inversion layer, stable?
Q: Why does the temperature increase with height in the stratosphere?
contains ozone layer peak concentrations are at about 20-30 km
Ozone absorbs ultraviolet radiation (UV)
The ozone then reemits this energy in the form of heat into the
stratosphere, warming it up in the mid-upper parts of the layer
97% of atmospheric ozone is in the stratosphere
Bounded by the stratopause from below and the mesopause from above
99.9 % of air is below this level
The layer above the mesosphere
Temperature increases with height
NYC daily Weather
dew point temperature
Climate is the
“Climate is what you
expect, weather is what you
– Robert Heinlein
Is Weather or Climate ?
Ice Age? Climate
Today’s Temperature in NYC? Weather
Winter temperature? Climate
Annual variability of precipitation in NYC? Climate
Climate change usually refers to
is defined as the ability to do work
kinetic energy is the energy of motion
kinetic energy is large when velocity is large
m = mass
v = velocity
m i vi
kin etic en erg y
kB is the Boltzmann constant
m N vN
Temperature and Heat
is proportional to the average kinetic energy of
its constitute atoms and molecules
Heat energy exchange from one object to another
What is difference between temperature and heat?
Heat = an exchange of kinetic energy
Equilibrium = Both objects have the same temperature
energy required for a substance (i. e. water) to change
from one state to another at constant temperature
heat added or taken from a gas, liquid or solid that
causes a change in temperature
Lecture 4- 20
point of ice
• Relative size of a degree F vs. a degree C--compare
the number of degrees between freezing and boiling:
100oC = 180oF
1oC = 1.8oF
Fahrenheit and Celsius
(oC x 1.8) + 32 = oF
(oF - 32) / 1.8 = oC
Why Kelvin temperature is also
called absolute temperature?
Third Law of Thermodynamics
It is impossible to cool a body to
absolute zero by any finite
Although one can approach absolute
zero as closely as one desires, one
cannot actually reach this limit.
There are three ways of heat transfer in the atmosphere
from warm to cold
from molecular motions
Air is a poor conductor of heat
transfer energy through mass movement of a substance
Q: what are examples of atmospheric convection?
consider a hot parcel of air near the ground
what is the parcel going to do?
It’s going to rise, why?
a thermal is formed
Q: By which mechanism is the
heat transferred from ground to
the air adjacent to the ground?
Lecture 4- 26