1
Brick

Stable?
Warm

Cold

Cold

Warm
Warm
Cold
Warm
Cold
 inversion layer, stable?
Q: Why does the temperature increase with height in the stratosphere?
 contains ozone layer ...
Bounded by the stratopause from below and the mesopause from above

99.9 % of air is below this level
 The layer above the mesosphere
 Temperature increases with height
NYC daily Weather
Temperature
dew point temperature
Relative humidity
Wind
Rain

Weather Elements
Climate is the
long-term average
of weather
“Climate is what you
expect, weather is what you
get.”
– Robert Heinlein
Is Weather or Climate ?
Ice Age?  Climate
Today’s Temperature in NYC?  Weather
Tornado?  Weather
Winter temperature?  ...
Climate change usually refers to
temperature change
Temperature
Energy
is defined as the ability to do work

=

1

mv

2

m

m ass

v

velo city

2

 kinetic energy is the energy of mot...
m = mass

1
e1

1
2

i

2
2
1 1

mv

1

e2

2

m2v

2
2

1

ei

2

v = velocity
2

m i vi

e

1

mv

2

2
kin etic en erg ...
Temperature and Heat
Absolute temperature 
is proportional to the average kinetic energy of
its constitute atoms and mole...
Object 1

Object 2

Heat = an exchange of kinetic energy

Equilibrium = Both objects have the same temperature
Heat

 Latent Heat
energy required for a substance (i. e. water) to change
from one state to another at constant tempera...
Need energy

Need energy

release energy

release energy

Lecture 4- 20
scale

melting
point of ice

boiling point
of water

Fahrenheit
(oF)

32

212

Celsius
(oC)

0

100

Kelvin
(K)

273

373
...
Temperature Scales:

Fahrenheit and Celsius

(oC x 1.8) + 32 = oF
(oF - 32) / 1.8 = oC
Why Kelvin temperature is also
called absolute temperature?

Third Law of Thermodynamics
It is impossible to cool a body t...
There are three ways of heat transfer in the atmosphere
Heat Transfer
 Conduction
 from warm to cold
 from molecular motions

Air is a poor conductor of heat
 Basically insi...
 Convection
transfer energy through mass movement of a substance
Q: what are examples of atmospheric convection?
consid...
Lecture5 sep18-bb
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Lecture5 sep18-bb

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. Brick Stable?
  3. 3. Warm Cold Cold Warm
  4. 4. Warm Cold
  5. 5. Warm Cold
  6. 6.  inversion layer, stable? Q: Why does the temperature increase with height in the stratosphere?  contains ozone layer  peak concentrations are at about 20-30 km  Ozone absorbs ultraviolet radiation (UV)  The ozone then reemits this energy in the form of heat into the stratosphere, warming it up in the mid-upper parts of the layer  97% of atmospheric ozone is in the stratosphere Ozone maximum
  7. 7. Bounded by the stratopause from below and the mesopause from above 99.9 % of air is below this level
  8. 8.  The layer above the mesosphere  Temperature increases with height
  9. 9. NYC daily Weather Temperature dew point temperature Relative humidity Wind Rain Weather Elements
  10. 10. Climate is the long-term average of weather “Climate is what you expect, weather is what you get.” – Robert Heinlein
  11. 11. Is Weather or Climate ? Ice Age?  Climate Today’s Temperature in NYC?  Weather Tornado?  Weather Winter temperature?  Climate Annual variability of precipitation in NYC?  Climate
  12. 12. Climate change usually refers to temperature change
  13. 13. Temperature
  14. 14. Energy is defined as the ability to do work = 1 mv 2 m m ass v velo city 2  kinetic energy is the energy of motion  kinetic energy is large when velocity is large
  15. 15. m = mass 1 e1 1 2 i 2 2 1 1 mv 1 e2 2 m2v 2 2 1 ei 2 v = velocity 2 m i vi e 1 mv 2 2 kin etic en erg y 1 k BT 1 2 2 1 1 mv 1 m2v 2 mv 2 2 2 kB is the Boltzmann constant 2 2 1 2 m3v 2 3 ... 1 2 N miv 2 i ... 1 2 2 m N vN
  16. 16. Temperature and Heat Absolute temperature  is proportional to the average kinetic energy of its constitute atoms and molecules Heat  energy exchange from one object to another What is difference between temperature and heat?
  17. 17. Object 1 Object 2 Heat = an exchange of kinetic energy Equilibrium = Both objects have the same temperature
  18. 18. Heat  Latent Heat energy required for a substance (i. e. water) to change from one state to another at constant temperature  Sensible Heat heat added or taken from a gas, liquid or solid that causes a change in temperature
  19. 19. Need energy Need energy release energy release energy Lecture 4- 20
  20. 20. scale melting point of ice boiling point of water Fahrenheit (oF) 32 212 Celsius (oC) 0 100 Kelvin (K) 273 373 • Relative size of a degree F vs. a degree C--compare the number of degrees between freezing and boiling: 100oC = 180oF 1oC = 1.8oF
  21. 21. Temperature Scales: Fahrenheit and Celsius (oC x 1.8) + 32 = oF (oF - 32) / 1.8 = oC
  22. 22. Why Kelvin temperature is also called absolute temperature? Third Law of Thermodynamics It is impossible to cool a body to absolute zero by any finite process. Although one can approach absolute zero as closely as one desires, one cannot actually reach this limit.
  23. 23. There are three ways of heat transfer in the atmosphere
  24. 24. Heat Transfer  Conduction  from warm to cold  from molecular motions Air is a poor conductor of heat  Basically insignificant
  25. 25.  Convection transfer energy through mass movement of a substance Q: what are examples of atmospheric convection? consider a hot parcel of air near the ground what is the parcel going to do? Thermals It’s going to rise, why? a thermal is formed Q: By which mechanism is the heat transferred from ground to the air adjacent to the ground? Lecture 4- 26

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