Art and IndustryGerman Expressionism
Art and IndustryGerman Expressionism1. True or False. Both the production of American and   German early cinema was domina...
Meanwhile…in Francethe Lumiere brothers
George came to town
Classic Hollywood            NarrativeCelebrity                 VerticalDriven                  Integration
french impressionismAbel Gance (J’Accuse) 1919Jean Renoir (Nana) 1922
soviet montageVsevolod Pudovkin (Mother) 1926Sergie Eisenstein (Battleship Potemkin) 1925
german expressionismFritz Lang (The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari) 1919F.W. Murnau (Nosferatu) 1922
European cinemain contrast to America...
European cinemain contrast to America...  did not adopt the vertical integration model
European cinemain contrast to America...  did not adopt the vertical integration model  director maintained creative contr...
European cinemain contrast to America...  did not adopt the vertical integration model  director maintained creative contr...
European cinemain contrast to America...  did not adopt the vertical integration model  director maintained creative contr...
WWI
Americans
Americans  killed 126,000
Americans  killed 126,000  wounded 234,000
Americans   killed 126,000   wounded 234,000France
Americans   killed 126,000   wounded 234,000France   killed 1.3 million
Americans   killed 126,000   wounded 234,000France   killed 1.3 million   wounded 4.2 million
Americans   killed 126,000   wounded 234,000France   killed 1.3 million   wounded 4.2 millionRussia
Americans   killed 126,000   wounded 234,000France   killed 1.3 million   wounded 4.2 millionRussia   killed 1.7 million
Americans   killed 126,000   wounded 234,000France   killed 1.3 million   wounded 4.2 millionRussia   killed 1.7 million  ...
Americans   killed 126,000   wounded 234,000France   killed 1.3 million   wounded 4.2 millionRussia   killed 1.7 million  ...
Americans   killed 126,000   wounded 234,000France   killed 1.3 million   wounded 4.2 millionRussia   killed 1.7 million  ...
Americans   killed 126,000   wounded 234,000France   killed 1.3 million   wounded 4.2 millionRussia   killed 1.7 million  ...
“The German people,starving and dying by thehundred thousand, werereeling deliriously betweenblank despair, frenziedrevelr...
expressionism  art                Edvard Munch THE                 SCREAM (1893)
George Grosc THECITY (1916)
Jakob Steinhardt 1923
expressionism  theater                Max Reinhardt,                Der Jedermann, 1920
Bertolt Brecht, Man Equals Man, 1926
Max Reinhardt, Faust
The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari
directed by Fritz Langproduced by ErichPommer/UFA
sets designed andbuilt by Walter Rohrigand Walter Reimann
german expressionistanti-hero (to the point of being evil)frequently involves madness, paranoia, or obsessiontold from sub...
film noir
German expressionism
German expressionism By 1918, American had 5 big studios, 3 smaller studios. Germany had 310 companies. Less likely for ve...
German expressionism By 1918, American had 5 big studios, 3 smaller studios. Germany had 310 companies. Less likely for ve...
German expressionism By 1918, American had 5 big studios, 3 smaller studios. Germany had 310 companies. Less likely for ve...
German expressionism By 1918, American had 5 big studios, 3 smaller studios. Germany had 310 companies. Less likely for ve...
German expressionism By 1918, American had 5 big studios, 3 smaller studios. Germany had 310 companies. Less likely for ve...
What were the themes ofMetropolis?Compare/contrast the two                                   Metropolisworlds. How are the...
world war 1 interrupted development. sappedresourcesas film shifted from actualities and short films part oflarger program...
Lecture 12   art and industry
Lecture 12   art and industry
Lecture 12   art and industry
Lecture 12   art and industry
Lecture 12   art and industry
Lecture 12   art and industry
Lecture 12   art and industry
Lecture 12   art and industry
Lecture 12   art and industry
Lecture 12   art and industry
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  • \n
  • false. German cinema was dominated by lots of small companies (81 companies produced 185 feature length films in 1926)\nThey wanted to be known for their craft and not for details about their personal lives.\nThe largest production company in Germany - Erich Pommer head producer, brilliant, \ntrue\ntrue\n
  • We talked early on about the influence of french filmmaking on american cinema, the Lumiere Bros.\n
  • George Melies. The films of Pathe had been instrumental in keeping nickelodeons afloat until American production had kicked into full gear.\n
  • But before 1920, the basic tenets of classic hollywood cinema were firmly entrenched. Hollywood was not only successful with domestic production, but internationally as well. (Narrative - not driven by director, but continuity script - film got passed off down the line)\nSimultaneously with the rising industry in America, film kept growing in France and the rest of Europe as well. The three European arenas that have garnered the most critical study. is \n\n
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  • the vertical integration in this country restricted director to the shooting period. the continuity script was not written by the director - gave detailed instructions. the director didn’t cut the film. In class, we’ve talked the rare exceptions (Griffith, DeMille) WHAT ARE THE REASONS FOR THE CONTRAST?\n
  • the vertical integration in this country restricted director to the shooting period. the continuity script was not written by the director - gave detailed instructions. the director didn’t cut the film. In class, we’ve talked the rare exceptions (Griffith, DeMille) WHAT ARE THE REASONS FOR THE CONTRAST?\n
  • the vertical integration in this country restricted director to the shooting period. the continuity script was not written by the director - gave detailed instructions. the director didn’t cut the film. In class, we’ve talked the rare exceptions (Griffith, DeMille) WHAT ARE THE REASONS FOR THE CONTRAST?\n
  • the vertical integration in this country restricted director to the shooting period. the continuity script was not written by the director - gave detailed instructions. the director didn’t cut the film. In class, we’ve talked the rare exceptions (Griffith, DeMille) WHAT ARE THE REASONS FOR THE CONTRAST?\n
  • Part of the reason why vertical integration did not take hold was because of the impact of World War I. American involvement, while devastating, was not as devastating as it was on the world wide stage. First, we were only involved for the last two years (1917-1919). Lost \n
  • Over 8.5 million dead, more than 21 million wounded. Worse, the world had never seen death and injury delivered with such viciousness. Poison gas, terror from the skies, men trapped in muddy trenches, blasting away at each other, often for weeks on end with neither side gaining an inch of territory. When the "Great War," the "war to end all wars," the "first modern war," finally came to an end in November 1918, a deeply shocked and horrified world promised itself it'd never let this happen again. People set out to put their lives back together again; people living everywhere but in Germany, that is. \nAlso depleted resources, capital, equipment, reduced the pool of available labor, etc.\n
  • Over 8.5 million dead, more than 21 million wounded. Worse, the world had never seen death and injury delivered with such viciousness. Poison gas, terror from the skies, men trapped in muddy trenches, blasting away at each other, often for weeks on end with neither side gaining an inch of territory. When the "Great War," the "war to end all wars," the "first modern war," finally came to an end in November 1918, a deeply shocked and horrified world promised itself it'd never let this happen again. People set out to put their lives back together again; people living everywhere but in Germany, that is. \nAlso depleted resources, capital, equipment, reduced the pool of available labor, etc.\n
  • Over 8.5 million dead, more than 21 million wounded. Worse, the world had never seen death and injury delivered with such viciousness. Poison gas, terror from the skies, men trapped in muddy trenches, blasting away at each other, often for weeks on end with neither side gaining an inch of territory. When the "Great War," the "war to end all wars," the "first modern war," finally came to an end in November 1918, a deeply shocked and horrified world promised itself it'd never let this happen again. People set out to put their lives back together again; people living everywhere but in Germany, that is. \nAlso depleted resources, capital, equipment, reduced the pool of available labor, etc.\n
  • Over 8.5 million dead, more than 21 million wounded. Worse, the world had never seen death and injury delivered with such viciousness. Poison gas, terror from the skies, men trapped in muddy trenches, blasting away at each other, often for weeks on end with neither side gaining an inch of territory. When the "Great War," the "war to end all wars," the "first modern war," finally came to an end in November 1918, a deeply shocked and horrified world promised itself it'd never let this happen again. People set out to put their lives back together again; people living everywhere but in Germany, that is. \nAlso depleted resources, capital, equipment, reduced the pool of available labor, etc.\n
  • Over 8.5 million dead, more than 21 million wounded. Worse, the world had never seen death and injury delivered with such viciousness. Poison gas, terror from the skies, men trapped in muddy trenches, blasting away at each other, often for weeks on end with neither side gaining an inch of territory. When the "Great War," the "war to end all wars," the "first modern war," finally came to an end in November 1918, a deeply shocked and horrified world promised itself it'd never let this happen again. People set out to put their lives back together again; people living everywhere but in Germany, that is. \nAlso depleted resources, capital, equipment, reduced the pool of available labor, etc.\n
  • Over 8.5 million dead, more than 21 million wounded. Worse, the world had never seen death and injury delivered with such viciousness. Poison gas, terror from the skies, men trapped in muddy trenches, blasting away at each other, often for weeks on end with neither side gaining an inch of territory. When the "Great War," the "war to end all wars," the "first modern war," finally came to an end in November 1918, a deeply shocked and horrified world promised itself it'd never let this happen again. People set out to put their lives back together again; people living everywhere but in Germany, that is. \nAlso depleted resources, capital, equipment, reduced the pool of available labor, etc.\n
  • Over 8.5 million dead, more than 21 million wounded. Worse, the world had never seen death and injury delivered with such viciousness. Poison gas, terror from the skies, men trapped in muddy trenches, blasting away at each other, often for weeks on end with neither side gaining an inch of territory. When the "Great War," the "war to end all wars," the "first modern war," finally came to an end in November 1918, a deeply shocked and horrified world promised itself it'd never let this happen again. People set out to put their lives back together again; people living everywhere but in Germany, that is. \nAlso depleted resources, capital, equipment, reduced the pool of available labor, etc.\n
  • Over 8.5 million dead, more than 21 million wounded. Worse, the world had never seen death and injury delivered with such viciousness. Poison gas, terror from the skies, men trapped in muddy trenches, blasting away at each other, often for weeks on end with neither side gaining an inch of territory. When the "Great War," the "war to end all wars," the "first modern war," finally came to an end in November 1918, a deeply shocked and horrified world promised itself it'd never let this happen again. People set out to put their lives back together again; people living everywhere but in Germany, that is. \nAlso depleted resources, capital, equipment, reduced the pool of available labor, etc.\n
  • Over 8.5 million dead, more than 21 million wounded. Worse, the world had never seen death and injury delivered with such viciousness. Poison gas, terror from the skies, men trapped in muddy trenches, blasting away at each other, often for weeks on end with neither side gaining an inch of territory. When the "Great War," the "war to end all wars," the "first modern war," finally came to an end in November 1918, a deeply shocked and horrified world promised itself it'd never let this happen again. People set out to put their lives back together again; people living everywhere but in Germany, that is. \nAlso depleted resources, capital, equipment, reduced the pool of available labor, etc.\n
  • Over 8.5 million dead, more than 21 million wounded. Worse, the world had never seen death and injury delivered with such viciousness. Poison gas, terror from the skies, men trapped in muddy trenches, blasting away at each other, often for weeks on end with neither side gaining an inch of territory. When the "Great War," the "war to end all wars," the "first modern war," finally came to an end in November 1918, a deeply shocked and horrified world promised itself it'd never let this happen again. People set out to put their lives back together again; people living everywhere but in Germany, that is. \nAlso depleted resources, capital, equipment, reduced the pool of available labor, etc.\n
  • Over 8.5 million dead, more than 21 million wounded. Worse, the world had never seen death and injury delivered with such viciousness. Poison gas, terror from the skies, men trapped in muddy trenches, blasting away at each other, often for weeks on end with neither side gaining an inch of territory. When the "Great War," the "war to end all wars," the "first modern war," finally came to an end in November 1918, a deeply shocked and horrified world promised itself it'd never let this happen again. People set out to put their lives back together again; people living everywhere but in Germany, that is. \nAlso depleted resources, capital, equipment, reduced the pool of available labor, etc.\n
  • Over 8.5 million dead, more than 21 million wounded. Worse, the world had never seen death and injury delivered with such viciousness. Poison gas, terror from the skies, men trapped in muddy trenches, blasting away at each other, often for weeks on end with neither side gaining an inch of territory. When the "Great War," the "war to end all wars," the "first modern war," finally came to an end in November 1918, a deeply shocked and horrified world promised itself it'd never let this happen again. People set out to put their lives back together again; people living everywhere but in Germany, that is. \nAlso depleted resources, capital, equipment, reduced the pool of available labor, etc.\n
  • At the end of World War I, Germany was surrounded by a military blockade. The Allies wanted to ensure that Germany would accept the terms of the peace they had yet to design. It was a blockade enforced with a vengeance. French hatred for the people who'd started the war in the first place was made explicit in Prime Minister Clemenceau's remark that there were still 20 million Germans too many. So, too, was their fear when Clemenceau added that while other nations have a taste for life, Germans have a taste for death. \n\n
  • In the months between Armistice Day (Nov 11, 1918) and the signing of the Treaty of Versailles in June 1919, an estimated 700,000 Germans died of hunger. \nKathe Kollwitz, poster, is an example of something else that was happening in Germany at the time.\n\n
  • Kathe Kollwitz - sketches capture the despair of the time.\n
  • Kathe’s work was part of a larger movement that had already gathered momentum in Germany at the end of the 19th century.\n
  • Edvard Munch - the scream 1893. Modernist movement in art that had been inspired by the nihilist philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche\n
  • George Grosc, THE CITY, 1916/1917\n
  • emotionally agitated, high contrast, primitive, \n
  • Prior to Reinhardt, directors had just been one of the actors that took on additional responsibilities. Reinhardt would re-define the job.\nAustrian born, worked in German - contemporary of Brecht\n\n
  • \n
  • Reinhardt was particularly notable because of his use of chirascuro lighting\narchitecture and chirascuro lighting\n
  • scene from Midsummer Night’s Dream - he directed on film 1935\nSome of the most enduring films that came out of Germany came out of the Expressionist movement. Weren’t all the films - they had their share of comedies and melodramas. The first, was....\n
  • Set on a fairground, over city rooftops and in an insane asylum, the film tells the tale of one highly suspicious Dr. Caligari who hypnotizes Cesare, his ghoulish assistant, and sends him off to kill.\n
  • Erich Pommer was one of the more successful producers that emerged from the period. He believed that art could be big business.\n
  • this was partially done simply because of budget demands. lacking the capital for elaborate sets, the design was much more economical. but, also Rohrig and Reimann were both expressionist painters during the time, so tapping them to paint the background fused film with the modernist art movement in a way weren’t doing in Hollywood.\n
  • architecture - for example, by stairways and their railings, mirrors and reflecting windows, structures jutting every bit as vertically as they do horizontally so that...\nwhat does this remind you of...\n
  • we influenced them as well - Chaplin was particularly influential in Germany (probably theme of alienated stranger maybe?)\n
  • there was common acknowledgement that American way was more efficient. talk of adopting it - UFA eventually did.\nThe ties to the expressionist movement led to a freedom of \n
  • there was common acknowledgement that American way was more efficient. talk of adopting it - UFA eventually did.\nThe ties to the expressionist movement led to a freedom of \n
  • there was common acknowledgement that American way was more efficient. talk of adopting it - UFA eventually did.\nThe ties to the expressionist movement led to a freedom of \n
  • there was common acknowledgement that American way was more efficient. talk of adopting it - UFA eventually did.\nThe ties to the expressionist movement led to a freedom of \n
  • there was common acknowledgement that American way was more efficient. talk of adopting it - UFA eventually did.\nThe ties to the expressionist movement led to a freedom of \n
  • religious themes/man vs technology\nGerman people would have seen God as cold and judgmental at this point, unresponsive to their cries.\nnot unusual for religious films to see the city as example of man’s hubris. it is the way we use technology that is problematic (Bible ends with the creation of a city.)\n\n
  • trench foot and trench mouth came from spending so much time in the trenches.\n
  • hyperinflation\n
  • Murnau preparing Emil Jennings for scene from FAUST\n
  • \n
  • \n
  • into the wicked type whose face is graced with a bizarre smile. The wise type is smaller than the soldier, yet holding his book and pointing heavenward, he tries to reason with the soldier. The simple type wears a dunce hat and a ridiculous facial expression. The wise man points aloft to God, while the wicked soldier points at the simple one, reflecting a derisive attitude.\n
  • Lecture 12 art and industry

    1. 1. Art and IndustryGerman Expressionism
    2. 2. Art and IndustryGerman Expressionism1. True or False. Both the production of American and German early cinema was dominated by a few large companies.2. In the 1920s, what was the attitude of German actors towards celebrity publicity?3. What was Ufa?4. True or False. Directors enjoyed a greater degree of artistic freedom in Germany than their American counterparts.5. True or False. Only a small portion of the films made in Germany during the 1920s were expressionistic.
    3. 3. Meanwhile…in Francethe Lumiere brothers
    4. 4. George came to town
    5. 5. Classic Hollywood NarrativeCelebrity VerticalDriven Integration
    6. 6. french impressionismAbel Gance (J’Accuse) 1919Jean Renoir (Nana) 1922
    7. 7. soviet montageVsevolod Pudovkin (Mother) 1926Sergie Eisenstein (Battleship Potemkin) 1925
    8. 8. german expressionismFritz Lang (The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari) 1919F.W. Murnau (Nosferatu) 1922
    9. 9. European cinemain contrast to America...
    10. 10. European cinemain contrast to America... did not adopt the vertical integration model
    11. 11. European cinemain contrast to America... did not adopt the vertical integration model director maintained creative control throughout script development and editing
    12. 12. European cinemain contrast to America... did not adopt the vertical integration model director maintained creative control throughout script development and editing connected with an artistic movement already underway in Europe
    13. 13. European cinemain contrast to America... did not adopt the vertical integration model director maintained creative control throughout script development and editing connected with an artistic movement already underway in Europe celebrities more concerned with artistic reputation
    14. 14. WWI
    15. 15. Americans
    16. 16. Americans killed 126,000
    17. 17. Americans killed 126,000 wounded 234,000
    18. 18. Americans killed 126,000 wounded 234,000France
    19. 19. Americans killed 126,000 wounded 234,000France killed 1.3 million
    20. 20. Americans killed 126,000 wounded 234,000France killed 1.3 million wounded 4.2 million
    21. 21. Americans killed 126,000 wounded 234,000France killed 1.3 million wounded 4.2 millionRussia
    22. 22. Americans killed 126,000 wounded 234,000France killed 1.3 million wounded 4.2 millionRussia killed 1.7 million
    23. 23. Americans killed 126,000 wounded 234,000France killed 1.3 million wounded 4.2 millionRussia killed 1.7 million wounded 4.9
    24. 24. Americans killed 126,000 wounded 234,000France killed 1.3 million wounded 4.2 millionRussia killed 1.7 million wounded 4.9Germany
    25. 25. Americans killed 126,000 wounded 234,000France killed 1.3 million wounded 4.2 millionRussia killed 1.7 million wounded 4.9Germany killed 1.7 million
    26. 26. Americans killed 126,000 wounded 234,000France killed 1.3 million wounded 4.2 millionRussia killed 1.7 million wounded 4.9Germany killed 1.7 million wounded 4.2 million
    27. 27. “The German people,starving and dying by thehundred thousand, werereeling deliriously betweenblank despair, frenziedrevelry and revolution.Berlin had become anightmare, a carnival of jazzbands and machine guns.” Count Harry Kessler, chronicler of post-WWI Berlin
    28. 28. expressionism art Edvard Munch THE SCREAM (1893)
    29. 29. George Grosc THECITY (1916)
    30. 30. Jakob Steinhardt 1923
    31. 31. expressionism theater Max Reinhardt, Der Jedermann, 1920
    32. 32. Bertolt Brecht, Man Equals Man, 1926
    33. 33. Max Reinhardt, Faust
    34. 34. The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari
    35. 35. directed by Fritz Langproduced by ErichPommer/UFA
    36. 36. sets designed andbuilt by Walter Rohrigand Walter Reimann
    37. 37. german expressionistanti-hero (to the point of being evil)frequently involves madness, paranoia, or obsessiontold from subjective point of viewurban settingpresence of criminal underworld/outerworldcomplex architectural and compositional possibilitiesstrong geometric formsstark contrasts of light and shadow
    38. 38. film noir
    39. 39. German expressionism
    40. 40. German expressionism By 1918, American had 5 big studios, 3 smaller studios. Germany had 310 companies. Less likely for vertical integration to take place.
    41. 41. German expressionism By 1918, American had 5 big studios, 3 smaller studios. Germany had 310 companies. Less likely for vertical integration to take place. Due to close ties to expressionist movement, a strong director was closer to mode followed by other art forms
    42. 42. German expressionism By 1918, American had 5 big studios, 3 smaller studios. Germany had 310 companies. Less likely for vertical integration to take place. Due to close ties to expressionist movement, a strong director was closer to mode followed by other art forms Producers like Erich Pommer believed in the economic viability of art
    43. 43. German expressionism By 1918, American had 5 big studios, 3 smaller studios. Germany had 310 companies. Less likely for vertical integration to take place. Due to close ties to expressionist movement, a strong director was closer to mode followed by other art forms Producers like Erich Pommer believed in the economic viability of art Actors preferred to be known for their art, not gossip
    44. 44. German expressionism By 1918, American had 5 big studios, 3 smaller studios. Germany had 310 companies. Less likely for vertical integration to take place. Due to close ties to expressionist movement, a strong director was closer to mode followed by other art forms Producers like Erich Pommer believed in the economic viability of art Actors preferred to be known for their art, not gossip Resulted in greater creative freedom and experimentation
    45. 45. What were the themes ofMetropolis?Compare/contrast the two Metropolisworlds. How are they linked?How can Freder be comparedto Jesus Christ? Maria to Mary?Who are the other characters?Describe the role of technology.Is it always dehumanizing?How was madness, paranoiapart of this film?How was the architecture/geometric lines used to supportthe themes of the story?How was the chirascuro lightingused?
    46. 46. world war 1 interrupted development. sappedresourcesas film shifted from actualities and short films part oflarger program and moved to long form multi-reel films,cultural differences became more problematic weren’t familiar with the stories potentially offensive

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