ~ 5.6 C BP - Printing and universal literacy transmit knowledge to the masses (cultural use of technology) – ~ 3.2 D BP - Personal computing tools manage knowledge externally to the human brain (3.2 D) and the World Wide Web (1.8 D) (individual use of technology) – ~ 10 Y BP - Smartphones merge human and technological cognition (human & technological convergence) – ~ Now: Emergence of human-machine cyborgs (embedded13 technology is part of the human body)
    14. 14. COUNTER SUBJECT understanding and valuing the roles ofknowledge in adaptation
    15. 15. CS-1 Evaluating and valuing different types of knowledge Ian Coombes Karl Poppers Information (1972; 1978, Definitions and 1994) three Transformations. worlds of (Based on the knowledge. diagram ©1995 by World 2 is an Ian Coombe, as emergent published in The property based Australian Army in World 1. Information World 3 is an Management emergent Manual, Version 2) property based in World 2 John Boyds OODA Loop: Observe, Orient, Decide, Act.... Observe results of action. Determines success in competition15 and evolution
    16. 16. EPISODE 1tools to assist human cognition: counting, writing, books, printingfor representing and exchanging explicit content (paper paradigm)
    17. 17. E1-1 Counting and writing for trade and administration Counting (tokens) Cuneiform (records) Accounting (counting table/tablet) Roman abacus (adding machine Teachers/leaders instructing students/staff from wax/computerized tablets17
    18. 18. E1-2 Printing technologies for universal literacy and the distribution of knowledge18
    19. 19. E1-3 Books, journals, and libraries – systems for organizing and accessing recorded knowledge Accumulating and retrieving knowledge: – library architecture and catalogs – Bibliotheka & Mouseion the ancient universal library of Alexandria & associated university accumulated the world’s knowledge Knowledge lost for lack of replication Book construction – tablet, scroll, codex, incunabula Evolving book technologies facilitate knowledge access – woodcuts for illustration, page numbers, title pages and prefaces, publication details, metal engraving for detailed charts and diagrams, folded plates (i.e., oversize pages for high quality illustrations), cross referencing, indexing, and table of contents. Papermaking replaces papyrus and vellum Book and journal printing – mass replication & distribution of content ensures against loss Scientific journals and the construction of reliable knowledge Library cataloging systems Stand on the shoulders of giants – don’t reinvent what is already known19
    20. 20. EPISODE 2several “generations” of material tools for automating cognitive processes
    21. 21. E2-1 The material revolutions in a nutshell Left – Caius Julius Caesar (1486), Les commentaires de iules cesar: publisher: Antoine Caillaut ? pour Antoine Vérard. Accessed from the Internet Archive Right - HP Compaq 630 Core i3-2310M 6GB 15.6 inch Laptop LV426PA-6GB for just A$499 (RRP $869). Specifications: 15.6" display. Hard drive. Intel core processor i3-2310M. Windows 7 Home Premium 64-bit. Memory 6GB DDR3 SDRAM. HDMI. Bluetooth wireless. Integrated HP VGA Webcam and more..). In its day, A4 sized book would have cost more than laptop in current value. – The book contains one work by Julius Cesar – The laptop accesses Julius Caesar’s surviving works and most human21 knowledge ever published
    22. 22. E2-2 Ancient generations of automation and computing – mostly lost with the Bibliotheka and the Mouseion22
    23. 23. E2-3 Zeroth generation: material technologies for analog and digital calculation23
    24. 24. E2-4 First generation: electronic computers (1943-1955) UNIVAC I at Franklin Life Insurance Company, Springfield, Ill. Franklin operated a second UNIVAC I as a service bureau. Staff for the two systems included 3 supervisors, 32 technical staff (analyst, programmers, operators and service technicians) and 50 clerks (presumably key- punch operators)! The price for a basic UNIVAC-I system was $950,000, including the central computer with power supply, supervisory control desk, and 10 Uniservos tape drives - where a 1,500 foot magnetic tape could store up to 1.4 MB of data. UNIVACs had a clock speed of 2.2 MHz and a memory (mercury acoustic delay lines) of 1000 x 12 digit words (i.e., ~12 KB). It could complete 8,333 additions of approximately 100 bit words (11 decimal digits plus sign) in 1 second (8,300 Hz or 8.3 KHz). The smaller but newer Burroughs machine I learned to program on in 1958-59 had about the same power. Today (August 2010), I am writing this document on a $1000 notebook computer that has around 7.4x1013 times more raw processing power than was available from a million dollar room full of electronics to one of the nations largest life insurance24 companies 50 years ago! And yet, it was apparently cost-effective for the insurance company to make that investment. [Picture and quote from Weik (1961a).
    25. 25. E2-5 Second generation: magnetic core computers (1955 - 1964) A 256 bit (32 byte) ferrite core random IBMs 350 magnetic storage unit that access memory from around 1955. The was the heart of the 305 RAMAC from donut shaped objects at the intersections 1956 (Random Access Memory of the wire are the ferrite rings Accounting) system. 50 disks with 100 recording surfaces provided 3.75 MB storage at a lease cost of25 3,200/month.
    26. 26. E2-6 Third generation: integrated circuit computers (1964 - 1971) Shrinking circuit elements – Gen 1 – vacuum tubes – Gen 2 – shrinking transistors – Gen 3 – integrated circuits Shrinking logic circuits – Gen 1 – hand wired vacuum tubes – Gen 2 – printed circuit boards and shrinking transistors – Gen 3 – shrinking26 integrated circuits
    27. 27. E2-7 Large scale integration and Moore’s Law Moores Law as applied to the evolution of microprocessors. Recent studies show the rate of increase is actually hyper-exponential. Magnetic storage density doubles even faster, as does total processing power. Chips are 4004 (2300 transistors, 1971), 8008 (3500 transistors - 1972), and Dual-Core Intel® Itanium®27 Processor (1.3 BN transistors - 2006)
    28. 28. E2-8 Fourth generation personal computers and beyond Revolutions in fabrication: hand assembly to automated printing and assembly – The modern chip fabricator plant is a printing press on steroids – The mass production of hand-held devices makes them as cheap as books Revolutions in the application of control: from manipulating switches to casting spells – The first generation language is object code (or machine code) directly understandable by the computers processor – Second generation languages are processor specific assembly languages, with 1:1 relationship between mnemonics code and object code – Third generation languages are generic symbolic programming languages where instructions can be written in words and symbols – Fourth generation languages (or high-level languages) are used for macros and similar with application oriented syntaxes normally associated with word processing and database systems – Vernacular language Siri on an iPhone more-or-less understands human language as it is spoken Arthur C. Clarke: “Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable28 from magic”
    29. 29. EPISODE 3tools for extendingindividual cognition (virtual paradigm)
    30. 30. E3-1 Tools to store, manage and retrieve preserved knowledge Before printing – scholar had to walk/ride horse 100’s of kms between ‘libraries’ to see rare/single copies of key works – could only take away what he could remember or write With printing – individual could afford to own most important books – a good research library could aspire to be universal Information science: disseminating, indexing and retrieving scholarly, scientific and technical knowledge – History of scientific journals – 20th century library technology – The major knowledge indexing systems With the Web a scholar can now work from home – Computerizing and moving indexes on line – Indexing and semantic retrieval30 – The universal library is now on-line
    31. 31. E3-2 Killer applications make knowledge explicit and process it virtually in world 3 Word processing – extending the paradigm of paper Spreadsheets – extending the paradigm of a paper spreadsheet Databases – extending the tabular paradigm to more than two dimensions Growing conceptual revolution from 1986 – obsolescent paper paradigms and Microsoft’s waning dominance of personal computing – Structured authoring adds computer readable syntax and semantics to content – Computers can understand content as well as collect and31 deliver it (why ANZAC Ship Project was so successful)
    32. 32. E3-3 Are research libraries (and associated universities) terminally ill? The increasing cost of publishing paper and the physical limitations of libraries The research library is dead – long live the universal library Compared to the library–related bibliographic cataloging and indexing technologies for paper, which have been developed over more than a century and a half, cognitive retrieval and linking tools for personal desk–top use have evolved from essentially nothing in less than 15 years, with the most pervasive one being the World Wide Web. Beginning with the launch of Mosaic in 1994, the Web exploded in less than two decades from an idea into a system used by a significant fraction of humanity in the worlds developed countries to access a reasonable sample of humanitys total knowledge. Is the university dying too?32
    33. 33. E3-4 The World Wide Web Origins and history – Vanevar Bush’s Memex – Tim Berners-Lee 1989, released 1991 – Internet connectivity growth – Basic web tools The Web explodes How much information does the web hold? – could be tracked for a while – now lost in the cloud Retrieving value from the web semantically – Cataloging – Indexing – Portals – Multimedia Demonstrating semantic retrieval with Google Scholar33
    34. 34. INTERLUDEtheoretical frameworkfor remainder of book
    35. 35. I0-1 Three major sections Physics of systems – Background to other Interlude sections – Physical systems, complexity, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, entropy, dissipation, equilibrium and the thermodynamics of systems far from equilibrium (Prigogine, Simon, Kauffman) – Physical nature of time as a framework for “decisions” in evolutionary processes What is Life? – Autopoiesis (Maturana and Varela 1980) – Autopoiesis and knowledge are inseparable – Theory of knowledge-based autopoietic systems as developed in my research papers 2003-2011 Theory of hierarchically complex dynamic systems and higher orders of autopoiesis – Hierarchy theory (Simon, Salthe, etc.) – Emergence of higher order knowledge-based autopoietic systems (organizations)35
    36. 36. I1-1 Physical dynamics Time, change and causation: particle motion through Vector fields and attractors space and time (George Ellis) determines Stuart Kauffman’s adjacent possible. Natural selection prunes the possible to produce evolution. Second Law of Thermodynamics is the driving force of evolution – Energy flow drives life to solve problems and become more complex36 – Knowledge is built through solving problems (i.e., decisions)
    37. 37. I2-1 Complex dynamic systems and life Kauffman in Brockman (1995) re complex dynamic systems: – An infinitesimal change in initial conditions [may lead] to divergent pathways in the evolution of the system. Those pathways are called trajectories. The enormous puzzle is the following: in order for life to have evolved, it cant possibly be the case that trajectories are always diverging. Biological systems cant work if divergence is all thats going on. You have to ask what kinds of complex systems can accumulate useful variation. – Weve discovered the fact that in the evolution of life very complex systems can have convergent flow and not divergent flow. Divergent flow is sensitivity to initial conditions. Convergent flow means that even different starting places that are far apart come closer together. Thats the fundamental principle of homeostasis, or stability to perturbation, and its a natural feature of many complex systems.37
    38. 38. I2-2 Visualizing convergence & divergence Divergent and convergent futures (extending George Ellis particle motion) – Errors prune divergent futures (faulty systems dis-integrate)38 – Selection & correct decisions converge.
    39. 39. I2-3 What is life? Autopoiesis – An autopoietic system is organized (defined as a unity [i.e., an entity]) as a network of processes of production (transformation and destruction) of components that produces the components that: (1) through their interactions and transformations continuously regenerate and realize the network of processes (relations) that produced them; and (2) constitute it (the machine [i.e., the entity]) as a concrete [i.e., definable] unity in the space in which they [the components] exist by specifying the topological domain of its realization as such a network. – Fundamentally cyclical, continuation depends on the structure of the state in the previous instant to produce autopoiesis in the next instant – Survival builds knowledge into the system one problem solution at a time Self producing entity in Conway’s Game of Life cellular automaton39
    40. 40. I2-4 Autopoiesis Autopoiesis – [The autopoietic system is] …a molecular system open to the flow of molecules through it as molecules could enter it and become participants of its closed dynamics of molecular productions, and molecules could stop participating in such molecular dynamics leaving it to become part of the molecular medium in which it existed…. [Maturana 2002: p. 7] – …autopoietic systems in the physical space must satisfy the thermodynamic legality of physical processes that demands of them that they should operate as materially and energetically open systems in continuous material and energetic interchange with their medium… [where] ...the physical boundaries of a living system... are realized by its components through their preferential interactions within the autopoietic network... as surfaces of thermodynamic cleavage [Maturana 2002: p. 30].40
    41. 41. I2-5 Spontaneous co-emergence of autopoiesis and knowledge The dynamic vectors of the present instant result from causal events in past instants as reflected in the adjacent possibles of the immediately prior instant. These historical connections (heritage) determine the vectors in state space of the present instant. Convergent paths may become coherently autopoietic, such that the ensemble structure of a convergent state in one instant generates an ensemble structure that remains convergent n the next instant. Divergent paths leading to incoherent non-autopoietic structures that disintegrate lose the historical thread of successful autopoiesis Ensembles that remain convergent through the selective elimination of divergent outcomes retain structural knowledge41 that solved a problem of survival
    42. 42. I2-6 What is knowledge in life? Popper’s three worlds in an autopoietic system42
    43. 43. I2-7 How does living knowledge evolve Stages in the emergence of knowledge-based autopoiesis43
    44. 44. I2-8 Forms of living knowledge & knowledge exchange Cognition, structural/dispositional knowledge, codified knowledge and systems of heredity – autopoietic reproduction and natural selection builds W2 knowledge into structural organization – codified knowledge (RNA/DNA) emerges at the macromolecular level to form W3 – knowledge in W3 shared at the macromolecular level across time and space via NA exchanges transformation transduction conjugation eukaryotic meiosis, random assortment, gametogenesis, and fertilization – Culture: the social sharing knowledge at a higher level of organization tacit transfer (copying; speaking & listening)44 explicit transfer (writing, printing, electronic comms)
    45. 45. I3-1 Hierarchically complex dynamic systems higher orders of autopoiesis Hierarchy theory – Herbert Simon – Nobel laureate (nearly decomposable systems) – Arthur Koestler (holonics) HIGHER LEVEL SYSTEM / ENVIRONMENT – Stanley Salthe (systems triad) boundary Levels of organization conditions, constraints, Hierarchical structure of regulations, living systems actualities Spontaneous emergence of "HOLON" SYSTEM SYSTEM FOCAL LEVEL new levels of organization in living systems Possibilities Orders of autopoietic systems initiating conditions SUBSYSTEMS – cell universal laws – multicellular "material - causes" – social/economic organizations – cities & nations45
    46. 46. I3-2 Autopoietic organizations46
    47. 47. I3-3 Emergence of autopoiesis47
    48. 48. I3-4 Mature autopoiesis48
    49. 49. EPISODE 4 social computing:posthumans are moving into the cloud
    50. 50. E4-1 Development of “sociotechnical systems” Technology increasingly used in social contexts or to mediate social networking People and their systems form sociotechnical systems Each individual person is becoming a sociotechnical system in his/her own right – surrounded by the increasingly personal technologies used in interacting with other people and the world – people interacting with other people via personal technologies – personal technologies interacting directly with personal technologies Case 1: Convergence of personal capabilities with technological capabilities redefines what it means to be posthuman Case 2: Technology involved in the social development50 of knowledge
    51. 51. E4-2 Technological convergence People evolved with narrow-band networking – people are social and organize via communication – before the telephone only means involved speech in close proximity (tacit) or asynchronously via writing (explicit) – telephone allowed synchronicity over distances but still 1:1 – radio/TV – synchronously influence thousands to millions, but only 1:many Moore’s Law still at work: clouds, pipes, devices, apps – hyperexponential growth continues in storage density and capacity (local/in the cloud) bandwidth device processing speed/power (local/in the cloud) battery power/weight – technological convergence (devices/apps) was one device per function51 now apps provide limitless functions per device
    52. 52. E4-3 Shrinking devices lead to convergence (Left) Motorola MicroTAC 9800x, launched April 1989 – the smallest and lightest phone available at the time. (Right) Apple iPhone 4S released in October 2011. 1989 state of the art was a pocket-sized mobile personal phone able to remember a few phone numbers. It weighed 349 gm, sold for US$2,495-3,495 (Motorola’s MicroTAC 9800x) 2011 personal “smartphone” is a multipurpose cognitive prosthesis connecting its user’s mind to the full resources of the Web from anywhere in the world. An example is Apple’s 140 gm 64 GB iPhone 4S308 selling for US $399, whose functions are listed on the next slide.52
    53. 53. E4-4 Cognitive functions converging into the personal smartphone (iPhone 4S308) Normal phone functions plus teleconferencing (Skype, etc.) SMS and Twitter Still & video cameras (including flash) Media access and playback Web access (full browser functions, send, receive) Display & edit document contents (including MS Office) Default applications (Safari, Mail, Photos, Video, YouTube, Music, iTunes, App Store, Maps, Notes, Calendar, Game Center, Photo Booth, and Contacts) Free & paid downloadable apps (~500,000) Extra-corporeal cognition embodied in the smartphone – sense organs! conventional senses - hearing, vision, touch screen, ambient light senses no organic system has – geopositioning, proximity – Siri – multilingual speech recognition, control & reminder system – Dictionary - anticipatory text, auto correct – Google Translate - good enough for me to understand a Japanese web site53
    54. 54. E4-5 What killer apps can run on a personal smartphone? Email (1971), SMS (2002) Wireless voice 1946, 1956, 1973 – VoIP 1973 – Skype 2003 Media (players 1991/stores 2001) Photography (still & video) – Picassa/iPhoto 2002 (Smartphone releases 2012) – Panoramio with geolocation 2005 – YouTube 2005 Cloud storage/file sharing – Napster 1999 Kids texting instead of talking (H+) – Dropbox 2008 Office tools via cloud Social – Google Docs 2007 – Chat (~1980), listserve 1992, groups – Smartphone Docs2Go 2008 1998, GPS etc. (navigation & finding) – Meetup 2001 App stores – Myspace 2003/Facebook 2004 – 500,000 available for iPhone – Twitter 2006 – ???,??? for Android WIKI 1994/Wikipedia 200254 Life recording/lifeblogging now Blogs ~1998/WordPress 2003
    55. 55. E4-6 Medical bionics and Moore’s Law — again Organic/tool interfacing is the key to making happy cyborgs Wallace et al. 2012. Nanobionics: the impact of nanotechnology on implantable medical bionic devices. Nanoscale - DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30758h (Uni Wollongong) reviews existing and developing technologies – Electrodes nanostructured metal films carbon microelectrodes (direct growth, nanotubes) – nanotube paper – layer by layer assembly – printing – spinning Organic conducting polymer – electrodeposition – nanodispersion – printing – Electrode/cellular interaction – Even more technologies55
    56. 56. E4-7 Implant convergence – becoming cyborgs with personal smartphone interfaces to the nervous system Sensors – Bionic ears (cochlear implants) first implant by Melbourne’s Graeme Clark in 1978 by 2010 ~220,000 implants world wide – Bionic eyes (retinal implants) being done but still experimental Effectors – Implanted cerebral or peripheral nerve control of artificial limbs & wheelchairs56
    57. 57. E4-8 Social construction of knowledge Production and formalization of KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY EDITORIAL knowledge involves social (and REVIEW technological) processes at 4 levels EXPLICIT of dynamic organization SUBMIT BoFK O EE Creation (“I” the single person) O – Pn “I”TTs “WE” “THEM” PEER REVIEW Collaboration (“We” the work group) EE – O – Review and publication (“Them”) – Assimilation (by the “Knowledge REWORK FORMAL PUBLISH EDITORIAL Society” into the Body of Formal DECISION &COMMENT Knowledge or “Noosphere”) Each cycle involves Observation (of problems), Orientation (concept development), Decision (casting of tentative theories) and Action (elimination of errors) Involves both tacit and explicit processes to eliminate errors What is left is reliable knowledge Are existing academic journals good value? Sociotechnical systems can greatly speed the process57
    58. 58. E4-9 What does it mean to be Human? Autopoietic boundaries – What are the components of the knowledge based autopoietic system? – How is one autopoietic system distinguished from the next? Human evolution in four dimensions – Jablonka and Lamb book – Genetic knowledge determines what is physiologically possible – Epigenetic knowledge may provide some Lamarkian learning – Cultural (tacit and explicit) response in less than a generation – Personal learning in decades or even hours Moore’s Law is not finished yet! Humanity’s adaptive scope/ecological footprint has evolved more in the last century than since the origin of mammals and the rate of change is still58 increasing
    59. 59. E4-10 Social constitution of the Global Brain “Old” idea of Principia Cybernetica – first activities 1991, live on Web 1993 – aims to develop a complete philosophy or "world-view", based on the principles of evolutionary cybernetics, and supported by collaborative computer technologies – ancient Greek idea that the whole of human society can be viewed as a single organism – the Web is its brain Wikipedia might be considered to be the Global Brain’s common knowledge What does it mean when human brains directly interface with/become part of the Global Brain via bionic cybernetic implants?59
    60. 60. E4-11 Where are we going? What does it mean? Sociotechnically political – Arab Spring – Occupy movements – Getting out the vote Sociotechnically pathological – Flash mobs – Addiction – Cyber Bullying, depression & suicide Sociotechnical constructive – Community & environmental monitoring – Knowledge, decision and action – Some significant applications Landcare and NatureShare Smart Cities60
    61. 61. EPISODE 5 Individuals forming societies and socio-technical organizations
    62. 62. What’s the fuss In less than 20,000 years humans have evolved from being apex carnivores in Africa and Eurasia to affecting every living thing on the entire planet – How has this been possible? Genetically, humans descend from bipedal ape-men that learned to survive on the African savanna 5-6 mya, developed a taste for meat, and transformed themselves from cat food into apex carnivores Virtuous evolutionary spiral – Dangerous and variable Pleistocene environments (Pn ) – Varying natural selection (Ts & EE) finds local solutions Natural selection continues from changed problem situations (Pn+1 ) Natural selection at genetic level is normative not cumulative (i.e., shifts niche by biasing tails of normal distribution – Social accumulation of knowledge to solve problems of life Niche expansion & reconstruction broadens normal distribution Social groups become increasingly organized as the consequence of the social accumulation of knowledge – heritable knowledge belongs to the group not the individual62 – This has many implications
    63. 63. E5-1 Key ideas Premise – Humans are fundamentally social organisms – Sustenance, information, knowledge and status are all shared and exchanged via social interactions – All social interactions depend on communication – Evolving social systems increased human control over “nature” – Technological revolutions enabled grade-shifting cognitive and ecological changes in the nature of humans Scenarios of increasing (self) regulation and control – hunter-gatherer tribes tacitly build/maintain tribal knowledge – add counting & recording to enable agrarian state tax administration – add literacy to enable commercial trading companies – add printing & universal literacy to enable science and industry – add computing to enable national & global enterprises – add social technology to re-enable groups & organizations to compete?63
    64. 64. Practice makes perfect — rise of the hominin toolmakers
    65. 65. Apes & monkeys tell us our common ancestors made and used tools and transmitted knowledge culturally Chimps using probes to collect ants. Probe Child watching mother crack otherwise inedible is inserted almost to full length into earth. palm nuts using hammer & anvil. (Note: click pictures for videos) Tool using cultures are not limited to apes. Capuchin monkey nut processing industry in Brazil deals with much more difficult nuts than chimpanzees work with. Process involves Picking, husking, several days’ drying, testing, transporting, and finally – cracking. They also make & use probes and shovels. Capuchins may be better models for early hominins than apes.65
    66. 66. Hominin grades and their adaptive plateaus White et al’s (2009) depiction of the adaptive plateaus achieved by the different species grade shifts in the Pliocene radiation of hominins as our ancestors became more adapted to more open and arid environments. CLCA = chimpanzee-human last common ancestor. Increasing brain capacity in Pleistocene: Homo habilis (Acheulian finely flaked tools) H. erectus H. heidelbergensis, H. neanderthalensis + Denisovans + H. sapiens. Successive waves out of Africa Late Pleistocene Neanderthals & modern humans had large brains, made complex tools of many components, and had the genetic markers a language capability (fine coordination & language use same brain areas). Genomics shows that Neanderthals, Denisovans, & H. sapiens were distinct66 species but cohabited long enough for minor hybridization.
    67. 67. Brains, diets and guts Tradeoff between brain size and digestive apparatus (Aiello & Wheeler 1995) Maximum energetic capacity of metabolism is anatomically limited Big brains are metabolically very expensive – human brains use 20% of total energy consumed – also depend on essential amino and fatty acids not provided by plant matter – gut tissue is as expensive as brain tissue Meat & fat easy to digest & have essentials needed for brains67 Cooking improves meat, root, and vegetable caloric & nutritional quality
    68. 68. Tools, cognition, niche widening How ape-men on savanna used simple tools to get meat, take revenge on big cats, and dominate the world (speculation) a. b. Hominins using haak en steek branches as tools (Guthrie 2007): a. for driving big cats away from their prey. b. for hunting - given the simple conversion of a thorn branch into a "megathorn" lance. Haak en steek = Acacia tortillis in arid zones from Syria & Arabian Penninsula through arid & savanna to South Africa – protected by two types of spines: long sharp woody spikes (“steek”) and sharp tearing hooks (“haak”) like cat claws – easy to pick up, poke, and wave at cats, leaving no fossil record68 – cats risk blindness if run into/hit by thorny branch & they know it
    69. 69. Making a stone knife is also within an ape-man’s cognitive capacity Kanzi (a bonobo) knaps flint knife to cut rope to gain access to a banana – near Oldowan quality – socially facilitated learning from watching a human flint knapper Vulcan (a capuchin) makes flint knife to cut heavy plastic skin and makes a honey dipper from a branch to get honey – said to be self-taught (socially facilitated?) Tools extend access to different niches: more kinds of tools = broader niche = better diet = opportunity for smaller guts & more brains =69 capacity to make & use more different tools
    70. 70. With stone butchering tools, hominins became top carnivores on the savanna Oldowan tools made & used from 2.6 to 1.7 mya – Hominin teeth not strong enough to tear skin and flesh of game animals. – Flaked rocks sharp enough to help dismember large prey before cats arrive More sophisticated Acheulean hand choppers & other tools made & used from 1.7 mya to 0.1 mya but required more knowledge & dexterity to make Note exceedingly slow rate of technological change – Suggests limited neural/social capacity to accumulate knowledge of complex technologies70
    71. 71. Possible dietary change and the evolution of hominin cranial capacity (Babbitt et al. 2011) Niche expansion Niche shifts71
    72. 72. Cognitive skills needed to accumulate knowledge for niche expansion (Vaesen 2012; Rolland 2004; Twomey 2011) Hand-eye coordination – fine motor control needs more neurons Causal reasoning – time-binding – understand goals, actions, and consequences Function representation - fit particular tools for particular jobs Natural history intelligence - conscious attention to understanding the behaviors of predators, prey, fire, other changing aspects of environment Executive control – anticipating, deciding & planning; not just reacting Social intelligence – Extended childhood – Social learning (imitation not emulation) – Understanding of intentions of others – Teaching Intragroup coordination Intergroup collaboration Language72
    73. 73. Increasingly complex fabrication process Action hierarchies for making Lower73 Paleolithic stone tools (Stout 2011)
    74. 74. Increasing tool complexity Development of increasingly complex stone tools (after Stout 2011), correlates with increasing brain capacity (and more social intelligence?).74
    75. 75. Cognitively controlled processes to kill prey with a stone-tipped spear Understanding cognitive demands of technologies Thinking a stone-tipped spear – sequence of steps to make a spear used to bring down prey (chains of operation/cognigram) – making a bow and arrow set is at least 3x more difficult (Lombart 2012; Lombard & Haidle 2012)75
    76. 76. Homo incendius ―fire users and fire makers
    77. 77. Fire demands increasing cognitive capacity and greatly expands hominin niche width77 Possible use and maintenance of natural fire by early hominins (Clark & Harris 1985)
    78. 78. Fire users, keepers, & makers Accumulating cognitive demands of a new technology Opportunistic users > 5 mya ? – savanna burns naturally every 2-5 years – Knowing that burnt savanna is a good source of high cuisine roast meat much more digestible than raw inedible/indigestible nuts, roots & tubers made edible Fire keepers > 1 mya – Requires high degree of social coordination – Knowing how to feed and keep a fire (process knowledge) – Keepers much better off than those without – Loss of fire potentially catastrophic to group – Keeping the fire is a driver to increase cognitive capacity Fire makers ~ 0.5 – 0.4 mya – Knowing how to start a fire without a natural source Striking a spark (what rocks, what tinder?) Using a fire stick to create friction embers78
    79. 79. Keeping fire is not far beyond ape-men’s mental capacities Kanzi the bonobo can’t start a fire without a lighter, learned what fire is good for and how to keep it burning (Savage-Rumbaugh) – Cultural knowledge learned from his human “family” – Lighting the fire with stone-age technology is another matter a bonobo’s may have the neuro-muscular dexterity to light a fire using a hand- drill, fire-board and tinder – but even that is debatable it probably is not within a bonobo’s cognitive capacity to plan the fire, collect the necessary components, and use them in the appropriate sequence to light the79 fire
    80. 80. Selective conditions from the maintenance of fire80
    81. 81. Cognitive requirements for maintaining a fire (Twomey 2011)81
    82. 82. Early fire users & makers Wonderwerk Cave ~1.5 mya?, 1.0 mya certain (fire keepers? – Berna et al. 2012) – South Africa – Acheulian tool kit (H. erectus?) Gesher Benot Ya‫י‬aqov – 780 kya sporadic for 100 kya span (fire makers? – Goren-Inbar 2011) – Jordan River, Israel, boggy lake margin – Acheulian tool kit (H. erectus, ergaster, early sapiens all possible) – Processed elephant, rhino, bovids, gazelles, fish, crustacea, seeds, nuts, leafy vegetables & made stone tools around “virtual” hearths Schöningen ~ 400 - 380 kya – an autumn hunting camp (Thieme 2005) – Saxony, eastern Germany, peaty lake margin (extraordinary preservation) – First compound wooden tool (worked branch grooved to hold cutting flakes) – Acheulian stone tools, 8 sophisticated wooden throwing javelins, 4 outdoor hearths, – Fossil evidence for the slaughtering, spit roasting and possible smokin of an entire herd of horses at these hearths (20 complete skulls from all ages) – Intact javelins may represent ritual offering Bilzingsleben 370 kya (single occupation period for an open-air hunting camp – Mania & Mania 2005) – Thuringia, eastern Germany, karstic lake margin (extraordinary preservation) – Acheulian tool kit (skull fragments suggest late H. erectus, late heidelbergensis, pre Neanderthal, early sapiens) – Three “settlement structures” (huts) with internal hearths, four separate “activity areas” identified by different tool kits & other artefacts (tool making, stone paved area for spit roasting, skin and bone processing area, paved area with a single hearth & suggestion of ritual alter) – Fossil remains of elephants, rhinoceros, horses, bison, red deer, fallow deer, roe deer, pigs, cave lions, cave bears, grey wolves, spotted hyenas, red foxes, badgers, and martens82
    83. 83. Becoming theJack-of-All-Trades — virtuous evolutionary spiral of niche construction
    84. 84. Hominid sociality, knowledge accumulation, niche expansion niche expansion Evolutionary diversification of social structures in hominoid primates from the Miocene to the84 present (after Malone et al. 2012)
    85. 85. Niche construction theory Theory development by (Laland et al. 2001; Laland & O’Brien 2012; etc.) Continuing dynamic feedback between species’ populations and their physical and competitive environments – species’ trophic and competitive interactions and impacts on physical resources unavoidably alters the environment for itself and for other species – those environmental alterations shape the selective environment influencing the inheritance of knowledge and cognitive capabilities – consequential phenotypic changes further impact environment... – the niche occupied/made by a population represents the current dynamic state of niche-expansion pressures resulting from selection on the species to increase its populations, versus niche-narriowing pressures from all other species’ activities to widen their niches Malone et al. (2012), Iriki &Taoka (2012) and others present niche construction models for the evolution of social systems in early hominids that set the stage for the substantial expansion of social complexity and behavioral plasticity in the hominin line85
    86. 86. Social systems as mechanisms for preserving and transmitting adaptive knowledge Species, individual, and group cultural knowledge – Species’ knowledge is embodied in the shifting contents of the species’ gene pool Learning takes place through the action of natural selection on the reproduction of whole genomes Addition and complexification only possible with the duplication and subsequent divergences of whole or partial genomes – Individual’s knowledge is embodied in the shifting contents of the living individual’s cognitive processes and memories Problem solutions are learned through iterated knowledge building cycles of observation, orientation, decision and action The individual’s knowledge vanishes with death – Group’s cultural knowledge is that which can be successfully transferred from the cognition and memories of one individual to other individuals during the first individual’s lifetime. Pre-linguistic hominins could only share knowledge via attention, observation, emulation/imitation, practice, and criticism Cultural accumulation critically depends on fidelity of transmission & duration of transferred knowledge Facilitated by – structured social systems genetically determined behavioral predispositions86 –
    87. 87. Cognition, culture, complex social systems and the means for evolutionary adaptation Most feedback is normalizing. Positive feedback in evolutionary learning cycles (Carbonell 2010) 1. technological development, 2. socialization (i.e., generalization of new technologies in the group), 3. social reorganization & genetic adaptation (i.e., dynamic processes that involves change in capabilities, behaviour, social skills and subsistence strategies), 4. niche expansion and demographic growth enabled by improvements, 5. geographic expansion by niche expansion and population increase 6. more opportunities for technological development87
    88. 88. Homo sapiens and the development of complex tool kits and cultures – platform for language development Recent (3 years) integration of genomics & fossil record African genesis – a competitive pressure cooker – Ape cultures making and using tools – Homo, the carnivorous savannah ape was a collaborative big game hunter – Success limited by brain capacity for complex thinking/expression/action Several Pleistocene colonizations of Eurasia – Primitive H. erectus entered Eurasia (Dmanisi) 1.8 mya or earlier & spread to Flores Island, Indonesia, survived in E. Asia/Indonesia until ~30 kya Acheulean toolkit (simple flaked stones, probably included wooden spears & clubs) – H. heidelbergensis (Denisovan ancestor?)/neanderthalensis entered Eurasia ~400 kya, replacing H. erectus in Europe & western Asia, Neanderthals survived until ~14 kya Complex tools (multistep fabrication), symbolic language ~200-100 kya? – H. sapiens entered Levant where they met & ~60 kya hybridized with Neanderthals (all non-African H. sapiens populations carry ~3% Neanderthal genes) first wave of migrants to east meet & hybridize with Denisovans in central Asia (Australian & New Guinea natives carry ~ 6% Denisovan genes) Mechanically projected weapons, i.e., bows & arrows (Churchill & Rhodes 2009;88 Lombard & Haidle 2012)
    89. 89. Babble & Babel — Speech as a tool forsocial coordination and transmitting cultural knowledge
    90. 90. Coevolutionary cycles for niche construction: tools, language & culture Pleistocene coevolutionary cycle – Increasingly complex technologies for hunting & gathering require better cognition, culture & language skills to support technologies – Domestication of dogs & other animals Grade shift: agriculture – Permanent habitations – Complex tools and industries – Food storage – Long range / centralized planning & control – Technologies for counting, recording, writing and teaching – Hierarchical social organization and differentiation: kings, priests, clerks, soldiers/police, artisans, peons/slaves – Increasing linguistic complexity: abstraction, time & space, quantitative, sophistication re actors and actions, shading90 of qualities and qualifications
    91. 91. What is language? Pre-literate language is not what we speak today – Speech vanishes in the instant it is articulated (Walter Ong 1982) Before writing language was not symbolic as we would understand it today Words as discrete objects of thought did not exist before writing Language communicated states of mind – Language only has meaning in the social context Tylén et al. 2010 defining “language” – extends the ‘interaction space’ in space and time – tool for aligning attention to share experience (structure, guide and constrain joint attention and perspective-taking in an already existing, shared meaning space) – enables collaborative development & sharing of higher-order situation models and action plans (management of complementary & contingent – attunes people to certain aspects of visual, auditory and spatial perception at a cultural level Words as proxies for objects and actions Language is a complex adaptive system (Beckner et al. 2009) – Consists of multiple agents interacting with one another – Adaptive - speakers’ behavior is based on their past interactions, and current and past interactions together feed forward into future behavior – Speaker’s behavior consequence of competing factors ranging from perceptual constraints to social motivations – speakers’ behavior is based on their past interactions, and current and past interactions together feed forward into future behavior – The structures of language emerge from interrelated patterns of experience, social interaction, and cognitive mechanisms91
    92. 92. When did hominins learn to speak? Language doesn’t fossilize until it is written Paleoarcheological proxies for symbolic behavior – “masterpieces” (specially worked complex tools) – body and artifact painting (ochres & other pigments) – shell beads jewelry – ritual burials and “grave goods” – representational painting – musical instruments (i.e., bone flutes) Emergence of dateable genetic & fossilizable morphological/neurological prerequisites – FOXP2 etc (common to H. sapiens & neanderthalensis) – Larynx & hyoid bone (ditto) – Neuromuscular control of breathing (lack in ergaster & erectus – Broca’s & Wernicke’s areas of the cerebral cortex Last 200,000 years – Social coordination of cooperative hunthing – Last common ancestor H. neanderthalensis & sapiens was on the way (H. heidelbergensis) – Co-evolved with the development of complex technologies & social systems – Only fully developed with the emergence of domestication92
    93. 93. Working with pigments a: fragments of variously colored porcellanite found in the Early Mousterian levels of Beçov, Czech Republic (200-240 kya); b: experimental production of pigment by grinding using a variety of raw material found at Beçov; c: grinding stone from the lower Sangoan levels of Sai Island, Northern Sudan; d: lumps of yellow pigment from the same levels. Scale bars = 1 cm (d’Errico et al. 2009)93 Applying pigment to the skin
    94. 94. Paleoarcheological evidence for symbolic thinking A. B. C. Symbolic artifacts? A. Different pigments & ochred artifacts from various times and locations. B. Engraved ochre slab, C. shell beads, both from Still Bay layers of Blombos Cave, S.A. ~75 kya (d’Errico et al. 2009) The oldest securely dated, purposely made engravings (two ochre slabs engraved with geometric patterns) come from Blombos Cave ~75 kya. Both are variants of the same pattern suggesting they are not accidental The use of ochre becomes widespread in Europe after 36 ka during the Aurignacian, widely accepted as representing the first H. sapiens in94 Europe
    95. 95. Neanderthals also had well-developed symbolic culture ~ 48-40 kya Grotte du Renne (France), Chatelperronian symbolic artifacts. Personal ornaments made of perforated and grooved teeth (1–6, 11), bones (7–8, 10) and a fossil (9); red (12–14) and black95 (15–16) colorants bearing facets produced by grinding; bone awls (17–23). [Caron et al. 2011]
    96. 96. Walter Ong and the subjective nature of pre- literate speech in group cognition Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word. Routledge, London (1982) – download book free Before technologies for counting and writing, human knowledge existed only in living memory and could only be shared via speech and imitation – speech is ephemeral, instantly disappearing as it is uttered – speech’s only effect on the world is the altered mental states of those hearing it – coordinates immediate social responses in living societies – transfers knowledge independently of time and place process knowledge situational knowledge cultural norms96
    97. 97. What knowledge can be recalled, how can it be transmitted, how can it be committed? (more Ong) In a purely oral culture, restriction of thoughts to sound determines not only what you can say, but what you think & remember – You only know what you can recall We don’t record what we hear, we only remember what we think How do you remember the solution to a complex problem that takes several hundred words to describe? (no notes, no jottings....!) How would you know what you recalled was even correct? Think memorable thoughts! – Think in mnemonic patterns, shaped for ready oral expression – Think heavily rhythmic, balanced patterns, in repetitions or antitheses, in alliterations and assonances, in formulary expressions – Set your thinking in standardized scenes, themes & stories – Use common expressions and clichés, known to all97
    98. 98. How to communicate orally (Ong) Additive rather than subordinative (ensure a progressive flow) Aggregative rather than analytic (reliance on mnemonic formulas and traditional expressions) Redundant or ‘copious’ (speech vanishes in the instant of its creation, need repeated cues to stay on track for it to sink in) Conservative or traditionalist – conceptualized knowledge that is not repeated aloud soon vanishes – oral societies must invest great energy to say over and over again what has been learned Close to the human lifeworld (knowledge is preserved in the doing) Situate knowledge in a context of struggle (When verbal communication can only be by direct word of mouth, interpersonal relations are kept high—both attractions and, even more, antagonisms.) Empathetic and participatory rather than objectively distanced (fit the speech into the hearer’s life) Homeostatic (The meaning of each word is controlled by the real-life situations in which the word is used here and now – no dictionaries = no past) Situational rather than abstract (objective rather than conceptual)98
    99. 99. Cultural evolution in overdrive Transmission of industrial knowledge for the making of compound/complex tools – tacit apprenticeships – memorable rules of thumb Mythical tales as repositories of knowledge Tribal cultures Trading Herding Farming & settled villages Power elites Only with writing does knowledge become objective99
    100. 100. E5-3 Revolutionary technologies lead to grade shifts in organizational cognition Tallies for taxation and trading in the Neolithic agrarian world enable temples, city states and theocracies Counting, recording and accounting: computation, archives & filing systems enable bureaucratic empires Documents as organizational memory systems makes process knowledge explicit enables process and production industries (Industrial Revolution) Automated cognition extends organizational cognition facilitating the police state and transnational organizations100
    101. 101. Cultural evolution in hyperdrive —Niche construction and subdivision Scientific and Industrial Revolutions
    102. 102. Counting, accounting, record keeping Trading, valuing and the development of eco-nomics – Most knowledge still transmitted tacitly and orally resistance to innovation & cross-disciplinary knowledge sharing – Little/no general literacy prior to the printing revolution Economic niches – Emergence of knowledge-based crafts, trades and guilds – Scribes and clerks facilitated emergence of economically based organization Rise of formal state and economic organizations – Intergenerational storage & transmission of objective knowledge – Enabled contracts & treaties – proliferating bureaucracy102
    103. 103. Books, libraries, printing & the rise of modern organizations as entities in their own rights Scientific and industrial revolutions fuelled by accumulated knowledge in books as grade shifts on steroids Science, industry and the rise of knowledge- based organizations Knowledge-based technology/innovation cycles within the organization103
    104. 104. Printing and the Industrial Revoluton Printing of books and journals made general literacy, science and engineering possible Printing facilitated creation of a continuously accumulating body of increasingly objective knowledge accessible to all seekers – published claims to knowledge subject to multiple cycles of intersubjective criticism and testing against reality – accumulation of increasingly complex process and mechanical design knowledge (emergence of engineering as a discipline) – accumulation of increasingly detailed natural & historical knowledge (emergence of natural philosophy/science as a discipline) – continual cross-fertilization and innovation possible Difficult to understand what the world was like104 only 200 years ago
    105. 105. Concepts from the Industrial Revoluton (Webster’s 1828 Dictionary) scribe: 6. A writer and a doctor of the law; a man of learning; one skilled in the law; one who read and explained the law to the people. clerk: 4. A writer; one who is employed in the use of the pen…, for keeping records, and accounts trade: 2. The business which a person has learned and which he carries on for procuring subsistence or for profit; occupation; particularly, mechanical employment;… craft shop: 2. a building in which mechanics work, and where they keep their manufactures for sale factory: 1. A house or place where factors reside, to transact business for their employers; 3. Contracted from manufactory, a building or collection of buildings, appropriated to the manufacture of goods; the place where workmen are employed in fabricating goods, wares or utensils. guild: a society, fraternity or company, associated for some purpose, particularly for carrying on commerce. The merchant-guilds of our ancestors [led] to our modern corporations - licensed by the king, and governed by laws and orders of their own. Company: 6. A number of persons united for the same purpose, or in a joint concern; as a company of merchants or mechanics; a company of players. Applicable to private partnerships or to incorporated bodies of men. Machine: n. An artificial work, simple or complicated, that serves to apply or regulate moving power, or to produce motion, so as to save time or force. The simple machines are the six mechanical powers, viz.; the lever, the pulley, the axis and wheel, the wedge, the screw, and the inclined plane. Complicated machines are such as combine two or more of these powers for the production of motion or force. Machine: v. t. (Merriam-Webster) to process by or as if by machine; especially : to reduce or finish by or as if by turning, shaping, planing, or milling by machine-operated tools105
    106. 106. The rise of energetics, mechanics and electrics (1800-1900) Harnessing thermodynamic power – machine tools – engineering fabrication – transport – chemical processing Machine processing & assembly Rotary printing Scientific disciplines developing tested theory – Newtonian mechanics (statics and dynamics) – Thermodynamics: Carnot, Kelvin, Boltzman, Gibbs, etc. – Electromagnetics: Gauss, Faraday, Maxwell – Chemistry, atomic theory, and the periodic table Scientifically based technologies – Metallurgy – Chemical synthesis, dyes & photography – Electricity generation and transmission – Electrical communication (telegraph, telephone, radio)106
    107. 107. Automated data processing —rise of the modern corporation
    108. 108. Reprise on the OODA Loop and organizational adaptation OODA (Col. John Boyd) – Observation Situational awareness – Orientation Fitting situation with what you know Sense making Anticipating scenarios Strategizing – Decision Evaluating alternatives Choosing – Action Deploying decision(s) Importance of shared knowledge, communication and coordination Tempo – Time is of the essence – Stay inside the decision loops of competitors Shape the environment for your own benefit108
    109. 109. Group knowledge & group coordination Selection drives all living entities to seek strategic power over resources necessary for their survival Group survival and niche occupation depends on the group’s knowledge of technologies and nature The group phenotype is determined by – The basically similar (i.e., very slowly evolving) genetic heritage that defines individual capabilities – The highly plastic cultural heritage that is shared among the group’s individuals and passed down from one generation to the next For cultural heritage, groups become the living units of natural selection and evolution – Shared attention, language, cooperation and collaboration in the creation, use and transmission of cultural knowledge – Purely oral groups share knowledge visually or orally within eyesight or earshot Writing and intercommunication over distance stabilizes knowledge across guilds, extended companies, city-states, religions Individual can belong to more than one group at same time – Works best where group niches do not overlap – Intersecting or nested109
    110. 110. IBM and the punch-card revolution extended sensory capacity Data communication and management – enables centralized control Dependence on electricity The value of volumes of data – small returns multiplied thousands of times over – knowledge is power & profit (i.e., the corporate nervous system) control information feedback regulation – supports hierarchical control – Implements Observation Multiplier – extended enterprise – multi-national110 – trans-national
    111. 111. Punch card data processing technology Herman Hollerith punch card tabulator (left) tabulator, (right) punch card. 1880 census enumeration completed in less than a year Grade shift in data management Mechanical data processing offered semi-automated sorting, counting & tabulating Machines did it much faster than clerical scribes Little change in technical capabilities prior to 1950s111 Punch card sorter (1958)
    112. 112. Status of corporate knowledge Internal knowledge – Subjective Organizational structure Social networks Personal knowledge of organizational activities Skills – Objective Articles of incorporation & contracts Personnel list, job descriptions & delegations Order book & accounts payable General ledger Patents, documented processes & procedures Property and inventory records External knowledge112
    113. 113. Cultural evolution at warp speed — Electronic datacommunication and the rise of the socio-technical organizationTranscending the human individual
    114. 114. E5-2 Social and economic organizations are transcendent entities Define “organization” – collective vs transcendent properties of organizations: self-regulation and autopoiesis – organizational cognition (observation, orientation, decision, action, and iterate) – organismic physiology and heredity energy & material fluxes boundaries self production knowledge-based heredity – tacit and explicit Understand organizational knowledge management – understand organization’s imperatives for survival – understand & manage relationships between personal and organizational knowledge – understand the increasing role of technologies in the collection, assessment, testing, retrieval and application of knowledge at the organizational level114 – explicitly manage growth and adaptive usage of organizational knowledge
    115. 115. Rise of the knowledge-based organization Clerical & bookkeeping systems and the rise of the bureaucratic state and entrepreneurial trading companies Punchcards, IBM and the command and the rise of the clerically-based command and control organization Personal computing and the rise of the socio- technical organization115
    116. 116. E5-6 Moore’s Law — yet again, and technologies underlying the emergence of the transhuman organization Punch card tabulation and the US Census of 1890 Punch card data processing for accounting systems and the Nazi holocaust Computer modeling & forecasting Data and information management systems Industrial robotics and physical process management Content authoring & management systems Intelligence retrieval and alerting – Total monitoring: where you are, what you buy and spend, who you work for, who you talk to, what you said, what you wrote, etc. … Integrating organizations and posthuman individuals116
    117. 117. Information processing revolution Electronic data processing & communication – Initiated Moore’s Law and the power of cumulative data processing and management to produce information – Relational databases facilitated use of information for organizational control purposes – Alerting and awareness of changing trends Closer to real time – Implements coordination117
    118. 118. Knowledge processing revolution Building virtual memory and automated processing for the accumulation of cultural knowledge – Word processing – Mass storage – Keyword, concept, and citation indexing – Transmission & retrieval at light speed Exploring the foundations of organizational knowledge118
    119. 119. Autopoieticcultures, groups and their niches
    120. 120. Review concepts120
    121. 121. Emergence of the socio-technical organization121
    122. 122. Structure & operations ofmodern knowledge- based autopoietic organizations
    124. 124. E5-5 Building and maintaining an adaptive KM architecture to meet organizational imperatives … ITERATION … OBSERVATION ENACTED ORIENTATION & DECISION OF CONTEXT & RESULTS STRATEGY STRATEGIC ENABLERS & PEOPLE STRATEGY DRIVERS REQUIREMENTS IMPEDIMENTS PROCESS DEVELOPMENT In competition • Operational • Knowledge audit • Internal / • Strategic • Win more Excellence • Knowledge external management contracts • Customer mapping communication • Architectural • Perform better satisfaction • Business • Taxonomies role on contracts won • Stakeholder disciplines • Searching & • Communities of • Minimise losses intimacy • Technology & retrieval Practice to risks and • Service delivery systems • Business process • Corporate liabilities • Growth • Information analysis & communications • Meet statutory • Sustainability disciplines reengineering • HR practices and regulatory • Profitability • Incentives & • Tracking and • Competitive requirements • Risk mitigation disincentives monitoring intelligence • Etc. • Intelligence • IT strategy gathering • Etc. • QA / QC124
    125. 125. E5-7 Some case studies based on personal experience An Australian nexus: storing, structuring, indexing and retrieving knowledge from huge content bases – UoM & RMIT joint research led the world: Zobel, Moffat, Sacks-Davis, etc. from 1991-2 – personal experiences in implementing the technology – basis for Google’s content base? Knowledge management tools for building and managing organizational knowledge through full OODA loops – Tenix’s ANZAC Ship Project Tools have sufficient capacity to manage all content in the world – US National Security Agency’s TeraText application Modern warships as high-order autopoietic organisms in their own right Understanding how autopoietic organizations work – the engineering project management organization125
    126. 126. E5-8 Case study 1: Tenix’s ANZAC Ship support engineering knowledge management - background Australia’s largest defense project (1990-2007 - $A 7 BN) Contract: 10 high tech frigates (8 for Australia, 2 for NZ) – fixed price, major financial penalties for contract deviation schedule slippage: client must accept each ship before delivery Tenix must do whatever it takes to ensure ships meet in-service operational availability targets – no 2 ships identical due to different navies and eng. change – ~ 2000 individual maintenance routines per ship – computerized maintenance management system (“AMPS” CMM) scheduling maintenance delivering printed instructions to maintainers Tenix responsible for support engineering planning, data and doco all content must be delivered electronically in usable form to AMPS – critical issue – AMPS is a relational DB requiring key data to be coherent across 20,000+ individual maintenance routines126