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Unit 3 – the l&t environment revision ppt


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Unit 3 – the l&t environment revision ppt

  1. 1. Unit 3 – The L&T Environment<br />Length of exam = 1 hour<br />Worth 25% of final mark<br />
  2. 2. 3.1 A dynamic industry (means that it is continually changing and adapting)<br />There are three main factors that influence change within the L&T industry:<br />Technological change<br />Consumer Trends<br />Unforeseen and Uncontrollable Events<br />
  3. 3. Technological Development in home-based leisure<br />THEN = families used to gather around their one and only TV in the living room, read or play board games<br />NOW = Many homes have more than one TV and a computer, families therefore often spend their time at home apart in different areas of the house when they are being entertained and educated. People use social networking sites to communicate with each other and Home cinemas and DVD players and recorders allow people to watch movies and films that they would have used to go to the cinema to see and experience. Recently the 3 D TVs have increased this as even 3D films can be watched at home rather than going to the cinema.<br />WHY = TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE which are affecting our social habits<br />
  4. 4. Technological Development in sport and physical recreation<br />THEN = most games would be played at specific sports clubs and facilities, some simple computer games<br />NOW = there are now virtual reality games, the Wii is a popular example, x-box connect is the newest system released – these are an advantage to people who would not be able to access the facility normally either due to access/transport issues, availability and/or cost. <br />WHY = TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE which are affecting our social habits<br />
  5. 5. Technological Development in arts and entertainment<br />THEN = people would have to visit the cinema to see high quality films<br />NOW = HD TV has made it more likely that people will watch things at home, home cinemas also do this as the surround sound makes people feel like they are sitting in a cinema, DVD recorders and re-writers make it possible for us to choose when we want to watch our favourite TV programmes and MP3 technology has meant that again, people can download podcasts and broadcasts, to listen to in their own time. If people visit museums and visitor attractions audio trails make it possible to cater for different languages and reduce staffing costs.<br />WHY = TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE which are affecting our social habits and business organisation<br />
  6. 6. Technological Development in booking and getting information<br />THEN = in the past, tour operators worked with holiday providers to create packages of holidays. These met a few simple needs for people who went on a two-week summer holiday. The tour operators sold their products to travel agents, who produced brochures detailing the holidays available. There were a few options and single people had to pay a premium because most operators catered for the average family. <br />NOW = people can search for, customise, and booktheir own holidays online, bypassing traditional tour operators and travel agents. They can also book transport and other kinds of services, all from the comfort of their own home. The smallest companies andmost destinations and holiday providers are able to have websites and can now take online bookings without depending on travel companies. As travel companies lost business, they were forcedto provide more flexible products to meet the needs of the increasingly segmented market (i.e. the demand for shorter, weekend and occasional breaks). <br />WHY = TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE which are affecting the way we shop <br />
  7. 7. Technological Development in accommodation<br />THEN = <br />NOW = customer’sexpectations of their accommodation have been increasing in the last 20 years or so, with hotels eager to keep up with their guests needsas well as new technology. Many hotels offer virtual tours on their websites, as well as facilities to bookand pay online. Some hotels offer automated check-in, whereby travellers are given a code to access their room, and allowing them to arrive and depart with complete flexibility. This is particularly useful at airport hotels where a 24 hour checking in and out service is essential<br />WHY = TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE which isaffecting the way we shop and our expectations<br />
  8. 8. Technological Development: ticketless travel<br />THEN = people would have to purchase a ticket from an office or conductor before they travelled<br />NOW = e- tickets and automated check-in/bag drop has helped reduceairport waiting times, which had increased because of the security measures introduced after a number of terrorist attacks involving air travel (9/11). Travellers can now check flight availability, choose an airline and book online, after which a boarding pass can be printed off. At the airport, there are computer points where the traveller can either scan the bar code from their boarding pass or enter their code. Luggagelabels can be printed off and bags taken to the drop-off. The process is relatively quick and the traveller then simply presents their boarding pass at the gate.<br />WHY = TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES which are affecting the way we travel<br />
  9. 9. Consumer Trends:<br />People have become more environmentally aware, which has lead to the new concept in travelling: ecotourism<br />And standards of our homes have increased. So has our demand in the standard of holidays. E.g. if you have a dishwasher at home, you might expect one to use in your holiday cottage.<br />Five-star accommodation is very luxurious and offers a number of facilities and services that are additional to lower rated accommodation. However, this is becoming more popular as people’s tastes become more sophisticated<br />People also want to experience something different. The TV has increased awareness of alternative holiday activities, e.g., adventure holidays (including extreme sports)<br />Healthy living has increased an awareness about food and drink and many people will go on activity holidays such as to cook or to visit vineyards<br />People are also interested in spending their holidays learning about different cultures and experiencing a different way of living by visiting poorer countries<br />Changing Tastes<br />
  10. 10. Consumer trends: changing lifestyles<br />When there is an economic downturn or slump. People have less money to spend on travel and tourism this causes an increase in home-based leisure and domestic holidays. People often take part in more outdoor home-based leisure activities such as gardening, eating outside and barbecuing<br />Camping increased in 2008, where ‘glamping’ with its high standards and luxury equipment, became glamorous and fun alternative to the ‘roughing it’ idea of camping many people have. Campsites also offered accommodation alternatives such as yurts (circular tents originating from Central Asia), and wigwams(used by Native Americans)<br />
  11. 11. Consumer trends: changes to holiday patterns<br />50 years ago, most people had two weeks paid holiday a year and many worked Saturday mornings soweekend holidays were rare.<br />In the 80s, work started to be more flexible and holiday entitlements increased. People began taking time off throughout the year and not just in the summer. Some people would take long weekend breaks, short breaks and even long haul city breaks.<br />More people chose to marry abroad<br />The number of older people travelling increased because of better pensions and savings<br />
  12. 12. Consumer trends: ‘Silver surfers’<br />These are older people who use the internet to find good holiday deals, or to find leisure events and facilities.<br />They tend to be retired and have good pensions and savings<br />Some older people seek more adventurous activities, some enjoy social networking sites such as saga zone<br />Others like to keep fit and take part in regular exercise, which they also see as a social activity<br />
  13. 13. Consumer trends: changes to family patterns<br />After World War II there was a baby boom, and in 2007 one in five people were under 16 and one in five were roughly of retirement age. <br />However, family patterns have been changing over recent years, families have become smaller, with fewer children, and more disposable income as a result<br />Products have been changing to meet the needs of the new family as lots of parents are now choosing to take their children on adventure or educational holidays, instead of the usual lazy few weeks in the sun.<br />Leisure activities for young people have been developing too e.g. Ceramic cafes and parent and toddler discos<br />
  14. 14. Consumer trends: changing appeal of cruising<br />In the past, cruising was only done by rich people or people who aspired to do it and spent years saving up in advance<br />Since there are now more crew ships(which can carry a vast number of people), andsupply has increased, costs have gone down making it more affordable<br />Some cruises are still very exclusive and expensive. They tend to be ‘adventure cruises’, costing several thousands of pounds per person. Typical adventure cruises may include the following:<br />A first-class flight to join the liner<br />Avisit inland from the port, such as a safari<br />A small boat cruise to swim with dolphins<br />Meals cooked by a celebrity chef<br />Wine tasting sessions<br />Lectures by well-known broadcasters and academics<br />Very high standard of accommodation<br />
  15. 15. Unforeseen and uncontrollable events<br />Global credit crunch/session<br />During a recession, people cannot borrow from banks very easily or have to pay a lot of interest on loans, they may not be able to move house and may also have to reduce their spending. Businesses suffer because they can’t afford to pay their suppliers when customers aren’t spending money. So often have to reduce the numbers of employees, which means that people lose their jobs and have less money. As people lose their jobs, they have even less money to spend, which means the process continues to gets worse.<br />Companies can and do go out of business because:<br />Their product no longer appeals to people (e.g., British beach holidays).<br />Rival products attract people away, e.g., cheap flights to better destinations.<br />Prices rise above what people are willing to pay<br />
  16. 16. Increase in the cost of fuel for inflation<br />Increasing fuel means that airlines losebusiness because they can no longer afford to fly their planes. High fuel costs causes rising prices throughout the whole of the economy as nearly all the things we buy are transported using fuel, therefore adds to the cost of all products.<br />Because inflation increases the price of necessities, disposable income is reduced<br />
  17. 17. Acts of terrorism<br />These are intended to create fear among people and can be carried out by groups of people for political or religious reasons and are often intended to be harmful of violent<br />Many people did not travel following the 9/11 attacks. It also led to an increase of security measures, including restrictions in taking liquids in hand luggage. Some customers were less than happy as this meant lengthy check-in times<br />However, increased security can be a good thing because after the train bombings in Madrid they put in more security checks, like those in an airport, and people felt reassured and numbers increased<br />
  18. 18. Natural disasters.<br />Many disasters cannot be predicted or in certain countries. They are not prepared. Many countries suffered devastation loss of life and damage to their tourism industry. Depending on the scale and timing of the event<br />Television also means that people see images about the natural disasters, which often puts people off visiting an area due to the devastation and their concerns over their personal safety<br />The actual country will suffer due to its infrastructure being damaged, including many recreational facilities and public buildings<br />
  19. 19. Changes in exchange rates<br />The value of the pound varies against other currencies. <br />When the pound is weak in value: It is good for companies in the UK offering holidays to people from abroad as foreign tourists get more pounds for their money. It also makes it more affordable to many tourists that they want to visit because of the good value for money. However, this is a negative for the British people wanting to travel abroad - it means they don’t get as much foreign currency of the money<br />When the pound is strong in value: it costs a lot in another currency to buy it which puts foreign visitors off, and the UK economy suffers. However, this means that British people can travel abroad fairly cheaply, as they get more foreign currency for their money.<br />
  20. 20. Accidents and injuries to customers<br />We are often put off using a certain product or service when visiting a town or city, at home or abroad, if we hear that someone you know has an accident there. The sudden fall in business can put companies out of business, which is why they try hard to prevent them from happening in the first place, or being publicised when they do occur. <br />People are also resilient, as people still go skiing in resorts where avalanches have just happened! Also after a helicopter accident killing 20 people near the Grand Canyon in the USA there were queues of people waiting to fly the next day!<br />Bad publicity can be about poor accommodation, dirty accommodation, food poisoning or pest infestations such as rats and cockroaches. It can also be simple things like long queues, or poor customer service.<br />
  21. 21. Cancellations and compensation<br />Generally, if companies go out of business and leave people stranded on their holiday, travellers will only get compensation if they have taken out insurance. Such insurance is good for the traveller, but puts pressure on the travel industry and can lead to closures and further cancellations. The Association of British travel agents (ABTA) represents travel agents and tour operators if the company has paid full accreditation.<br />
  22. 22. 3.3 UK Destinations<br />For the RED destinations on the next few slides you should also be able to describe their FEATURES and APPEAL<br />
  23. 23. Seaside Resorts - beach, B&Bs, amusements, gift shops<br />Oban (Scotland)<br />Port Rush (Ireland)<br />Llandudno (Wales)<br />Blackpool<br />Whitby<br />Great Yarmouth <br />Newquay<br />
  24. 24. Countryside Areas – rural, open spaces, lots of natural visitor attractions such as lakes, mountains rivers etc <br />Loch Lomond (Scotland)<br />The Trossachs (Scotland) <br />Antrim Coast and Glens (Ireland)<br />Snowdonia(Wales)<br />Lake District<br />Yorkshire Dales<br />Cotswolds<br />Dartmoor<br />The New Forest<br />
  25. 25. Tourist Towns and Cities – good shopping facilities for the area, transport links, has visitor attractions<br />Glasgow<br />Bangor<br />Conwy<br />Liverpool<br />York<br />Warwick<br />Oxford<br />Cambridge<br />
  26. 26. Business and Conference Destinations - next to major airports, good transport links, high quality (incase entertaining clients), good room service and IT and conference facilities<br />Edinburgh<br />Belfast<br />Cardiff<br />Manchester<br />Leeds<br />London<br />Birmingham<br />Brighton<br />
  27. 27. Purpose Built Destinations – often will be next to good transport links and should have products and services to cater for most types of customer e.g. Baby change rooms etc<br />Aviemore<br />Galgorm Resort (NI)<br />Celtic Manor Resort (Wales) <br />Keldy Forest holidays/hoseasons<br />Centre Parcs– Sherwood and Longleat Forest<br />Alton Towers Resort<br />Butlins – Bognor Regis<br />
  28. 28. Historical and Cultural Destinations – historical buildings and places of special historical interest e.g. castles, dungeons, museums etc<br />St Andrews (Scotland)<br />Derry (Ireland)<br />St Davids (Wales)<br />Chester<br />Lindisfarne<br />Bath<br />Stratford-upon-Avon<br />Canterbury<br />
  29. 29. Organisations that promote UK tourist destinations<br />VisitBritain – national tourism agency<br />Scottish Tourist Board<br />English Tourist Board<br />Northern Ireland Tourist Board<br />Welsh Tourist Board<br />
  30. 30. English Tourist Board <br />South West<br />Newquay<br />Dartmoor<br />Bath<br />Centre Parcs -Longleat Forest<br />England’s North Country<br />Blackpool<br />Whitby<br />Lake District<br />Yorkshire Dales<br />Liverpool<br />York<br />Manchester<br />Leeds<br />Keldy Forest - Hoseasons<br />Chester<br />Lindisfarne<br />London and the South East<br />Eastbourne<br />The New Forest<br />Oxford<br />London<br />Brighton<br />Butlins- Bognor Regis<br />The Heart of England<br />Cotswolds<br />Stratford-upon-Avon<br />Warwick<br />Birmingham<br />Alton Towers Resort<br />East Midlands and East England<br />Great Yarmouth<br />Cambridge<br />Centre Parcs – Sherwood Forest<br />
  31. 31. FEATURES of destinations.....<br />Climate<br />Food, drink and entertainment<br />Natural Attractions<br />Transport Services and Links<br />Built Attractions<br />Accommodation<br />Events<br />
  32. 32. ...that APPEAL to different types of visitor<br />Families <br />Business <br />Travellers<br />Couples<br />Senior Citizens/ empty nesters<br />Individuals<br />Groups<br />Visitors with Specific Needs<br />
  33. 33. 3.3 Impacts of Tourism<br />
  34. 34. Impacts on local communities<br />Disruption to everyday life <br />Crime<br />Prostitution<br />Loss of culture<br />Westernisation<br />Hostility and resentment<br />Increased cost of living, houses prices and food<br />Improvements to transport and essential facilities for locals (infrastructure)<br />Access to facilities provided to tourists (e.g. Swimming pools and health clubs)<br />Employment opportunities<br />Improved quality of life<br />Improved awareness of other cultures<br />
  35. 35. Impacts on the environment<br />Loss of habitats<br />Loss of wildlife/threatened species<br />Pollution(noise, air, water, visual)<br />Litter<br />Overcrowding<br />Traffic congestion<br />Regeneration (urban renewal, reuse of traditional buildings for new activities)<br />Conservation (protection of wildlife, creation of National Parks, nature reserves, protected areas)<br />Creation of more open spaces, parks<br />Improved ‘street furniture’ (lighting, seating, use of floral displays on roundabout etc) <br />
  36. 36. Methods used to reduce negative impacts:<br />Planning and legislation (LAWS)<br />e.g. Countryside Code <br />2. Managing traffic<br />e.g. Using planning and legislation to help you. For example, restrict access, one-way systems.<br />3. Managing Visitors<br />Signs to guide people, limit visitor numbers /tickets sold<br />4. Education<br />e.g. Park rangers educate visitors – it is one of their duties<br />
  37. 37. Ecotourism<br />.... is ecological tourism and it means to visit a place and help preserve or maintain the local environment, its wildlife and plant life. It is seen as a responsible way of travelling and usually involves volunteering to take part in projects that benefit the local environment and people.<br />
  38. 38. Ecotourism<br />Advantages<br />45% of the income of ecotourism stays in the UK<br />Endangered species are protected by conservation projects<br />Greater knowledge and involvement in fragile environments such as rainforests can help put pressure on governments to protect them<br />Income can bring benefits such as medical care to people who would otherwise could not afford them<br />Regulations to protect and area for ecotourism also benefits local by protecting their own environment<br />Disadvantages<br />55% of income goes abroad<br />Endangered species come into contact with humans, leaving them less wary and more vulnerable to poaching<br />The presence of tourists can put stresses on the environment e.g. the accommodation, heating, water supplies, access routes, rubbish all have negative effects<br />Can disrupt the social and cultural structures of people<br />Regulations can stop local people from using their own resources in order to ‘preserve’ them and maintain the environment<br />
  39. 39. Ecotourism<br />Products<br />Tend to be intangible (as the are an experience), generally not something that you touch and take home<br />Package holidays are common as travellers often do not feel that they can put together such a specialised holiday themselves<br />Services<br />Can be things such as a local guide (they have lots of knowledge about the area and are keen to educate the visitors and show them around)<br />
  40. 40. Ecotourism<br />CASE STUDY – Advantages<br />Ecotourism is largely responsible for saving the gorillas of Rwanda from extinction. The gorillas were threatened by both poachers and local farmers, whose land-clearing practices were destroying the gorillas’ natural habitat. Rwanda’s Parc des Volcans has become an international attraction and the third-largest source of foreign exchange for Rwanda. Visitors pay to enter the park, and that money has allowed the creation of anti-poaching patrols and the employment of local farmers as guides and guards. <br />CASE STUDY – Disadvantages<br />When Chitwan in Nepal became a tourist area, foreign companies bought land to build hotels. This increased the cost of the land and many people took advantage by selling their land. The income was misused by some to buy alcohol and Western-style homes, which destroyed the traditional extended-family structure. Likewise, traditional dress has become unpopular and even the age-old tradition of tattooing women has been abandoned.<br />
  41. 41. 3.4 Sustainability<br />You need to know about:<br />Sustainable development projects both in the UK and abroad – Can you evaluate projects?<br />Transport issues<br />‘Going Green’<br />
  42. 42. Sustainable development..... is development (change) with little or no negative impacts<br />Sustainable tourism........<br />..... means enjoying activities in a way that does not damage the environment. This can be as simple as taking litter home after a day out or mending something we have broken , or as complex as carbon off-setting<br />Sustainable development projects... .. are initiatives that address issues such as climate change, use of energy and resources, and ecosystems<br />
  43. 43. UK Projects<br />NATIONAL PARKS<br />The NP Sustainable Development Fund was set up by the government to give grants for good ideas. E.g. <br />Building with living roofs (roofs covered in soil and vegetation)<br />Shelters built only from local wood<br />Farmer’s markets, sell local produce so reduce carbon footprints<br />Micro-hydro power generation, where energy needs of tourism in the area does not increase carbon output<br />
  44. 44. UK Projects<br />Ecotourism Villages<br />... Are small communities created to have as little impact as possible on the environment. Possibly by growing their own food, using renewable energy. Examples are: Findhorn in Scotland, BedZED in England, BrithdirMawr in Wales. <br />
  45. 45. International Projects<br />Red Sea Resorts, Egypt<br />... There are 17 resorts including Sharm el Sheikh famous for diving sites along the Red Sea coast. Egypt is a poor country that needs the money from tourism, but it also needs to protect its special ecosystems. Therefore legislation has been used to make the Red Sea Riviera a national park so is protected by law. <br />Rules:<br />Don’t touch, for any reason, any kind of marine life<br />Don’t pick up anything but rubbish - leave empty shells etc where they are<br />Sports fishing is strictly forbidden<br />Hunting is strictly forbidden<br />Walking on the reefs is strictly forbidden<br />This area is home to the most northerly growing Mangroves on the globe and they live in a delicate balance with their environment<br />Plants in the desert are untouchable<br />
  46. 46. If you are asked to evaluate one of these projects.....use the general negative and positive impact of tourism and apply them to the case study you are given.For example: do not talk about the problem of prostitutes in Rainforest !!<br />
  47. 47. A large part of the cost of most holidays is travel, which is related to the cost of oil. Airlines can be badly hit by high prices especially during a recession – often as they have to cut prices low to attract customers some companies often go bust/bankrupt<br />Transport Issues<br />Current Issues:<br />Fuel Prices<br />Carbon Footprints<br />A carbon footprint is a measure of the environmental impact an activity has by its release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. <br />Ways of keeping your holiday carbon footprint low:<br />Use a ferry and train if possible to get there, then take a bus or coach once there<br />Long-haul flights are more fuel efficient then short-haul flights. It is better to take one long holiday than several short ones<br />Urban destinations are likely to be a lower carbon choice because you can walk places rather than use the car <br />
  48. 48. ?<br />Most tourists and businesses are not as yet, making decisions about travel based on environmental factors. Cost, journey time, convenience and good old preference are usually deciding factors<br />
  49. 49. Regional Transport Initiatives<br />Give the car a holiday<br />Perthshire in Scotland ran a campaign to encourage tourists to use public transport by saying that they driver could get a fair share of sightseeing if they travelled by bus instead<br />My other car is a bus<br />London used this campaign in 2004 to attract Londoners and visitors to use buses<br /><ul><li>In town without my car</li></ul>Re-launch of this was aimed not at the public but local government<br />
  50. 50. Carbon Off-setting - this is quite popular now and ivolve making up for the carbon you release. It can be doing something like walking to work or planting a tree!<br />Carbon Credits...<br />Travel companies often buy carbon credits to off-set your travel footprint. The government is given a certain amount of carbon that their country can produce. They then allocate this to industries, and if the company produces more carbon than it should has to buy into carbon reduction schemes like tree planting projects<br />AIRMILES....<br />Is a loyalty scheme that works by customers being awarded airmiles when they buy products with certain companies. Once you collect enough miles you can exchange themfor free flights. The bad thing about this scheme is that it encourages people to take several short-haul flights which are inefficient. They are starting to allow people to redeem their points against the Eurostar train.<br />
  51. 51. ‘GOING GREEN’ is all about organisations, businesses and individuals improving their practices to become more environmentally friendly<br />Reduce, Reuse, Recycle..<br />This campaign has influenced the L&T industry. <br />VisitBritainhave produced their own version called <br />‘Green Start’ <br />as the first step before joining their endorsed scheme – The Green Tourism Business Scheme.<br />The Businesses had to make improvement in a possible 9 areas their businesses and provide evidence.<br />e.g.<br />Install water saving toilets<br />Reuse materials where possible<br />Recycle waste<br />Insulate lofts etc<br /> Once approved they were able to use the strapline “Working towards Green Tourism”. <br />
  52. 52. ‘GOING GREEN’ is all about organisations, businesses and individuals improving their practices to become more environmentally friendly<br />Read this case study in your text book and insert the information in here...<br />
  53. 53. Award schemes<br />Advantages<br />If businesses reduce their impact on the environment<br />Can create an important marketing angle or unique selling point<br />Small businesses can save money, making them more competitive<br />Schemes raise awareness of green issues to all stakeholders, staff and customers<br />If organisations sure that they carefully environment and local communities it can improve business / community relations<br />Disadvantages<br />Too few inspectors and infrequent visits can mean that some places, slip back into old habits<br />Dependence on self-assessment discredits the process<br />If criteria are two basic it can undermine the quality of the accreditation<br />Some schemes have too few businesses in their scheme to provide real choice of consumers<br />Many of the criteria are similar between schemes so can be difficult to see the unique quality of each<br />If a business advertisers multiword locals, the effects can be to devalue each making it difficult for customers to identify the unique identity schemes<br />When awards are given to businesses that might also be seen to operate in non-green ways, the quality Schumann’s of the scheme is put into doubt<br />Sometimes the amount of work required outweighs the benefits<br />
  55. 55. This ppt can be found on <br /><br />