Benthic Scores Final

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Benthic Scores Final

  1. 1. Everything you ever wanted to know about StreamWatch stream scores: Why do we use indexes and metrics? What is the ASCI index? What metrics are used to calculate an ASCI score? What is the VASOS index? What metrics are used to calculate a VASOS score? What do the scores mean? What is an assessment?
  2. 2. Why do we use indexes and metrics?
  3. 3. Why do we use indexes and metrics? (cont…) Aquatic bugs respond to many variables. A few examples of these variables are: water quality stream habitat conditions temperature habitat complexity dissolved oxygen food availability dissolved constituents light toxins flow
  4. 4. Why do we use indexes and metrics? (cont…) Ecological responses are highly complex • “The ecosystem is not more complex than we think, it is more complex than we can think” - Frank Egler • To understand ecological responses, we need meaningful simplification. • Applied science tries to narrow the responses down to a few indicators (in this case, key metrics). • Metrics must be defensible AND the final expression must be understandable. • Thus, an index is born. An index is composed of various metrics. The metrics are then used to produce a score.
  5. 5. Why do we use indexes and metrics? (cont…) StreamWatch uses 2 indexes to produce 2 scores: Adapted Stream Virginia Save Our Conditions Index - Streams Index - allows us share our data allows us to share our with the Virginia data with VASOS and Department of make comparisons with Environmental Quality the rest of state
  6. 6. What is the ASCI index?
  7. 7. What is the ASCI index? (cont…) • To evaluate water quality, the VA Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) uses the Stream Conditions Index (SCI), developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) • StreamWatch uses the Adapted Stream Condition Index (ASCI) because our sampling protocol is slightly different than VA DEQ: StreamWatch DEQ 2 or more nets/sample 6 nets/sample all collected bugs are identified a subset of collected bugs are ID’d 200 bugs/sample 100 bugs/sample
  8. 8. What metrics are used to calculate an ASCI score?
  9. 9. What metrics are used to calculate an ASCI score? (cont…) The Adapted Stream Conditions Index use 8 metrics: Metric Best Value Total Taxa 22 EPT Taxa 11 % Ephemeroptera 61.3% % [Plecop. + (Trich. - Hydr.)] 35.6% % Scrapers 51.6% % Chironomidae 0 % Top 2 dominant 30.8% HBI 3.2
  10. 10. What metrics are used to calculate an ASCI score? (cont…) The Adapted Stream Conditions Index use 8 metrics: Metric Best Value Total Taxa 22 EPT Taxa 11 % Ephemeroptera refers to each of the measurements 61.3% The Metric column % [Plecop. + (Trich.this index. (or metrics) used in - Hydr.)] 35.6% % Scrapers 51.6% % Chironomidae 0 % Top 2 dominant 30.8% HBI 3.2
  11. 11. What metrics are used to calculate an ASCI score? (cont…) The Adapted Stream Conditions Index use 8 metrics: Metric Best Value Total Taxa 22 EPT Taxa 11 % Ephemeroptera 61.3% The Best Value column lists the best possible number % [Plecop. + (Trich. - Hydr.)] if there are 22 Total Taxa 35.6% for each metric. For example, % Scrapers your sample, the score for this metric (families) in 51.6% would be 100. % Chironomidae 0 % Top 2 dominant 30.8% HBI 3.2
  12. 12. What metrics are used to calculate an ASCI score? (cont…) The Adapted Stream Conditions Index use 8 metrics: Metric Best Value Total Taxa 22 Metrics written in red refer to negative response metrics. EPT Taxa that higher values produce lower scores. 11 This means % Ephemeroptera sample has no Chironomidae 61.3% For example, if your (midges), the score for that metric will be 100. If your % [Plecop. + (Trich. - Hydr.)] 35.6% sample is 40% midges, the metric score will drop to 60. % Scrapers 51.6% % Chironomidae 0 % Top 2 dominant 30.8% HBI 3.2
  13. 13. What metrics are used to calculate an ASCI score? (cont…) The Adapted Stream Conditions Index use 8 metrics: Metric Best Value Total Taxa 22 EPT Taxa 11 % Ephemeroptera 61.3% % [Plecop. +means total number of families in the Total Taxa (Trich. - Hydr.)] 35.6% % Scrapersyou have 22 different families in your sample. If 51.6% % Chironomidae for this metric will be 100. sample, the score 0 % Top 2 dominant 30.8% HBI 3.2
  14. 14. What metrics are used to calculate an ASCI score? (cont…) The Adapted Stream Conditions Index use 8 metrics: Metric Best Value Total Taxa 22 EPT Taxa 11 % Ephemeroptera 61.3% % [Plecop. + (Trich. - Hydr.)] 35.6% EPT Taxa means total number of families in the orders % Scrapers 51.6% of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (Mayfly, % Chironomidae 0 Stonefly and Caddisfly). If you have 11 different EPT % Top 2 in your sample, the score for this metric will be families dominant 30.8% 100. HBI 3.2
  15. 15. What metrics are used to calculate an ASCI score? (cont…) The Adapted Stream Conditions Index use 8 metrics: Metric Best Value Total Taxa 22 EPT Taxa 11 % Ephemeroptera 61.3% % [Plecop. + (Trich. - Hydr.)] 35.6% % Scrapers 51.6% % Chironomidae means percent of the sample made 0 % Ephemeroptera % Top 2 dominant61.3% of your bugs are mayflies, the 30.8% up of mayflies. If HBI for this metric will be 100. 3.2 score
  16. 16. What metrics are used to calculate an ASCI score? (cont…) The Adapted Stream Conditions Index use 8 metrics: % [Plecoptera + (Trichoptera - Hydropsychidae)] Metric percent of the sample made up Stoneflies(X95) Best Value + means Total Taxa - Netspinners). If 35.6% of your bugs are (Caddisflies 22 EPT Taxa + (caddisflies - netspinners), the score for this stoneflies 11 metric will be 100. % Ephemeroptera 61.3% % [Plecop. + (Trich. - Hydr.)] 35.6% % Scrapers 51.6% % Chironomidae 0 % Top 2 dominant 30.8% HBI 3.2
  17. 17. What metrics are used to calculate an ASCI score? (cont…) % Scrapers means percent of the Index use 8 metrics: The Adapted Stream Conditions sample made up of bugs that scrape their food (periphyton) from Metric Best Value (X95) underwater surfaces. Examples of scrapers are snails, Total Taxa 22 flathead mayflies and water pennies. If 51.6% of your bugs are scrapers, the score for this metric will be 100. EPT Taxa 11 % Ephemeroptera 61.3% % [Plecop. + (Trich. - Hydr.)] 35.6% % Scrapers 51.6% % Chironomidae 0 % Top 2 dominant 30.8% HBI 3.2
  18. 18. What metrics are used to calculate an ASCI score? (cont…) The Adapted Stream Conditions Index use 8 metrics: Metric Best Value (X95) Total Taxa % Chironomidae means percent of22 sample made the EPT Taxa 11 up of midges. If you have no midges in your sample, % Ephemeropterametric will be 100.61.3% the score for this % [Plecop. + (Trich. - Hydr.)] 35.6% % Scrapers 51.6% % Chironomidae 0 % Top 2 dominant 30.8% HBI 3.2
  19. 19. What metrics are used to calculate an ASCI score? (cont…) The Adapted Stream Conditions Index use 8 metrics: Metric Best Value (X95) Total Taxa 22 % Top 2 dominant refers to the 2 dominant families, or EPT Taxa 11 families with the most number of bugs in your sample. % the two most dominant families make up 30.8% of If Ephemeroptera 61.3% % [Plecop. + (Trich. - score for this metric will be 100. your sample, then the Hydr.)] 35.6% % Scrapers 51.6% % Chironomidae 0 % Top 2 dominant 30.8% HBI 3.2
  20. 20. What metrics are used to calculate an ASCI score? (cont…) The Adapted Stream Conditions Index use 8 metrics: HBI means Hilsenhoff Biotic Index Best Valueby a guy (invented (X95) Metric named Hilsenhoff!) HBI is a measure of a bug’s Total Taxa 22 tolerance of organic pollutants. The less tolerant a bug EPT Taxa pollutants, the lower it’s HBI score. Every 11 is of organic % Ephemeroptera is given an HBI score, and the HBI 61.3% bug in the sample % [Plecop.averaged. -If the average HBI score for your scores are + (Trich. Hydr.)] 35.6% % Scrapers is 3.2, the score for this metric will be 100. whole sample 51.6% % Chironomidae 0 % Top 2 dominant 30.8% HBI 3.2
  21. 21. What metrics are used to calculate an ASCI score? (cont…) More about HBI… some examples of HBI scores are listed below HBI Score Invertebrates 10 Soldier fly, Aquatic worm (tubificidae) 9 Spreadwinged damselfly, Skimmer dragonfly 8 Sowbug, Asian clam, Aquatic worm (naididae) 7 Planorbid snail, Crawling water beetle 6 Midge, Black fly, Common netspinner caddisfly 5 Dryopid beetle, Crayfish, Hellgrammite 4 Riffle beetle, Flathead mayfly, Pleurocerid snail 3 Fingernet caddisfly, Crane fly, Darner dragonfly 2 Brushlegged mayfly, Trumpetnet caddisfly 1 Common stonefly, Ameletid mayfly, Clubtail dragonfly 0 Roll-winged stonefly, Freeliving caddisfly
  22. 22. What metrics are used to calculate an ASCI score? (cont…) Whew! We’re almost done with the ASCI index. But VA DEQ SCI and StreamWatch ASCI uses 8 metrics: before we move on, you should know how these 8 Metric are combined to make a final ASCI score… metrics Best Value (X95) Total Taxa 22 EPT Taxa 11 % Ephemeroptera 61.3% % [Plecop. + (Trich. - Hydr.)] 35.6% % Scrapers 51.6% % Chironomidae 0 % Top 2 dominant 30.8% HBI 3.2
  23. 23. What metrics are used to calculate an ASCI score? (cont…) The Adapted Stream Conditions Index use 8 metrics: Metric Best Value (X95) Total Taxa 22 EPT Taxa 11 No individual metric score can exceed 100. For example, even if you have 25 Total Taxa, the score will % Ephemeroptera 61.3% be 100. % [Plecop. + (Trich. - Hydr.)] 35.6% % Scrapers scores are averaged. This produces a final All 8 metric 51.6% % Chironomidae as simple as that! 0 ASCI score. It’s % Top 2 dominant 30.8% HBI 3.2
  24. 24. What is the VASOS index?
  25. 25. What is the VASOS index? (cont…) To evaluate water quality, Virginia Save Our Streams uses a multimetric index originally developed by the Isaak Walton League of America, and later modified by Dr. Reese Voshell at Virginia Tech.
  26. 26. What metrics are used to calculate a VASOS score?
  27. 27. What metrics are used to calculate a VASOS score? (cont…) The VASOS index use 6 metrics: Metric % Mayflies + Stoneflies + Most Caddisflies % Common Netspinners % Lunged Snails % Beetles % Tolerant % Non-Insects
  28. 28. What metrics are used to calculate a VASOS score? (cont…) The VASOS index use 6 metrics: Metric % Mayflies + Stoneflies + Most Caddisflies % Common Netspinners % Lunged Snails % Beetles Again, metrics written in red refer to negative % Tolerant response metrics. This means that higher values % Non-Insects produce lower scores. For example, the more netspinners in your sample, the lower the score.
  29. 29. What metrics are used to calculate a VASOS score? (cont…) The VASOS index use 6 metrics: Metric % Mayflies + Stoneflies + Most Caddisflies % Common Netspinners % Lunged Snails % % Beetles+ Stoneflies + Most Caddisflies is Mayflies the% Tolerant your sample made up of the three percent of ordersNon-Insects sensitive to (or intolerant of) % that are most disturbance.
  30. 30. What metrics are used to calculate a VASOS score? (cont…) The VASOS index use 6 metrics: Metric % Mayflies + Stoneflies + Most Caddisflies % Common Netspinners % Lunged Snails % Beetles % % Tolerant Common Netspinners is the percent of your % Non-Insects sample made up of netspinners.
  31. 31. What metrics are used to calculate a VASOS score? (cont…) The VASOS index use 6 metrics: Metric % Mayflies + Stoneflies + Most Caddisflies % Common Netspinners % Lunged Snails % Beetles % Tolerant % Lunged Snails is the percent of your sample % Non-Insects made up of lunged snails.
  32. 32. What metrics are used to calculate a VASOS score? (cont…) The VASOS index use 6 metrics: Metric %% Mayflies + Stoneflies + Most Caddisflies up Beetles is the percent of your sample made of % Common Netspinners beetles. % Lunged Snails % Beetles % Tolerant % Non-Insects
  33. 33. What metrics are used to calculate a VASOS score? (cont…) The VASOS index use 6 metrics: % Tolerant is the percent of the sample made up Metric of these bugs: worms, flatworms, leeches, sowbugs, scuds, dragonflies+ Most Caddisflies % Mayflies + Stoneflies and damselflies, midges, black flies, lunged snails and clams. % Common Netspinners % Lunged Snails % Beetles % Tolerant % Non-Insects
  34. 34. What metrics are used to calculate a VASOS score? (cont…) The VASOS index use 6 metrics: Metric of the sample made % Non-Insects is the percent up% Mayflies + Stoneflies + Mostleeches, these bugs: worms, flatworms, Caddisflies crayfish, sowbugs, scuds, gilled snails, lunged % Common Netspinners snails, clams. Snails % Lunged % Beetles % Tolerant % Non-Insects
  35. 35. What metrics are used to calculate a VASOS score? (cont…) How are these 6 metrics turned into a score? Metric % Mayflies + Stoneflies + Most Caddisflies % Common Netspinners % Lunged Snails % Beetles % Tolerant % Non-Insects
  36. 36. What metrics are used to calculate a VASOS score? (cont…) Metric Add 2 points to Add 1 point to Add 0 points to score if your score if your score if your value is… value is… value is… % Mayflies + Stoneflies + Greater than 32.2 16.1 - 32.2 Less than 16.1 Most Caddisflies % Common Netspinners Less than 19.7 19.7 - 34.5 Greater than 34.5 % Lunged Snails Less than 0.3 0.3 - 1.5 Greater than 1.5 % Beetles Greater than 6.4 3.2 - 6.4 Less than 3.2 % Tolerant Less than 46.7 46.7 - 61.5 Greater than 61.5 % Non-Insects Less than 5.4 5.4 - 20.8 Greater than 20.8
  37. 37. What do the scores mean?
  38. 38. What do the scores mean? (cont…) ASCI score VASOS score A score of 60 is a passing A score of 7 is a passing score (this means the score (however, in the stream meets the VA Rivanna basin, a score of standard, set by DEQ). 7 or greater does not A score below 60 fails necessarily indicate a the VA standard healthy stream)
  39. 39. What is an assessment?
  40. 40. What is an assessment? (cont…) Health assessments are based on multiple ASCI samples/scores • 5-6 samples per site • Median and minimum scores are considered • Very good and good meet VA standards • Fair fails VA standards but could recover • Poor and very poor are probably persistently impaired
  41. 41. FOR MORE INFORMATION: Stream Condition Index (SCI) http://www.deq.virginia.gov/watermonitoring/bio.html VA Save our Streams http://www.vasos.org StreamWatch reports http://streamwatch.org/reports History of Hilsenhoff Biotic Index http://www.uwsp.edu/cnr/research/gshepard/History/History.htm

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